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became his, but he immediately expended the whole in the exact manner desired by his brother, mostly in various charities in New York city. He carefully attended to the erection of the buildings for the school he was to found, and on his death left an endowment for it of over half a million dollars. The trustees, in their examination of various other institutions, were much impressed with the organization and character of the Worcester polytechnic institute, and accordingly they invited Dr. Charles O. Thompson, its president, to come to Terre Haute as the first president of the Rose polytechnic. He accepted the invitation, and, after nearly a year in Europe, engaged in a renewal of his acquaintance with the leading schools of science and technology to be found there, he began the work of organizing the new institution which was opened to students in 1883. Dr. Thompson's work at the Rose polytechnic was unhappily cut short by his death only a little more than a year after the opening of the institute, but in that time its organization was practically completed, following closely the lines which he had previously established at Worcester, to which full reference has already been made. The Rose polytechnic institute offers four separate courses of study each of four years' duration. They are in mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering and architecture, and in chemistry. Its faculty of instruction (1899) included 15, and its students numbered Ioo. The total number of its graduates is about 260. It confers the degree of bachelor of science upon those who have completed any of its courses. That of master of science is conferred two years after graduation, at least one of which must be spent in graduate study, approved by the faculty. Professional degrees, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer or civil engineer will be conferred upon those who have already received their master's degree and who have subsequently spent at least two years in the successful practice of their profession. The institute derives its support from its endowment funds and tuition fees. Additions to the endowment fund have been received since the death of the founder. It is governed by a board of managers consisting of nine men, with power to fill vacancies. By arrangement one member of the board is an alumnus, elected by the alumni, to serve for one year. The Polytechnic institute of Brooklyn, at Brooklyn, New York, was originally an academy or preparatory school of high grade, existing since 1854 under the name “Brooklyn collegiate and polytechnic institute." Two courses of advanced study were provided in 1870, and in 1889 it was reorganized and rechartered under the name it now bears. One of its courses of study is called the “liberal” course and leads to the degree of bachelor of arts, but the principal work of the institute is in applied science. Here three courses are provided, engineering, chemical and electrical. Those who complete these courses, which are each four years in length, receive the degree of bachelor of science. Post graduate courses are provided. In 1899 the corps of instructors numbered 11, and there were 79 students. In its technical and engineering courses it has graduated nearly a hundred men. Its income is derived from endowment funds and tuition fees. The Armour institute of technology, at Chicago, Illinois, was founded by Philip D. Armour in 1892, and originally chartered as “the Armour institute.” Mr. Armour was born in Stockbridge, N. Y., in 1832. He received only a common school training, and after spending some time as a miner in California, he engaged in a commission business in Milwaukee. In 1863 he began his career as a grain and pork merchant, and since 1875 he has been at the head of the firm of Armour & Company of Chicago, the largest dealers in dressed meats and provisions in the world. He has given generously towards the establishment and maintenance of a mission in Chicago known as the Armour mission. His gifts to the institute of technology which bears his name already amount to more than $2,500,000. In the first public announcement of his gift he said: “This institution is founded for the purpose of giving to young men and women an opportunity to secure a liberal education. . . . It is not intended for the poor or the rich, as sections of society, but for any and all who are earnestly seeking practical education. . . . The institute is not a free school, but its charges for instruction are in harmony with the spirit which animates alike the founder, the trustees and the faculty, namely, the desire to help those who wish to help themselves." Instruction began in 1893, and in 1895 it was somewhat reorganized, full four years' courses were arranged for, and the name changed to the “Armour institute of technology.” The principal feature of the school is what is known as “the technical college," to which are allied, under the general organization, the department of domestic arts, the kindergarten normal department, the department of music and the department of shorthand and typewriting. In the technical college five courses of study are offered, a course in mechanical engineering, in electrical engineering, in architecture, in science and in civil engineering. In 1899 the corps of instructors numbered 31. No information concerning the number of students is given in the published yearbook. Its graduates probably number about 60. It confers the degree of bachelor of science. It is especially well equipped in apparatus relating to electric measurements. Its government is vested in a board of six trustees of which the founder is one, as is also the president of the institute. The limits to which this monograph is restricted will not permit detailed reference to a greater number of institutions belonging to the group of independently organized and endowed schools of technology, although there are several others that, by reason of their excellent facilities and comprehensive courses of study, are quite as important as some of the above which have been selected as types. Within two or three years additions to the list have been made, among which may be mentioned the Bradley polytechnic institute at Peoria, Illinois, and the Clarkson institute of technology at Potsdam, N. Y. There are a number of excellent schools in the southern states, mostly supported, however, by state appropriations. Several of the most important schools of science and engineering in the United States belong to the second group, being affiliated with universities and colleges and sharing with other departments the income from private endowments, facilities and faculties of instruction. Less detailed consideration will be given them here on that account, as they will doubtless receive a large measure of attention in monographs relating to these institutions. This exposition would be quite incomplete, however, without reference to them, and, at the risk of duplication, a brief description of some of the leading examples will be given. The Sheffield scientific school of Yale university, at New Haven, Connecticut, was organized in 1847 as a school of applied chemistry. In 1860 it received its first considerable endowment from Joseph E. Sheffield of New Haven. Mr. Sheffield was a native of Connecticut, born in 1793. After receiving a common school education he began, at the early age of fifteen years, a long and successful business career. For more than a quarter of a century he lived in the south, becoming the chief cotton merchant in Mobile, Alabama, but in 1835 he returned to his native state and established himself in New Haven. He was active in canal and railroad development, both in New England and the west, accumulating a large fortune from which he made munificent donations to Yale college. In 1860 he provided suitable buildings for the scientific department and made liberal endowments for its support. The Sheffield scientific school is devoted to “instruction and researches in the mathematical, physical and natural sciences, with reference to the promotion and diffusion of science, and also to the preparation of young men for such pursuits as require special proficiency in those departments of learning.” Instruction is specially planned for two classes of students: 1st, graduates of Yale and other universities or colleges, and others specially qualified for advanced or special scientific study; 2nd, undergraduates who desire a training chiefly mathematical and scientific to fit them for higher scientific studies or for such occupations as demand such training. The undergraduate courses extend through three years, but the requirements for admission are considerably in advance of those in institutions whose courses are of four years. A number of courses of study are provided, at least ten being distinctly separate. They include chemistry, civil engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, agriculture, natural history, mineralogy, biology, mining and metallurgy. There are also a number of graduate courses. The degree of bachelor of philosophy is conferred upon those completing any of the three years' courses of study. The degree of master of science is conferred upon those who have taken their first degree in science and who have had at least one year of resident graduate study, under the direction of the governing board. Two additional years are required for the degree of civil engineer, or mechanical engineer and the degree of doctor of philosophy is also conferred. In 1899 there were 59 graduate students, 13 special students and a total of 597. The total number of professors and instructors is 63. The faculty is distinct from that of the academic department of Yale college, but some of the instructors are connected with other departments. The governing board consists of the president of the university with the director of the scientific school and members of the faculty permanently attached to the school. Degrees are conferred by the president of the university on the regular university commencement day and the corporate control of the school is that of Yale university. The Lawrence scientific school of Harvard university, Cambridge, Massachusetts, was founded by Abbott Lawrence in 1847. He was the younger of two brothers, born in Groton, Massachusetts, late in the last century, who were the most famous merchants in Boston during the first half of this. He was a graduate of Harvard college and was distin

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