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were conferred in 1860. The engineering courses were included in the department of literature, science and the arts until 1825 at which time the department of engineering was estaoisted. Courses are offered in civil, mechanical, electrica and co-emical engineering, and four years are usually required to complete any one of these. All lead to the degree of bachelor of science. Advanced degrees are conferred for graduate courses of study. In 1899 there were registered 218 students in the department of engineering. Purdue university, at Lafayette, Indiana, is in reality the 1:...2n.2 institute of technology. It was originally organized voter the Morrill act, but assumed the name which it now *ears in 1869 when, by legislative enactment, the state zooted a gift of $150,000 and one hundred acres of land from John Purdue. It receives support from the state and razoal government, tuition being free to all residents of 1:...ana. The university embraces six special schools. 1 : “y are as follows: A School of mechanical engineering, of civil engineering, of electrical engineering, of agriculture, of ~sence and of pharmacy. Courses of study in these wools are four years in length, except in the School of pharmacy, in which the course is completed in two annual ***sons of thirty-seven weeks each. The degree of bachelor of science is conferred upon those completing one of the four-year courses, and that of graduate in pharmacy (Ph. G.) upon those who complete the course in pharmacy. There is an exceptionally large and well-arranged engineerÍng building which accommodates the departments of civil and mechanical engineering, and the equipment of the School of mechanical engineering is excellent. It is provided with a locomotive testing plant and other appliances for railway mechanical engineering. The biological, chemical and other laboratories are well furnished. In 1899 the total enrollment of students was 730, including 130 in the School of pharmacy and in a special class in agriculture, and the total number of instructors was about 65. The University of Wisconsin. at Madison, Wisconsin, was established by act of the legislature in 1838, but no action was taken under the act except the selection of two townships of land as allowed by congress, for the future support of the institution. The first meeting of the board of regents for the purpose of organizing the university was held in 1849, and the first building was erected in 1851. In 1866 the university was reorganized to secure the land grant under the Morrill act, and in the following year the state began to support the institution by annual appropriations. The College of engineering was opened in 1870, and has established and maintained a high reputation for the excellence of its work. The College of “mechanics and engineering," as it is now called, provides courses of four years' duration in civil, sanitary, mechanical and electrical engineering, and in applied electro-chemistry. These courses all lead to the degree of bachelor of science. Advanced and professional degrees are conferred under certain conditions as to graduate study and experience. An excellent astronomical observatory is available for the instruction of students in civil engineering, and the college is well furnished with laboratories, apparatus, museums, etc. In 1899 there were 242 students registered in the College of mechanics and engineering. The University of Illinois, at Urbana, Illinois, was founded in acceptance of the national land grant under the Morrill act in 1862, and named at first the Illinois industrial university. Power to confer degrees was granted by the state legislature in 1877, and in 1885 the name of the institution was changed to that which it now bears. The organization includes four “colleges" and six “schools.” The colleges are of literature and arts, of engineering, of science and of agriculture. The College of science offers courses arranged in four groups, including the chemical and physical group, the mathematical group, the natural science group and the philosophical group. The College of engineering offers courses in architecture, architectural engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and municipal and sanitary engineering. There are also graduate courses in science and in engineering. The degree of bachelor of science is conferred upon those completing one of the courses of four years in the College of engineering, and also in the College of science. Similar in origin, and in many respects similar in organization, is the Ohio state university, at Columbus, Ohio. The institution opened its doors to students in September, 1873. From the beginning instruction in science and engineering has been the most prominent feature of its work. As now organized, the university embraces six colleges, the College of engineering being one. In this college are offered courses in civil engineering, mine engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, ceramics, industrial arts, chemistry and architecture. There is also a short course in mining, in clay working and in industrial arts. To those who complete these courses, which are of four years' duration (except as explained above), degrees of civil engineer, engineer of mines, mechanical engineer, etc., etc., are granted, and in chemistry and some other courses the degree is bachelor of science. The College of arts, philosophy and science offers a course in general science, leading to the degree of bachelor of science. The university is especially well equipped in its laboratories and museums of geology, agriculture, mechanics and metallurgy. In 1898 there were registered 302 students in the College of engineering. The University of Minnesota, at Minneapolis, Minnesota, is another example of an important and extensive development upon the land grant foundation. Originally organized in 1851, it dates its real beginning from 1868, when by act of the legislature it was reorganized as the recipient of the Morrill act endowments. Its organization includes a School of technical and applied chemistry, the College of engineering and mechanical arts and the School of mines. The course in the School of chemistry is of four years' duration and leads to the degree of bachelor of science.
The College of engineering and mechanic arts offers courses of four years each in civil, mechanical and electrical engineering, for which the degrees C. E., M. E. and E. E. are conferred. There is also a four years' course in drawing and industrial art for which no degree is granted. In the School of mines there are two regular courses of study, in mining and in metallugy, leading to the degree of engineer of mines (E. M.) and metallurgical engineer (Met. E.) respectively. In 1898 there were registered in the College of engineering 129 students, in the School of mines 54, and in the School of chemistry 6. The University of Tennessee, at Knoxville, Tenn., chartered in 1794 as “Blount college,” becoming in 1807 “East Tennessee college,” in 1840 “East Tennessee university,” and finally receiving in 1869 the national land grant endowment, was given the name which it now bears by act of the legislature in 1879. In its College of agriculture, mechanic arts and sciences it provides courses in civil, mechanical and electrical engineering, in chemistry and in general science. Its buildings, laboratories, apparatus and general facilities are well up to the requirements of a high standard of work. The State college of Pennsylvania, at State College, Pennsylvania, is another institution of pronounced success and high character which owes its origin to the Morrill act of 1862 and in which ample provision is made for instruction in pure and applied science in courses and under conditions not varying greatly from those already set forth in describing other institutions of the same type. Indeed, the list might easily be extended until it included the entire list of state institutions founded under this act or made the recipient of the income which it provides. If space permitted it would be profitable to consider in some detail two or three special schools, such as the Michigan School of mines, the Colorado School of mines, institutions which have grown out of the demands of their respective localities, very much as did the famous school at Freiberg long ago. Much might well be said, also, concerning rite efforts made in the United States to establish trade souzos, and of their great success in New York, in Philateigs...a, and under the direction of the Pratt institute in 2...won and in Cincinnati, and elsewhere, notwithstanding zie occasional opposition of trades' unions and other in:riendly organizations. s: is greatly regretted that limitations of space make it orzoosible to give something of a detailed exposition of the organization and methods of work in a few institutions like toe Pratt institute at Brooklyn, the Drexel institute in Philadelphia, each of which is unique, and all of which are doing 2 most important work. it will be noted that the leading institutions or departments of institutions in which special attention is given to pure and applied science do not differ materially in their organization, courses of study or degrees conferred. Practically all courses are four years in length, in nearly all the first two years are largely preparatory to the special or prosessional work of the last two, embracing modern languages, mathematics and a few other subjects, most of which are common to all courses offered. The differentiation begins generally at the opening of the junior or third year, although in some cases it must commence earlier. In the matter of degrees the great majority of schools confer only the degree of bachelor of science at the end of the four years' course, Łut there are a few that offer the so-called professional degrees such as C. E., M. E., etc., for the mastery of a four years' course. The requirements for graduate degrees are tolerably uniform, being usually a year of resident study with the preparation of a thesis for the master's degree, and in addition to this usually three years' successful professional work with an acceptable thesis for a professional degree. The requirements for admission are by no means uniform, nor are they extremely varied. Perhaps the typical average requirements for admission to schools of science or engi