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guished not only for great success in mercantile and manufacturing operations, but also for the important public services with which he was occupied during the later years of his life. He was a member of congress, a commissioner for negotiating the northeast boundary treaty with Great Britain, and served as minister to England from 1849 to 1852. His first gift for the endowment of the school which bears his name was $50,000, to which large additions were afterwards made by himself and members of his family. The primary object of the institution was to afford an opportunity for special study and training in science which the then existing foundations and departments of the university did not offer. Not the least of the important benefits it conferred during the earlier years of its existence was the bringing of Professor Louis Agassiz into close relations with the university, a special chair of zoology and geology in the scientific school having been created for him by Mr. Lawrence in 1848. It was originally intended that the Lawrence scientific school should be independent of Harvard college, and for many years it was so maintained, but in recent years it has gradually become merged with it until it now forms a part of the university, its government together with that of the college and the graduate school being under the faculty of arts and sciences. It confers or rather prepares for the degree of bachelor of science by four years' courses, eleven in number, including civil engineering, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, mining and metallurgy, architecture, chemistry, geology, biology, general science, science for teachers, and anatomy and physiology. These courses are essentially required, while those of the college are largely elective. The particular object of the school is to afford to men of sound preliminary training a liberalized education in various branches of science. So far as possible the instruction relates rather to the principles of science than to technical work, the intention being to make the graduates ready for the apprenticeship of their professions. It avails itself of the great resources of Harvard

university, its museums, libraries, laboratories, etc., these being used in common by students who are candidates for the degrees of bachelor of science, bachelor of arts, or for the several graduate degrees conferred by the faculty of arts and sciences. While there are certain professors whose duties are confined to the scientific school, a great part of the instruction is in common with the college. It is so closely linked with Harvard college that no clear discrimination can be made in the funds which support the scientific school and other foundations. There is considerable election in the subjects required for admission and their range is essentially the same as with the college. In 1899 there were 425 students in the scientific school. The Chandler school of science of Dartmouth college, Hanover, New Hampshire, was established in 1851 by the trustees of Dartmouth college, on the receipt of a bequest of $50,000, from Abiel Chandler, who left it to them in trust “for the establishment and support of a permanent department or school of instruction in the college, in the practical and useful arts of life.” Mr. Chandler was born in Concord, New Hampshire, in 1777. Until he was twentyone years of age he worked upon a farm but soon after he entered Harvard college from which he was graduated in 1806. For several years he was a teacher but afterwards engaged in business in Boston, retiring with a fortune in 1845. In addition to his bequest to Dartmouth college he distributed most of his estate in charity. The Chandler school was maintained as a separate department of the college for many years but it has recently been formally incorporated into the college and it is now known as the Chandler scientific course leading to the degree of bachelor of science. This course covers four years and is best described as a course in general science, including modern languages, mathematics, history, political science, etc., along with a good representation of the exact and natural history sciences. About 150 students are in the Chandler course. Affiliated with Dartmouth college is the very important graduate school of civil engineering known as The Thayer school of civil engineering. It was founded in 1867 by Gen. Sylvanus Thayer, U.S.A., who gave a fund of $70,000. General Thayer was born in Massachusetts in 1785. He was graduated from Dartmouth college in 1807 and from the U. S. military academy at West Point, which was then in a very elemental stage, in 1808. He became one of the most distinguished engineers of the army, was sent to Europe to study military works and schools, and on his return in 1817 was made superintendent of the U. S. military academy at West Point, a position which he held for sixteen years. During this time he entirely reorganized the school, putting it upon the same plane as the best military schools of Europe. So important were his services to the academy that his monument at West Point bears the inscription “Colonel Thayer, father of the United States military academy.” It was his desire to found at Dartmouth college a graduate school of engineering, exacting in its requirements and complete and thorough in its work. Being a graduate school, its course, which occupies two years, is essentially professional. It devotes itself exclusively to civil engineering in the broader sense, and the high standard of admission has necessarily restricted the number of students. The first class was admitted in 1871, and from that year to 1897, inclusive, 123 have entered, at an average age exceeding 23 years. Of these 79 were graduated with the degree of civil engineer. The government of the school is vested in a board of overseers consisting of the president of Dartmouth college, with four officers of the engineer corps of the United States army, active or retired. The School of mines of Columbia college, now Columbia university, New York city, began its work in 1864. Its establishment was due, primarily, to Professor Thomas Egleston. Professor Egleston was graduated at Yale in 1854, and at the Ecole des mines in Paris in 1860. In 1863 he prepared and published a plan for a school of mines which was the basis of the organization at Columbia college. Up to that time the enormous mineral resources of the United States were almost unknown; at least there had been little systematic effort towards their development. Such mining as was carried on was mostly under the direction of so-called “practical” miners, whose methods were wasteful and extravagant. A few experts had come from European schools, but the full exploitation of the rich deposits which the country possessed demanded a large number of trained and educated men. This demand the School of mines was destined to supply in a large measure, and it is difficult to overestimate the importance of its work during the quarter of a century following its foundation. The trustees of Columbia college permitted the use of certain rooms in the college buildings for the school and such collections of minerals, etc., as it might obtain. Professor Egleston was made professor of mineralogy and metallurgy, without salary, and he was shortly after joined by Professors Charles F. Chandler and F. L. Vinton on the same conditions, the faculty being expected to depend upon fees for support. The School of mines opened on November 15th, 1864, with 29 students, and its success was a gratifying surprise from the very beginning. The students were generally of somewhat mature age, and many of them were college graduates. Although the college had in no way committed itself to the financial support of the school, small sums of money were granted, and the importance of the school to Columbia college became more and more evident. Early in 1865 the School of mines was formally adopted as a co-ordinate branch of the college, and it is not too much to say that for many years the college was most widely known by reason of this connection. The primary object of the school was the education and training of mining engineers and metallurgists. It gathered together a faculty of men distinguished in their specialties, and it was soon evident that it could wisely extend its operations so as to cover other branches of engineering and applied science. Courses of study in civil engineering, applied chemistry, sanitary engineering, geology and architecture were added, although it still continued under the original name, School of mines. In 1889 a course in electrical engineering was added, and later on in mechanical engineering. In 1896 the title “Columbia university” was adopted as covering all the departments of instruction and research previously associated with or forming a part of Columbia college, and the title “School of mines" is now restricted to its original significance. The various engineering and science courses are now collectively directed by the “faculty of applied science," under which are the four schools of mines, chemistry, engineering and architecture. There is also a school of pure science under the direction of a faculty of pure science. The School of engineering offers courses in civil, electrical and mechanical engineering, all of four years' duration, and corresponding degrees are granted. All of these schools are extensively equipped, and much attention is given to graduate courses and work. In the School of pure science instruction is given in anatomy, astronomy, bacteriology, botany, chemistry, geology, mathematics, mechanics, mineralogy, physics, physiology, and zoology. The faculty of pure science exercises special supervision over the instruction and work of all candidates for the degrees of master of arts and doctor of philosophy in pure science. The several faculties of instruction in the university are not entirely distinct, but the total number of those giving instruction, in one way or another, in the courses in pure and applied science, is probably not far from IOO, including professors, adjunct and associate professors, instructors, tutors and assistants. In 1899 there were registered 470 students under the faculty of applied sciences. The registration in the School of pure science was approximately 100. On January 1st, 1899, the total number of graduates in science was 1172. Practically all colleges or universities in the United States offer courses in pure or applied science, and while their work may not be differentiated from that of the departments suf

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