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Vessels on the African Stations, for negotiating with Chiefs
of Africa. By the Commissioners for executing the Office of Lord High
Admiral of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
1. The suppression of the Slave Trade may be materially assisted by obtaining the co-operation of the Native Chiefs of Africa in the object; you are therefore authorized to conclude Engagements for this purpose with the African Chiefs; but you must strictly adhere to the regulations herein laid down on the subject.
INFOR MATION TO BE OBTAINED.
2. You will procure the fullest and most correct information as to the state of those parts of the coast in which Slave Trade is carried on, so as to enable you to determine with what Chiefs it may be expedient to enter into negotiations for the conclusion of Engagements.
With this view, you will endeavour to ascertain the power and the influence of the several Chiefs; their personal character, and the habits of the people; the extent and force of the country; the sources, amount, and description of the legitimate trade carried on.
You will endeavour to obtain the most accurate information as to the Slave Trade ; its present extent, and whether it has recently increased or diminished; you will enquire by whose agency, whether native or foreign, it is principally prosecuted ; in what mode it is conducted; in what form the price of Slaves is received, whether in money or goods, and if in goods, the description of the same; how they are obtained; from whom and into what places imported; from what parts of the country the Slaves are brought, and how procured ; from what parts of the coast they are usually embarked, and whether with the assistance of any, and what Chiefs.
You will investigate the means whereby the Slave Trade may most effectually and speedily be extinguished, and you will enquire into the inclination and the power of the Chiefs to carry into effect an Engagement for that purpose, and the means which Great Britain may have for enforcing it.
3. You are not to attempt to enter into any negotiation until you have obtained the fullest information that the circumstances admit of with respect to all the matters of enquiry before specified. And you must not enter into any Engagements excepting with independent Chiefs of considerable power and influence upon the coast.
4. When you shall desire to open negotiations with any ExgageAfrican Chief, you will, after taking every proper precaution for MEST. the safety of yourself and your people, at the same time avoiding giving offence to the Natives, obtain a personal interview with the Chiefs, and endeavour to induce them to conclude an Engagement according to the Draft of Engagement forming the Appendix to this Instruction. (Vide Appendix to Section 7th.)
5. If at the time of the negotiation the foreign Slave Trade actually exists in the territory of the Native Chief, you will propose the two Articles marked “Additional,” annexed to the Draft, and will consider them an indispensable part of the Engagement.
6. Every opportunity is to be taken of impressing the minds of the Native Chiefs and their people, with a conviction of the efforts Great Britain has made for their benefit, and of her earnest desire to raise them in the scale of nations. It is most desirable to excite in them an emulation of the habits of the Christian world, and to enable them to make the first practical step towards civilization by the abandonment of the Slave Trade.
7. Special care must be taken not to offend the prejudices of the Natives; and every proper respect must be paid to their peculiar usages, so far as the same are not of an inhuman character; and allowance must be made for any jealousy or distrust that may be shewn by them.
8. You will not conclude the Engagement without reference bome, except it be completed in the exact terms of the Draft of Engagement forming the Appendix to this Section; and if any further stipulation should appear to you to be necessary or desirable, whether on commercial or on other grounds, it will be your duty to make a report on the subject to your Government.
9. Threats or intimidation are never to be used, to induce the Native Chiefs to conclude the Engagement: on the contrary, forbearance and conciliation must be in all cases the rule of conduct; and if the Native Chiefs refuse the Engagement, every means must be taken to encourage in them feelings of confidence, and to leave a favourable impression that may facilitate the renewal of negotiations at a future period.
10. On the conclusion of an Engagement, according to the Draft, you will consider yourself authorized to declare Her Majesty's approval of the same.
The Engagement must always be signed in duplicate.
11. Immediately after the conclusion of the Engagement, you will require the Chiefs to proclaim a law to their people, by which its stipulations shall be publicly made known.
12. In case the Slave Trade is actually carried on within the ADDITIONAL jurisdiction of the Chief at the time the Engagement is concluded, Ai and that, consequently, the two Additional Articles form part of
*1869-'! the Engagement, you will then require, that all the Slaves held
for 'exportation shall be delivered up to you to be made free at a British colony. You will also demand, that all implements of Slave Trade, such as shackles, bolts, and handcuffs, chains, whips, branding-irons, &c., or artieles of Slave equipment for fitting up vessels to carry Slayes, shall be given up to you, or destroyed in your presence. You will also insist on the immediate destruction of the barracoons, or buildings exclusively devoted to the reception of Slaves, and, if necessary, you will enforce all these demands,
QUESTION OF FORCE.
