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tary science and the control of contagious diseases, it need only be said that of papers presented before the American veterinary medical association two thirds have been on such subjects. This indicates a healthful interest in the most vital and promising fields of veterinary research, and speaks well for the supply of experts to work in this field in the future. It is worthy of note that in all strong veterinary schools work in bacteriology is made a first consideration.

Field for educated veterinarians — In 1888 there were 6 veterinary schools with 323 students. In 1899 there were 17 schools with 249 instructors and 378 students. 6 of these 17 schools are separate institutions, ii are departments of other institutions. 7 maintain day sessions, 3 have both day and evening sessions, 7 do not report this item. 16 schools confer degrees.

There is a broad field in the United States for educated veterinarians, and in view of this fact it is surprising that there are not more veterinary medical students. To assert that this is due to the lengthening to three years of the courses in the veterinary medical schools and to the use of bicycles and electric cars as substitutes for horses is not a satisfactory explanation. Horses will always be in large demand. Furthermore, the close relation between the health of man and that of the domestic animals, specially those that furnish meat and milk, shows the necessity of careful attention to their health. The reports of the department of agriculture give a value of about $2,000,000,000 to the live stock of the United States, and the protection of these enormous interests demands the services of trained veterinarians. The science of meat inspection has not as yet commanded with us the attention it should receive. The work of the national government in this respect is confined to international and interstate trade, principally to the large western packing houses. Local municipal inspection is in its infancy and state legislatures have not as a rule enacted special measures of protection. There now seems to be, however, an increasing demand for scientific work

along these lines and the best veterinary schools are recognizing this necessity in their courses of study.

Synopsis of requirements — The first law restricting the practice of veterinary medicine was enacted in New York in 1886. In 1899, 12 states had veterinary medical laws.

In 5 states a veterinary diploma does not admit to the practice of veterinary medicine, an examination being required in all cases : Minnesota New York North Dakota Pennsylvania Virginia

The following require for admission to the licensing examination:

Minnesota, diploma from veterinary school

New York, full high school course, diploma of veterinary school with satisfactory standard

North Dakota, diploma from veterinary school
Pennsylvania, competent

competent common school education, approved diploma from legally incorporated veterinary school having a course of three years

Virginia requires the licensing examination only

Illinois requires approved veterinary diploma or 3 years' practice or examination

Ohio requires approved veterinary diploma or examination by state board

California and Maryland require veterinary diploma approved by state board

New Jersey admits on veterinary diploma submitted to unqualified local authority

Wisconsin admits on veterinary diploma or certificate submitted to unqualified local authority, and practitioners five years prior to 1887

Michigan registers veterinary medical degrees without examination and issues certificates of “veterinary surgeon to those who pass the examinations of the state veterinary board.

The other states and territories have no laws on the subject.

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NICHOLAS MURRAY BUTLER Professor of Philosophy and Education in Columbia University, New York






President of the Technological Institute, Worcester, Mass.



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