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newly-established institution more liberally during his life than he had at first announced, and at his death bequeathed to it an endowment of nearly $2,000,000, the total amount of his benefactions reaching over two and a half million dollars.

The institution was incorporated in 1866, and its first class was graduated in 1869. Its first president was Professor Henry Coppee, LL.D. It is well equipped with suitablyappointed laboratories, an astronomical observatory, a museum which is especially rich in minerals, and a large and well-endowed library. While it offers a classical course, its resources are almost exclusively devoted to the school of technology. In this six courses are offered as follows: Civil engineering, mechanical engineering, metallurgy, mining, electrical engineering and chemistry. Its corps of instructors numbers 41 and its students (1899) 325, of whom all except ten were in the technical or scientific courses. Up to 1899 its graduates numbered nearly one thousand.

The Lehigh university is supported by the income from its endowments and the fees charged for tuition, although it has received occasional appropriations from the state. It is governed by a board of ten trustees, together with nine honorary trustees, four of whom are chosen from the alumni to serve for a fixed term of years.

The Stevens institute of technology, at Hoboken, New Jersey, was opened for the admission of students in September, 1871. Mr. Edwin A. Stevens, its founder, was a member of a distinguished family of engineers. His grandfather, John Stevens, had been a member of the continental congress, and his father, also John, had filled offices of trust and responsibility during the revolutionary war, besides being the most famous engineer of his time. At the close of the war for independence he was a man of independent wealth, owning the island of Hoboken on which he lived during the summer, and he devoted practically the remainder of his life to experimental engineering at his own cost for the common good. Through his influence the American patent law was

enacted. He was one of the earliest users of steam and he made important improvements in the method of generating it. He was the first to navigate the Hudson by means of a steamboat, which he did successfully in 1804, and by a vessel propelled by twin screws, essentially the same in form as those now universally in use, and he was always a warm advocate of the screw propeller. He established the first steam ferry in the world, was the first to navigate the ocean by steam and in 1812 he made the first experiments in the use of artillery against iron armor, and about the same time he strongly urged the construction of a railroad between the seaboard and the great lakes instead of a canal which was then being talked of. His suggestions were rejected by the commissioners, who considered them impracticable and visionary. His sons, Robert L. and Edwin A., inherited the engineering tastes of their father and added new lustre to the fame of the family by remarkable achievements in the field of railroad development and marine engineering. The earliest railroads of importance in the United States were built under their direction and the two brothers were the joint inventors of many improvements in track, rolling stock, power, etc. Both were greatly interested in the application of engineering to warfare and especially in improving naval attack and defense, and Robert L. Stevens built the first ironclad vessel ever constructed. In the will of Edwin A. Stevens, dated April 15th, 1867, he bequeathed a block of ground in the city of Hoboken, with $150,000, for the erection of buildings thereon “suitable for the uses of an institution of learning, and also $500,000 as an endowment fund for the support of the same. In 1870 Professor Henry Morton, Ph. D., at that time professor of chemistry in the University of Pennsylvania and also secretary of the Franklin institute, was selected as the president of the new institution for which a charter had been obtained in February of the same year. Dr. Morton, to whom the success and high character of the school is largely due, has contin

ued to serve as its president from the beginning. In 1875 a mechanical laboratory was established under the direction of Professor R. H. Thurston, who was the first professor of mechanical engineering in the institute. The Stevens institute is essentially a school of mechanical engineering alone, and it offers but one course of study, which requires four years for its completion. Much attention is given to practical laboratory and workshop methods. There is a department of tests in which are undertaken measurements of the performance of steam engines and other motors, of the efficiency of boilers, electrical and hydraulic apparatus, of the strength of materials and kindred problems. Its officers of instruction are 21 in number and its students (1899) 214. Since its organization the institute had graduated about 700 students. It grants the degree of mechanical engineer to those who have completed its course of study and it has bestowed honorary degrees of doctor of philosophy and doctor of engineering. Since the original bequest of Mr. Stevens it has received considerable additions to its endowment fund, and its president, Dr. Morton, has been among the liberal donors. It derives its support from the income from its invested funds and from its tuition fees. Its government is in the hands of a board of twelve trustees, one of the number being an alumnus.

