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Length of professional courses—The following table shows as a rule great progress, specially since 1885, in the adoption of higher standards for graduation.

Four | Three | Two One Not years years years year stated Theological schools 1875. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 77 9 o II 44 1885. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 98 6 o 22 44 1897. . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - 22 II6 7 I II 44 1898. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 117 8 o IO 44 1899. . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - *41 II6 7 I o Law schools 1875................... - - - - - - - - - - - o I 30 Io 2 - 1885. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o 5 38 6 o 44 1897. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o 2I 47 7 2 44 1898. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o 38 36 4 5 -4 1899. . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - o 44 37 4 I Medical schools 1875. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o *3 *72 5 o - 4 1885. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o 5 IO3 o o 44 1897. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 49 o 2 o 44 1898. . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - IO3 42 o o 46 -- 1899. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I4I Io 2 2 I Dental schools 1875. ........ ...... - - - - - - - - - - o o I2 o o 44 1885. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - o 5 I3 o o -- 1897. . . . . . . . . . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I 47 O o o 44 1898. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 49 o o o 44 1899. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 55 o o o Schools of pharmacy 1875..................... o o Io 3 I 44 1885. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o o 2I o o 44 1897. . . . . . . . . -- - - - - - - - - - o 5 34 2 2 44 1898. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 5 35 4 o 4- 1899. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *I 6 38 7 O Veterinary medical schools 1897........... ... o Io 2 o o 44 1898. . . . . . . . . . . . . . o I2 2 o o 44. 1899. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o I4 3 o o

expert public accountant) and examinations in the theory of accounts, practical accounting, auditing and commercial law. Pennsylvania has a C. P. A. law, and attempts have been made to secure similar legislation in Illinois, Maryland, New Jersey and Minnesota.

* Including 4 schools that report courses of five years.

*Including 17 schools that report courses of more than four years.

* Distinction between medical schools with two and three-year courses not certain.

*Including 3 medical preparatory schools.

* Department of pharmacy, University of Washington, which has suspended temporarily.

Professional schools now remain in session for a much greater part of the year than formerly:

Length of courses in months, 1899

"...?' - || 7-s so | 9-10 |*.**| Total Theology................ o 3 37 57 54 I4 I65 Law..................... I 2 6 52 2I 4 86 Medicine ................ Io 74 45 2I 6 o 156 Dentistry................ I2 24 II 4 5 o 56 Pharmacy..... .......... 5 I6 II Io 5 5 52 Veterinary medicine..... 5 5 2 4 I o 17 Total ................ 33 I24 112 148 92 23 532 Evening sessions occur less frequently: ..o. - ...: Both Unknown Total Law ............ .............. 49 24 7 6 86 Medicine...................... I35 5 9 7 156 Dentistry. ................... 47 4. o 5 56 Pharmacy . . . . . . . . . . ........... 36 9 4 3 52 Veterinary medicine........... 7 o 3 7 17 Total . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 42 23 28 367

University supervision—As long as the public had practically no protection from incompetency in professional practice independent proprietary schools flourished. With proper restrictive legislation such institutions will either die or fall under university supervision.

Many professional schools not under university supervision show a self-sacrificing zeal for high standards and an absence of the commercial spirit that might well be emulated by all institutions connected with colleges or universities. Nevertheless independent institutions are realizing more than ever before the disadvantages of working without university privileges and tend more and more toward university connections or university relations.

In 1899, 257 schools were separate institutions and 275 were departments of colleges or universities as follows:

ič. Departments || Total Theology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II9 46 165 I6 7o 86 - - - - - - -- 82 74 156 Dentistry.. - - - - - - - - 2O 36 56 Pharmacy... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I4 38 52 Veterinary medicine 6 II 17 Total. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 275 532

Scholarships—Theological seminaries, when not endowed, are supported by funds from the denominations they represent. Tuition is generally free, and in many cases board and lodging are furnished. Additional help is given usually when needed, and generous scholarships are the rule. In other professional schools scholarships are comparatively rare. The 1895 U.S. education report gives 4o law school scholarships and 295' medical school scholarships. The largest, offered by College of physicians and surgeons, New York, pays $700 a year and is bestowed to promote the discovery of new facts in medical science.

