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TABLE II - Students in business course in other institutions

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United States
North Atlantic Division.........
South Atlantic Division...
South Central Division.........
North Central Division....
Western Division....
North Atlantic Division :

Maine.......
New Hampshire....
Vermont.
Massachusetts...
Rhode Island..
Connecticut...........
New York..
New Jersey...............

Pennsylvania..
South Atlantic Division :

Delaware...
Maryland..
District of Columbia..
Virginia ....
West Virginia...
North Carolina.
South Carolina.
Georgia..

Florida...
South Central Division:

Kentucky.......
Tennessee..
Alabama.....
Mississippi
Louisiana ......
Arkansas ...........
Oklahoma...

Indian Territory:
North Central Division :

Ohio......
Indiana..
Illinois ..
Michigan
Wisconsin..
Minnesota..............
Iowa.....
Missouri.
North Dakota ............
South Dakota....
Nebraska..

Kansas.......
Western Division:

Montana......
Wyoming
Colorado....
New Mexico........
Arizona..............
Utah.....................
Nevada..
Idaho..
Washington
Oregon..
California...

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Texas ....

766 I IOI

426

18

263

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43

100

12 231 226 1 362

51 11 185

12 108 182 266

72 29 911

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EDITED BY

NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University, New York

14

ART AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION

BY

ISAAC EDWARDS CLARKE

Bureau of Education, Washington, D.C.

THIS MONOGRAPH IS CONTRIBUTED TO THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL EXHIBIT BY THE

STATE OF NEW YORK

ART AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION

1. INTRODUCTION Since 1870 the rapidity of the development of art and industrial education in the United States has been so marked and so effective, the rapid increase in the number of special schools and museums of the fine arts so striking, as to make exceedingly difficult a satisfactory survey of this subject within the limits of a monograph.

The movement for the general introduction of drawing in the public schools, and of definite endeavors to promote art education, with a purpose to develop and improve the art industries of a people, seemed alike sudden in England and in the United States. In England it was apparently the definite result of the first world's fair — the exhibition of 1851. In the United States it had its origin in Boston, in 1870, where it was a direct outcome of the English movement.

The Centennial exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, where the work in drawing of the Massachusetts normal art school, and of the public schools in Boston, was shown, made possible the rapid and remarkable development throughout the United States of the two kindred elements in education, namely, industrial art drawing and manual training. This addition of these two new studies to the regular courses of the public schools has been, perhaps, the most notable characteristic educational feature of the past two decades.

As the English were long held to be a people hopelessly inartistic and devoid of art possibilities, their wonderful development since 1851, in so many lines of artistic manufactures, challenges investigation, especially by a people long similarly accused as being innately inartistic, and for a long period, it must be admitted, apparently deservedly so accused.

The causes of this lack of art development as recited by

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