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The following political divisions in case of examination admit to it on : California, grammar school education, four years' experience in a pharmacy Colorado, four years' experience in compounding physicians' prescriptions Connecticut, three years' instruction in pharmacy Delaware, three years' continuous practical experience in retail drug business District of Columbia, diploma of respectable medical school, or four years' experience in a pharmacy Iowa, two years' practical experience in pharmacy, one year allowed for time spent in recognized school, or medical diploma with three years' actual practice of medicine Kansas, four years' experience in compounding physicians' prescriptions Louisiana, grammar school education, sufficient knowledge of chemistry and practice of pharmacy Montana, four years' experience in compounding physicians' prescriptions New Jersey, four years' experience in a pharmacy New York city and Erie county, New York, four years' experience in a pharmacy North Dakota, four successive years' practical experience in a pharmacy Oklahoma, four years' experience in compounding prescriptions South Carolina, three years' experience in a pharmacy Utah, four years' practical experience in a pharmacy Vermont, practice in pharmacy or served apprenticeship for three years Virginia, four years' practical experience in a pharmacy Washington, three years' practical experience in a pharmacy Wyoming, two years' practical experience in a pharmacy Vermont accepts also an approved diploma of medical school.

The following grant licenses on examination by state boards and to physicians in certain cases:

Mississippi New Jersey North Carolina Virginia

Alabama and Missouri accept also an approved diploma.

Rhode Island grants license on examination by state board and to practitioners in certain cases.

Idaho requires approved diploma or examination by county board.

Florida requires approved diploma or examination by

state board or by local physicians. Authorized physicians

are licensed without examination.

In Cuba, the Philippines' and Puerto Rico' the requirements are in process of transition.

Alaska, Arizona, Hawaii, Indian territory and Nevada have no laws.

* See note under Synopsis of present requirements in medicine.


Early veterinary schools— Veterinary medicine was pursued as a science by the ancient Egyptians and by the Greeks, but after the destruction of the eastern empire little progress was made in this science till the establishment of a veterinary school at Lyons in 1762. This institution was soon followed by similar schools in other European countries.

Before 1850 graduates in veterinary medicine were almost unknown in America, some of the larger cities only being able to furnish isolated veterinarians who had been educated in the veterinary schools of Europe. The country as a whole, including most of the large cities, had to be satisfied with such service as could be had from the blacksmith, from the physician who sought to apply to animals the principles taught in the medical schools and from the horse doctor who, with no basis whatever of medical knowledge, boldly and recklessly administered drugs.

The first step toward systematic veterinary education was the granting of a charter in 1852 by the legislature of Pennsylvania, and the securing of a subscription of $40,000, to serve in the organization of a veterinary school in Philadelphia. This school opened in 1853 but no students responded. In 1859–60 two students were secured, one of whom was a graduate of the Boston veterinary college which had been chartered in 1855. Both of these schools had a short life, but the same cities have now each its veterinary school in connection with the University of Pennsylvania and Harvard respectively. Each of these schools has a matriculation examination and a three years' course of eight months each. In 1857 the New York college of veterinary surgeons was chartered and in 1875 the American veterinary college was opened. These two New York city schools were maintained as proprietary institutions till 1899 when they were placed on a strictly university footing by consolidation under New York university. In the succeeding years veterinary schools sprang into existence in many of the large cities, Chicago, Kansas City, Cincinnati, Baltimore, Washington, Grand Rapids, Detroit, etc., all like the earlier schools in Boston, Philadelphia and New York, being private ventures, dependent on their financial returns, and with a curriculum of Io or 12 months representing two years of five or six months each. Advances made by state schools—The necessity for a fuller, graded course based on matriculation requirements which would be a guaranty of fitness to pursue such course profitably, was first voiced by schools connected with state colleges and universities. As early as 1868, Illinois industrial university' and Cornell university instituted 2 veterinary chairs, and filled them with graduates of the Royal college of veterinary surgeons, England. Students were admitted only on the basis of the regular university matriculation and were held to a course of 4 years. Illinois industrial university is said to have turned out several good practitioners, while Cornell graduated 4 veterinarians, 3 of whom have been prominent and valued members of the United States bureau of animal industry, 1 being its chief. These institutions were followed in 1879 by the veterinary department of the Iowa agricultural and mechanical college with moderate matriculation requirements, and a three years' graded course, in 1889 by the veterinary department of the Ohio state university with equal or still greater requirements, and in 1890 by the veterinary department of the university of Minnesota with similar standards. The important advances made by these state schools of veterinary medicine may be better illustrated by the fact that their academic year extends to eight or nine months, while the year of the private school covered but five or six months. The total curriculum of the state veterinary school therefore extended from 24 to 27 months or in the case of

* The historical part of this outline was prepared mainly by Prof. James Law of Cornell university.

"Became University of Illinois in 1885.

Cornell university to 36 months, as against the Io or 12 months of the private school. Requirements of American veterinary medical association — The United States veterinary medical association," adopted in 1891 an article providing that all applicants for membership should be graduates of a recognized veterinary school with a curriculum of at least three years, of six months each, and a corps of instructors comprising at least four veterinarians. Nearly all the schools which had not already done so soon placed themselves in harmony with these requirements. New York's leadership—The next step in advance came in 1895 when the New York legislature enacted that at least a high school diploma representing four years of high school work should be offered for admission to a veterinary school, that the veterinary curriculum should embrace three full years, and that only those who had met both requirements could be admitted to the regents veterinary examination for license to practise in the state. For the present this places New York in the lead. To begin practice in this state the candidate must reach a standard which is not demanded in any other state in the Union. But even within New York state there have been inequalities in the curriculum. In the private veterinary schools in New York city, the old session of six months has stood for a year, while in the New York state veterinary college, Cornell university, a nine-month year is required. To the legal requirement for matriculation, therefore, which is common to all schools in the state, the period devoted to veterinary education in the state school at Cornell is one half longer than that which has been required in the private schools in New York city. Now that these schools have consolidated under New York university, it is hoped that these inequalities will disappear. As a means of extending the benefits of its curriculum to their full legal possibilities, Cornell offers tuition free to all residents of the state, and opens to competition by the

"Now the American veterinary medical association.

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