An examination of 82 law school catalogues for 1899 shows that 48 scholarships are offered definitely. Tuition is free at the law department of Howard university, the law departments of the universities of Kansas, Texas and West Virginia. The Harvard law school and the Boston university law school offer a “limited number of free scholarships." Law students may compete for the 150 state scholarships and the 18 university scholarships offered annually at Cornell and for the 50 city scholarships offered by the University of Pennsylvania. The law department of Centre college offers free tuition to sons of ministers and to all young men of limited means and good character. 3 schools give fellowships annually as follows: New York law school, 1 at $500 a year, good for from one to three years; Law department University of Pennsylvania, I at $300, good for one year; Pittsburg law school, I at $250, good for one year. 32 schools offer cash prizes amounting to $3010 and law and reference books as other prizes.

* “Many of these are not scholarships in a strict sense.”— U.S. education report, 1895

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151 medical school catalogues for 1899 report definitely only 152 scholarships and 1 I fellowships. These are offered by 31 schools. 5 other schools refer indefinitely to scholarships. At Cornell and the University of Pennsylvania medical students may compete for state and university, or city scholarships on an equal footing with those who would enter other departments. Tuition is free at the Army medical school, the medical department of the University of Texas and the medical preparatory school of the University of Kansas. 19 schools give cash prizes amounting to $5685; 57 offer hospital appointments as prizes; 47 give gold medals, surgical instruments and other prizes.

56 dental school catalogues for 1899 show that 7 schools offer 58 scholarships." The dental department of the University of Maryland deducts one half from tuition fees of one student from each state on recommendation of his state dental society. The Baltimore college of dental surgery had similar beneficiary scholarships till 1898 when they were abolished. 18 schools offer prizes but their value is not great.

52 catalogues of schools of pharmacy for 1899 show that 5 schools offer 12 scholarships and 2 fellowships. Tuition is free at the schools of pharmacy connected with the Alabama polytechnic institute, Washington agricultural college, Purdue university, and the universities of Kansas, Ohio, Oklahoma, Texas, Washington and Wisconsin. 15 schools offer prizes, usually medals or pharmaceutic instruments. 5 of these 15 schools give cash prizes amounting to $62o. The committee on revision of the U. S. pharmacopoeia has instituted fellowships in the University of Michigan and the University of Wisconsin for the discovery of new facts in pharmacy.

See section on Subjects discussed in dentistry.

16 veterinary school catalogues for 1899 show that 19 scholarships are offered by 5 schools, that I school gives a fellowship and that 6 schools offer prizes. Tuition is free at the veterinary departments of Cornell and Ohio universities, and of Washington agricultural college. Cornell opens to competition by veterinary students, 18 scholarships and to veterinary graduates a fellowship of an annual value of $500. Veterinary matriculates are eligible for 50 city scholarships offered by the University of Pennsylvania. The veterinary department of Ohio state university offers a scholarship in each county in which the agricultural scholarship is not taken. Fees—Tuition is free in 132 theological schools. Only 8 have matriculation fees, 33 a course fee and 34 other fees. The average matriculation fee is $5.38, the average course fee $91.61, the average of other fees $22.06. Tuition is free in 4 law schools. 23 have matriculation fees (average $14), 83 have course fees (average $69.80), 59 have other fees (average $10.86). Tuition is free in 3 medical schools. I 19 have matriculation fees (average $10.68), 153 have course fees (average $82.39), 129 have other fees (average $49.47). Tuition is not free in any dental school. 4o have matriculation fees (average $8.62), 56 have course fees (average $94.32), 5 have other fees (average $33.48). Tuition is free in 9 schools of pharmacy. 28 have matriculation fees (average $8.07), 43 have course fees (average $58.90), 5o have other fees (average $37.90). Tuition is free in 3 veterinary medical schools. 7 have matriculation fees (average $7.85), 14 have course fees (average $81.28), 12 have other fees (average $43.50). Libraries—In 1898 the U. S. commissioner of education reported 1,360,720 volumes in libraries of 1 18 theological schools, 243,054 in libraries of 47 law schools, 151,433 in libraries of 72 medical schools, 6901 in libraries of 16 dental schools, 22, 156 in libraries of 17 schools of pharmacy. 3 theological schools, 9 law schools, 21 medical schools, 9

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