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and commercial organization. Corporations and corporation finance. Communication: postal service, telegraph and telephone, newspapers and advertising. Insurance: fire, marine, life, etc. Consumption, and the principles of demand and storage. Commercial usages of different countries. Public finance: Government expenditures, revenues—including taxation, customs, duties, etc.— public debts and fiscal administration. Statistics, mathematical and practical. History, theory and methods: the “movement of population,” actuaries' statistics, theory of prices, etc. Studies in economic history—The history of commerce in all countries and at every age. (Upon this general subject as large a number of special courses as possible should be offered.) The history of the institution of private property. The history of land tenures. The history of agriculture. The history of industry from the earliest times. The history of manufactures. The history of labor and of labor organizations and other special courses. Legal studies— Commercial law of different nations. Public international law, and the duties of diplomatic and consular officers. Private international law. Admiralty and maritime law. Roman law. Comparative jurisprudence. Judicial procedure in different countries. Law of private corporations; and other special Courses. Political studies — Constitutional law of different nations. Public law and administration. Municipal government. General political theory. Legislative control of industry and commerce. Historical studies—The general political and constitutional history of the leading nations, especially during the XIXth century; diplomatic history. (Economic history, that is, the history of industry and commerce, is of such importance as to constitute a separate group; see above.) Geographical studies — Political geography. Geodesy. Physical geography. Commercial geography. Biological geography: including botany, zoology, anthropology, etc. , Meteorology and climatology. Oceanography: Coasts, harbors, etc. Navigation and nautical astronomy. Geology. Technological studies concerning transportation — Civil engineering and mechanical engineering; construction of roads, bridges, canals, irrigation works, etc.; motors and motor power, etc.; railroad economics, etc. Technological studies concerning the materials of commerce Botany: General plant morphology; economic botany. For. estry, and wild-plant products; also wild-animal products. Agriculture: cultivated plant products of all descriptions, including field, orchard, and vineyard products; animal products, such as meats, dairy products, wool, etc., and including agricultural practice, irrigation, etc. Agricultural manufactures, such as sugar, starch, textiles, oils, brewing, tanning, drying, canning, etc. Fisheries, and all the products of the sea. Mining, and mineral products, and building materials. Chemical technology, and chemical products, acids, alkalies, etc. Manufactured products. Decorative and industrial art. A large number of other special courses in these and other applied sciences connected with the materials and the operations of commerce should be offered. Mathematical studies—Courses covering all the mathematical principles involved in the above studies. Linguistic studies—The English language and English literature. The languages and literatures of the nations with which we have commercial relations: American, European, and Oriental. Philosophical studies — Ethics and civil polity.

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No statement of the actual enrollment of students in this new college and of the way in which it has opened up its work has come to the attention of the writer, but the interest felt in the project by some members of the board of trustees and by some members of the faculty justifies the hope that this is the beginning of great things in the department of higher commercial education.

On November 3rd, 1898, the chamber of commerce of the state of New York adopted the report of a committee which had been previously appointed by that body on the subject of commercial education. This report, after strongly commending the establishment of a department of sounder commercial education both in secondary schools and in higher institutions of learning in this country, advised the appointment of a special committee by the president of the chamber of commerce for the further consideration of the subject of commercial education. This committee was appointed and, after various sessions and conferences with authorities of Columbia university, a report was submitted to the chamber of commerce recommending that the chamber assist Columbia university in the establishment of a collegiate course in commerce by the grant of certain funds. This report presents in a certain way the most complete scheme of higher commercial instruction which has thus far been submitted for the consideration of the public. It unites the practical elements in the course of the Wharton school with the wider range of the courses and subjects offered at California and Chicago. It was framed upon the plan of utilizing as largely as possible the existing courses of instruction in Columbia university, and supplementing and adding to such courses the subjects necessary to offer a complete and well-rounded scheme of higher commercial instruction. Although the plan has not been carried into effect as yet and may be materially altered, still, coming from such a source and backed by such a body as the New York chamber of commerce, it seems likely to be of sufficient importance to merit a somewhat fuller notice. It is intended to be a college course of commerce covering four years of fifteen hours a week. It presupposes graduation from a secondary school, public or private, in which English, mathematics, history and natural science, and one modern language will have been systematically studied to the extent now required for admission to the college department of Columbia university. In form and in content it is adapted to students of college age, namely, sixteen to twenty years. In addition to the training provided in commercial subjects, the course includes training for two years in writing English, for two years in a modern European language, for two years in European and American history, and for three years in political economy and social science. It offers opportunities for the study of industrial chemistry, of a selection of three modern languages and literature, if any of these be desired. Of the sixty hours required (four years of 15 hours each) four hours or six and two-thirds per cent are devoted to instruction in writing English; six hours or ten per cent to European and American history; six hours or ten per cent to the modern European languages; ten hours or sixteen and two-thirds per cent to political economy and social sciences, and thirty-four hours or fifty-six and two-thirds per cent to the study of commerce itself in its various phases. It will be observed that this curriculum comprises fundamental courses in the principles governing business combined with a detailed course in practice. It is intended that many of these latter courses, as well as some of the former, shall be given by men having an intimate personal acquaintance with actual business life. Among such courses would be those in accounting and transportation, technique of trade and commerce, commercial ethics, commercial credits, insurance and commercial business. Aside from the general subjects included in liberal courses we note a course of three hours per week for one year given to accounting and a similar course to economic geography; a course of two hours a week following a course in chemistry on the study of commercial products; a course of three hours a week upon the technique of trade and commerce, such as weights and measures, currency and banking systems, customs regulations, markets, fairs, etc. There are also courses in banking, accounting, commercial geography, railroad and public accounting, history of commercial theory and merchant shipping and trade routes, commercial treaties and insurance. No degree is to be given for this course for the present, but a certificate of graduation testifying that the candidate has completed the work of the four years will be given to all students who pass the requisite examinations after attending the courses." It is plain from the foregoing account that instruction in commercial subjects is to be introduced into all higher institutions of learning upon a broader scale than ever before.

"After this account was prepared information comes to hand of a department of Commerce and Economics at the University of Vermont. A trustee of the university, Mr. John H. Converse of Philadelphia, has given funds for an endowment, and work will be inaugurated in the autumn of 1900.

It cannot be maintained, however, up to the present that our experience has been large enough to afford any accurate indication of what the ultimate form or purpose of such instruction shall be. We have as yet established no independent college of commerce in the United States upon an adequate foundation. We have not even established any institution which may be fairly called a commercial high school, that is, a school with an adequate equipment, with a differentiated curriculum and with an opportunity under favorable conditions to show what it can accomplish in an educational and a technical way. None of our colleges and universities have as yet been willing to give such departments a fair opportunity to show what they might accomplish in the same directions. But with every passing year the demand for better facilities on the part of young people who desire to prepare themselves for business careers will force our commercial colleges to improve their work; will force those who have charge of public education to give a larger space in our secondary schools to this branch of work; will lead the managers of our private secondary schools to offer better facilities, and will finally compel our colleges and universities to do something for the education of the future business man which may be compared with what they are doing for the future engineer, or lawyer, or physician, so far as the peculiarities of a business career may render such a scheme feasible.

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