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James, George F. ed. Ed. 2 enl. 19+425 p. 0. Phil. 1893. American society for extension of university teaching.

Miscellaneous papers. University extension in America. (See American monthly review of reviews, Jan. 1893, 6:701-12)

Supplements Dr. H. B. Adams's " University extension" and its leaders, bring

ing results down to close of 1892. Fifteen portraits. Larned, J. N. An experiment in university extension. (See Library journal, Mar.-Ap. 1888, 13:75-76)

Interesting account of the first library course in the United States. Moore, Charlotte McIlvain. University extension. (See Catholic world, Ap. 1893, 57:27-35)

Favorable Catholic view of the work. Illustrated. Moulton, Richard G. The university extension movement. 19 p. O. Phil. n. d.

(See N. Y. (state) Home education department. Extension bulletin no. 5, p. 185-98)

Clear statement of methods, purposes and spirit. Moulton, Richard G. and others. University extension, a series

of articles on various phases of the movement. (See Book news, May 1891, 9:339-80)

44 p. Q. Phil. 1891. American society for extension of university teaching.

Present value mainly historical. N. Y. (state) - Home education department. Development of

university extension. p. 179-234, O. Alb. 1893. (Extension bulletin no. 5)

Contains Dr. H. B. Adams's Progress of university extension, his “ University extensionand its leaders, and R: G. Moulton's University extension movement.

Report of extension teaching division, 1893-99. O. Alb. 1894-99. (Extension bulletin nos. 6, 12, 17, 22, 26, 28)

Details and statistics of work in New York, with annual review of progress

elsewhere in America and abroad. No. 60. p. Palmer, George Herbert. Doubts about university extension. (See Atlantic monthly, Mar. 1892, 69:367–74)

Presents the difficulties in the way of finding suitable teachers. Problems of university extension. (See Dial, Nov. 1892, 13: 297-98)

Forcible statement of present burdens of overworked professors. Russell, James E. Extension of university teaching in England

and America, a study in practical pedagogics. p. 147-253, O. Alb. 1895. N. Y. (state) - Home education department. (Extension bulletin no. 10)

Russell, James E. Die volks-hochschulen in England & Amerika;

deutsch mit anmerkgn. von Otto Wilhelm Beyer. 112 p.O. Lpz. 1895. R. Voigtländer. 2m. 8opf.

Results of Dr. Russell's observations as special commissioner of the University of the state of New York to visit Europe and report on whatever he might find of most importance to educational institutions in New York. Especially valuable for its statements of the results of twenty years of

university extension, and its conclusions as to pedagogic value. Sharp, Katharine Lucinda. Local public libraries and their rela

tion to university extension. (See N. Y. (state) — Home education department. Extension bulletin no. 4, p. 147–71)

A study of plans of co-operation in use in typical libraries. Awarded $100 prize as the most practical essay on the subjeet. Contains list of authori

ties, 2 p. Zeublin, Charles. Results and prospects of university extension. (See Dial, Ap. 1897, 22:207–9)

Later developments briefly and intelligently summed up.

FOR THE

UNITED STATES COMMISSION TO THE Paris EXPOSITION OF 1900

MONOGRAPHS ON EDUCATION

IN THE

UNITED STATES

EDITED BY

NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University, New York

17

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES AND

ASSOCIATIONS

BY

JAMES MCKEEN CATTELL

Professor of Psychology in Columbia University, New York

THIS MONOGRAPH IS CONTRIBUTED TO THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT BY THE

STATE OF NEW YORK

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES AND ASSOCIATIONS

The educational activity of a nation is not confined to its schools. Societies, journals, museums, laboratories and other institutions devoted to the advancement and diffusion of knowledge are an important part of the educational system of the United States. These agencies are on the one hand for the use of those who teach, and thus represent the most advanced educational work. On the other hand they extend the range of education widely among the people. The rapid development of the United States, its large area and scattered centers of culture, have in some respects favored and in other respects retarded the institutions with which we

are concerned. They, however, show great activity and great progress, and the present review will indicate that they need not shun comparison with the similar institutions of the other great nations of the world.

SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES The National academy of sciences, corresponding to the Academy of sciences of Paris or the Royal society of London, was incorporated by act of congress in 1863. By the terms of this act the academy, whenever called upon by any department of the government, is required to investigate and report upon scientific questions. Thus a report has recently been presented to the department of the interior on a policy for the forested lands of the United States, and other reports have furnished the basis for important legislation. As a matter of fact the academy has not been as frequently employed by the government as was originally intended or as sound policy dictates. Established like our schools of agriculture and the mechanic arts when the country was involved in a great civil war, the academy represents a forward movement the importance of which can scarcely be

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