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Rise of professional schools 1765–1900

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1900,
1990
1980 -
[970
1860
1950

1840

1770

* Extinct Litchfield school and first attempts at college of Philadelphia and Columbia.

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PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

I GENERAL

Preacademic, grammar or common school work refers to the eight years of elementary instruction; secondary or academic work, to the four years of secondary instruction between elementary school and college; college work, to the four years of higher instruction, following the four years of secondary. Professional institutions are uniformly called schools.

Authorities — It is impossible within the limits of this monograph to give more than a brief outline of professional education in the United States. For detailed information touching laws, regulations, location of schools, and courses of study the reader is referred to Professional education in the United States, published by the University of the State of New York.

Of the many authorities consulted the following have proved most helpful: U.S. education reports; Eliot's Educational reform ; U. S. census reports; Briggs' Theological education and its needs," Dyer's Theological education in America,” Jessup's Legal education in New York,” Wellman's Admission to the bar,” Hammond's American law schools, past and future,” Reports of the American bar association, Toner's Annals of medical progress in the United States," Davis' Medical education and medical institutions in the United States,” Journal American medical association, Shepard's Inaugural address at the World's Columbian dental congress, Proceedings of the American pharmaceutical association. These and other authorities have been used freely, but limited space makes it impracticable to give in many cases more than this general acknowledgment.

* Forum, January 1892. * Penn monthly, August 1880. * See the History of the bench and bar of Mew York. “American law review, May 1881. * Southern law review, August 1881. " U. S. education report, 1874. ' U. S. education report, 1877.

Assistance rendered by specialists is acknowledged in the chapter relating to each profession.

Growth — At the time of the declaration of independence there were only two professional schools in this country, the Medical college of Philadelphia (1765), now the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania, and the medical department of King's college (1768)."

The following statistics, summarized from Professional education in the United States, show unprecedented growth:

Schools Instructors Students Graduates Students 1899 1899 1898 1898 1899 Theology. ........... 165 1 ozo 8 317 I 693 8 og 3 Law ............. --- 86 97o 11 783 3 IIo 11 883 Medicine *156 *5 735 | *24 ot3 *5 725 *24 119 Dentistry ... - 56 I 513 7 221 I 92.1 7 633 Pharmacy......... ... *52 *492 *3 525 *I 122 *3 563 Veterinary medicine.... 17 249 368 123 378 *Total .............. 532 Io ozg 55 257 13 694 | 55 669

In 1898, 286 of the 532 schools reported total property amounting to nearly $50,000,ooo (New York 33 per cent),

* King's college is now Columbia university.
*The 1898 U.S. education report gives the following:

Schools l Instructors! Students Graduates

Theology. -- 155 58 8 371 1. 673 Law:::... -- #; 45 11 615 3 of 5 Medicine. -- 151 4 247 23 433 5 % Dentistry 5o 961 774 r § Pharmacy 45 4or 3 712 1 129 Veterinary medicine 14 173 326 109

Total -------------................................ 498 7 585 54 -31 13 421

*Excluding graduate schools, but including 3 medical preparatory schools.

*Including Department of pharmacy, University of Washington, which has suspended temporarily.

*In these totals training schools for nurses are not included. The Philadelphia lying-in, charity and nurse school was opened in 1828, but it is said that systematic training in schools for nurses was not given till 1873. The 1898 U.S. education report gives 377 of these schools with 8805 students. The course of study is usually two years in length though nearly 1-4 of the schools now require three years. Most of these schools are connected with hospitals where medical, surgical and obstetric cases are treated. The course of study embraces anatomy, physiology and hygiene, and obstetrics.

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