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ficiently to constitute a distinct school, it is often of high quality and the material appliances and equipment, everything that could be desired. Of the older of those giving special attention to science and engineering a few will be briefly mentioned. They will doubtless receive full consideration under another division of the educational institutions of the United States. The College of the university of Pennsylvania provides, under a foundation known as the Towne scientific school, courses in architecture, mechanical and electrical engineering, chemistry and chemical engineering. They are of four yaars' duration and lead to the degree of bachelor of science. Ample facilities in the way of laboratories, machinery and apparatus, libaries, etc., are provided. Besides these courses in engineering, there is a course in biology, and all departments are represented in the university curricula and faculty of instruction. The University of Pennsylvania was among the earliest in its class to undertake systematic instruction in science, technology and engineering. In 1852 it was resolved to establish a department of mines, arts and manufactures, and professorships in geology and minerology, and civil engineering and mining, and two regular courses in science were offered. In 1874 John Henry Towne, a trustee of the university, made the university the residuary legatee of his large estate. Whatever sum might accrue from this bequest was to form a portion of the endowment fund of the university, and the income from it was to be devoted exclusively to the payment of the salaries of professors and instructors in the department of science. In recognition of this generosity the department was named “the Towne scientific school of the University of Pennsylvania.” The John C. Green school of science is one of the departments of Princeton university. Mr. Green was a wealthy merchant in New York city, who devoted much of his large fortune to charitable and educational foundations. He contributed generously to Princeton university aside from his gift of $50,000 to found the school of science in 1873. This amount was subsequently much increased by the residuary legatees of his estate. Instruction is given in general science, civil engineering and electrical engineering. The courses are four years in length and lead to the degree of bachelor of science. In 1899 the number of students in the science department of the university was 338. Union college, at Schenectady, New York, founded in 1795, was one of the earliest institutions to furnish instruction in engineering and general science. It was among the first to recognize the importance of modern languages, and at an early date it added a “scientific course" to the timehonored curriculum, which included little besides Latin, Greek and mathematics. In 1845 it offered courses in civil engineering, and there has been added recently a department of electrical engineering which will enjoy exceptional opportunities, owing to the fact that the great manufacturing plant of the General electric company is located at Schenectady. Washington university, at St. Louis, Missouri, has long maintained a school or départment of engineering of excellent reputation. It offers five courses of study, namely, in civil engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, chemistry, and science and literature. They are of four years' duration and lead to the degree of bachelor of science. Advanced and professional degrees are conferred on about the usual conditions as to study and experience. The testing laboratory of the department of civil engineering is one of the best known, especially for the large amount of timber testing for the U. S. government which has been done in it. The total number of graduates of the School of engineering, up to 1899, was 186. The University of Cincinnati, at Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1872 upon a bequest of Charles McMicken, a wealthy merchant of Cincinnati, provides courses in general science and in civil engineering. Instruction is also given in applied electricity, but no distinctive course in electrical engineering is offered. The courses are of four years' duration and lead to the degree of bachelor of science. There is also a course in astronomy, instruction in which is facilitated by an excellent astronomical observatory well equipped with modern instruments and appliances. A course in mathematics, announced in 1890, leads to the bachelor of science degree. In addition to the income from the McMicken fund, the university receives annually a considerable sum collected as a tax upon the taxable property of the city of Cincinnati. The University of California, at Berkeley, California, includes in its departments a college of agriculture, of mechanics, of civil engineering and of chemistry. A course in electrical engineering is offered in the College of mechanics. They are all of four years' duration and lead to the degree of bachelor of science. There is also an astronomical department in which is included the celebrated Lick observatory at Mt. Hamilton. There is also in California the well-known Leland Stanford, Junior, university, which offers courses in the natural sciences and in civil, mechanical and electrical engineering. The College of technology of Tulane university of Louisiana at New Orleans, Louisiana, is an important school not only on, account of the excellence of its courses and facilities for instruction, but specially by reason of its location, and it is destined to be an important factor in the development of the great resources of the southern part of the United States. It offers five courses, namely, mechanical engineering, which includes electrical engineering, chemical engineering, sugar engineering, civil engineering and architecture. The course in “sugar engineering” is unique, and of special value to the sugar producing interests of the region in which the college is located. It includes not only the chemistry and physics of sugar preparation and cultivation, but the mechanics and engineering of all machinery and appliances used in a modern sugar-making plant. The degree of bachelor of engineering is conferred upon all who complete one of the courses of the college of technology.
Vanderbilt university, at Nashville, Tenn., maintains a wellequipped engineering department. In 1888 Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt, the grandson of the founder, made a donation to the university of $30,000 for the erection of a building for mechanical engineering. Previous to that time, and in fact, from the opening of the institution in 1876, courses of science and civil engineering had been provided and in 1899 mechanical and mining engineering were added. In 1895 a course in electrical engineering was established. Four years are required to complete any of the courses and the degree of bachelor of engineering is conferred upon those who successfully accomplish the work in either course. In 1899 there were 18 students in the engineering department.
There remains to be considered the third group of schools of science and engineering, which includes those depending for support largely upon state or national appropriations, or related to the universities or colleges deriving a large part or all of their income from these sources.
Among the best known schools of engineering in the country are those forming a part of Cornell university, Ithaca, N. Y. Those branches of engineering which depend principally upon mechanics are represented in Sibley college, while civil and hydraulic engineering, geodesy and kindred branches are included in the “college of civil engineering.”
The Sibley college of mechanical engineering and the mechanic arts was established through the generosity of Hiram Sibley who had been interested with Mr. Cornell in the great telegraph enterprises out of which grew the Western Union telegraph company. He was born in Masachusetts in 1807 and died in Rochester, N. Y., in 1888. His interest in the telegraph began with the early experiments of Morse, and he was actively engaged in the attempt to connect Europe and America telegraphically by way of Bering Straits. He was also interested in railroad enterprises and in farming on a large scale, being at one time the largest owner of improved lands in the United States. The college of mechanical engineering was begun by a gift from Mr. Sibley sufficient for the erection of a building and for the support of a chair of “practical mechanics and machine construction.” He continued making additions to his first donations, and in 1885 the trustees of the university organized the college under the name by which it is now known. Mr. Sibley's gifts amounted to $180,000, and $50,000 additional have been contributed by other members of the family. The Sibley college includes eight departments; mechanical engineering, experimental engineering, electrical engineering, machine design, mechanic arts or shop work, industrial drawing and art, and graduate schools of marine engineering and naval architecture, and of railway mechanical engineering. Courses of study are four years in length and the degree of mechanical engineer, electrical engineer, etc., are conferred upon those who successfully complete the respective courses. In 1899 the number of students in Sibley college was 492. The laboratories, museums, shops and other parts of the college are very completely furnished and equipped. The College of civil engineering provides instruction in all departments of that subject and particularly in some of the more advanced developments of the science. Special instruction is given in bridge engineering, railroad engineering, sanitary, municipal, hydraulic and geodetic engineering. Numerous graduate courses are provided, for illustrating which an astronomical observatory or laboratory, a magnetic laboratory, an extensive hydraulic laboratory and other laboratories furnish ample means. The museums of the College of civil engineering are rich in collections of models, instruments of precision, base line and gravity apparatus, together with a large assortment of the usual field instruments, such as transits, theodolites, levels, etc. In 1899 there were registered 186 students in this college. The University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor, Michigan, was organized by legislative act in 1837, which made provision for instruction in engineering. Regular instruction was not begun, however, until 1853, and the first degrees