The Case school of applied science, at Cleveland, Ohio, was incorporated on March 29th, 1880. Leonard Case, its founder, was born in Cleveland on June 27th, 1820. His father, also Leonard Case, had come to Ohio from Pennsylvania at the beginning of the century. By judicious purchases of public lands in and near Cleveland, then a village, now (1899) a flourishing city of over 300,000 inhabitants, and by active participation in early railroad enterprises, he accumulated a large estate, all of which his son, Leonard, inherited. The latter was educated at Yale college, being a member of the class which was graduated in 1842. He was, as a young man, inclined rather to literary and scientific pursuits than to business. He was especially fond of

scientific and mathematical studies, but he possessed considerable real literary ability, as was evidenced by occasional poems and translations, some of which were published in the best magazines of the day. In 1876 he had already determined upon founding a school of science, and in 1877 he executed a deed of trust setting apart certain real estate for the support of the institution, to take effect upon his death, which occurred on January 6th, 1880. In this he directed the trustees “to cause to be formed and to be regularly incorporated under the laws of Ohio an institution of learning to be called “Case school of applied science,’ and located in said city of Cleveland, in which shall be taught by competent professors and teachers mathematics, physics, engineering — mechanical and civil— chemistry, economic geology, mining and metallurgy, natural history, drawing and modern languages, and such other kindred branches of learning as the trustees of said institution may deem desirable." Instruction began in 1881, with a class of 16 students, the school being carried on from that time until the summer of 1885 in the old Case homestead. A commodious building having been erected for the use of the school, it was occupied at the beginning of the term in September, 1885. A year later the building with all that it contained was destroyed by fire. It was promptly rebuilt and occupied in 1888. Since that time several additional buildings for laboratory and shop exercises have been erected. The Case school of applied science offers eight regular courses of instruction, each requiring four years. They are civil engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, mining engineering, physics, chemistry, architecture and general science. In 1899 there were 21 instructors and 218 students. From the beginning it has graduated about 230 men. The degree of bachelor of science is granted to all who complete one of the regular courses. That of master of science may be conferred upon graduates who have devoted at least one year exclusively to graduate study.

Professional degrees, namely, civil engineer, mechanical engineer, electrical engineer and engineer of mines may

also be conferred after one year of graduate study or after professional work in positions of responsibility, for three years after graduation. The property left by Mr. Case as an endowment for the support of the school is valued at about $2,000,000, and the amount invested in buildings and equipment is about $350,000. The school derives its support from the income from its endowment and tuition fees. Its government rests with a corporation consisting of twenty men,

from whom six known as trustees are selected. The Rose polytechnic institute, at Terre Haute, Indiana, was organized as early as 1874, but it was not open to students until 1883. The intervening years were spent in the erection of buildings for the accommodation of the school and in the personal examination by members of the board of managers of the leading schools of science and technology in the country. Its founder was Chauncy Rose, born in Wethersfield, Connecticut, in 1794, died in Terre Haute in 1877, having settled in Indiana in 1817. Mr. Rose was a successful business man, made judicious investments in real estate and was active in the early railroad development of Indiana. Throughout his long life he was distinguished for the sturdiest integrity in all business matters and for his generous and philanthropic disposition. An incident of the latter part of his life forcibly illustrates those qualities which made him the founder of schools, orphan asylums, free dispensaries, etc. His brother John lived in New York city and had also become a man of great wealth, concerning the disposition of which, after his death, he had very clear and well-defined ideas. Through a serious error in the preparation of his will, it appeared that if executed under the laws of New York it would fail in accomplishing the evident desires of the testator. Chauncy Rose at once instituted legal proceedings to have the will set aside, in which he succeeded after six years of litigation. He was himself the sole heir, and the estate of over $1,500,000

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