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The following table made up from Professional education in the United States gives the division of professional schools by sex in 1899:

SCHOOLS Men Women Both Total Theology ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IOI o 64 165 a W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 o 64 86 Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 7 8o |. 156 Dentistry ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 o 44 56 Pharmacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 o 48 52 Veterinary medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I4 o 3 17

Power to confer degrees — Low standards in many professional schools are due to a failure to subject the degree-conferring power to strict state supervision. In New York and Pennsylvania the laws now prevent an abuse of the power to confer degrees." In Massachusetts and Vermont bodies formed under the general corporation acts are prohibited from conferring degrees. In Ohio and Nebraska the statutes require only the nominal endowment of $5000 for a degree-conferring institution. In other states and territories as a rule any body of men may form an educational corporation with power to confer degrees “without any guaranty whatever that the privilege will not be abused.”

This matter has been under discussion recently in various educational bodies and there is a strong sentiment in favor of a strict supervision by the state of the degree-conferring power.”

* A similar bill, strongly advocated by educators, was defeated at the last session of the Illinois legislature through the efforts of politicians and others in favor of low standards.

* Edward Avery Harriman, Educational franchise (R. Am. bar. ass., 1898).

* In 1897 the section of legal education of the American bar association resolved that the degree-conferring power should be “subject to strict state supervision to be exercised in a manner somewhat similar to that which is exercised by the regents of the University of the State of New York.” In an address before the National educational association in 1897, Pres. Henry Wade Rogers said: “There should be established in each state a council of education, which should be intrusted with powers similar to those vested in the regents of the University of the State of New York, and it should be composed of the most eminent men in the state without any reference to political considerations. No degree-conferring institution should be incorporated without the approval of the council of education.”

2 THEOLOGY

Schools, faculty and students — In the United States there is no connection between church and state. Each religious denomination establishes such theological schools as may be required. In 1899 the 165 schools had 1070 instructors and 8093 students. 2 schools were nonsectarian, and the rest were distributed among 23 religious denominations in the order of students for 1899 as follows:"

schools raculty students DeNOMINATIONS 1899 1899 1898 do. 1899

I Roman catholic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 222 I 635 330 I 7oo

2 Baptist... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I6 io2 I 286 171 I I42

3 Presbyterian....................... 17 125 I of 6 283 I O24

4 Methodist episcopal..... .......... IQ IoT | I oos I66 981

5 Evang. Lutheran................... 17 73 876 234 851

6 Congregational . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 IoS 556 I33 492

7 Protestant episcopal I4 92 460 87 430

8 Christian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - 8 4I 429 40 424

9 Reformed church................... 6 51 I8o 59 188

io Lutheran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 I9 I42 39 I43 II United presbyterian................ 3 Io I29 45 I2 I 12 Hebrew... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I5 92 8 Ioq 13 Moravian (United brethren)......... 2 II 8I 23 92 14 Nonsectarian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I9 73 7 72 15 Cumberland presbyterian........... I 7 65 II 65 16 Universalist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 24 61 18 54 17 Methodist protestant.......... .... 2 6 35 o 5.I 18 Evangelical association............ I 2 34 9 44 19 African methodist episcopal........ I 5 37 5 37 20 Unitarian. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - I I6 I8 4 26 21 Reformed presbyterian............. I 2 28 9 2O 22 New Jerusalem..................... I 6 I2 2 I3 23 Associate reform presbyterian ...... I 4 I4 Io 7 24 Seventh day baptist. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 3 3 o 2 Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 I of o 8317 | I 693 | 8 og3

*The U. S. census report for 1890 gives 119 denominations associated in ecclesiastical groups (18,841,790 members), 24 which are not thus associated and some independent miscellaneous congregations (1,771, or 6 members). The 119 denominations are arranged according to number of communicants as follows:

1 R. catholic (7) [See chart] 6.257 871 8 United brethren (2) 225 281 2 Methodist (17) 4589 284 9 Latter-day saint (2) 166 125 3 Baptist (13) 3.712 468 Io Hebrew (2) I3o 496 4 Presbyterian (12) 1 278 332 II Friend (4) IoT 208 5 Lutheran (16) I 231 oz.2 12 Christian (2) Io:3722 6 Episcopalian (2) 54o 509 13 Dunkard (4) 73 795 7 Reformed (3) 309 458 14 Adventist (6) 6o 491

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