13. Upon the fulfilment of the Engagement thus far, you will use every effort to induce the Chiefs to carry into effect the other provisions of the Engagement, especially as regards the white Slave-dealers, and you are for this purpose to afford any assistance that the Native Chiefs may require, but you are not to use force, unless at their signed request in writing.
14. You are not, without the signed consent in writing of a Native Chief, to take any step upon his territory for putting down the Slave Trade by force, excepting when, by Engagement, Great Britain is entitled to adopt coercive measures on shore for that purpose.
15. After the conclusion of an Engagement, and the carrying of the same into effect so far as above directed, you will send home one of the originals of the Engagement, and a report of your proceedings thereupon, for further instructions. You will cause a vigilant watch to be kept over the proceedings of the Chiefs, until you are satisfied of their fidelity to their Engagements. After which, you will visit the Chiefs in person, or send a Commander of one of Her Majesty's ships, at least once in six months, to see to the due execution of the Engagements on the part of the Chiefs.
FOREIGN SLAVE TRADE CARRIED ON BY CHIEF OUTSIDE OF HIS TERRITORY.
16. In the event, however, of ultimate failure of the negotiation, you will finally state to the Chief, that every civilized Naval Power in the world has declared that it has abandoned the Slave Trade ; that most nations have united with Great Britain in endeavours to put it down; that Great Britain will not allow the subjects of the Chief so far to frustrate those endeavours, as to carry Slaves for sale, to or from any places beyond the limits of his own territory, and that Her Majesty's Officers have orders to liberate Slaves when found embarked in boats of his subjects for that purpose.
17. All the proceedings adopted in conformity with these Instructions, whether with regard to the negotiation or the carrying into effect of Engagements, are to be conducted by you; but if circumstances prevent you from doing so in person, you may specially authorize for the purpose another Officer: but you will take great care, in such case, to select one on whose judgment and discretion you can rely with confidence.
. 18. You will forward to the Admiralty a detailed report of REPORTS TU all proceedings which may have taken place on the occasion of BE MADE. visiting any port or place for the purposes mentioned in this Instruction. And in those cases in which you shall have deputed to another Officer the duty of visiting the place, the Officer so deputed will forward direct to the Admiralty a duplicate of his report to you.
19. You will make to the Admiralty an annual detailed report on the state of legal commerce, and the extent of Slave Trade, throughout your station, recapitulating therein the prineipal points of your occasional reports during the year, and adding thereto such other information as may serve to give to Her Majesty's Government a correct view of the course of your proceedings and of their result in the service of suppressing the Slave Trade. : Given under our hands, this 12th day of June, 1844.
W. H. GAGE. By command of their Lordships,
Instructions for Her Majesty's Officers appointed to act in execution
of the Treaties, Conventions, and Engagements, hereinafter
named,No. 1. Netherlands, Treaty with .. .. .. The Hague May 4, 1818..23 Esplanatory and Additional Articles
to, signed December 31, 1822, and
January 25, 1823
ruary 7, 1837
Additional Articles, signed December
17, 1839 Article on Slave Trade in Convention
of Commerce, signed May 31, 1839 3. Sweden and Norway, Treaty with .. .. Stockholm, Nov. 6, 1824..28 . Additional Article to, signed June 15,
1835 4. Brazil, Convention with .. .. .. Rio de Janeiro, Nov. 23, 1826. .32
Treaty between Great Britain and
Portugal, signed at Vienna, January
22, 1815 Convention between do. and do.,signed
at London, July 28, 1817 Separate Article to do. signed Sep
ternber 11, 1817 Additional Articles to do. signed at - Lisbon, March 15, 1823 * France, Convention with ..
Nov. 30, 1831..35 Supplementary do, signed at Paris,
March 22, 1833 6. Denmark, Treaty with .. .. .. Copenhagen, July 26, 1834..40
PAGE 7. Sardinia, Trenty with
Turin, Aug. 8, 1834.. 45 8. Spain, Treaty with .. ..
Madrid, June 28, 1835.. 50 9. Hanse Towns, Convention with
Hamburgh, June 9, 1837.. 54 10. Tuscany, Convention with .. .. ..
Nor. 24, -.. 59 11. Two Sicilies, Convention with .. .. Naples, Feb. 14, 1838.. 65 12. Chile, Treaty with .. ...
Jan. 19, 1839.. 70 Additional Convention, signed August
7, 1841 13. Venezuela, Treaty with ..
March 15, .. 74 14. Argentine Confederation, Treaty with Buenos Ayres, May 24, —.. 78 15. Uruguay, Treaty with .. .. Montevideo, July 13, —.. 82 16. Bolivia, Treaty with .. .. .. ... Sucre,
Sep. 25, 1840.. 85 17. Hayti, Treaty with .. .. .. .. Port au Prince, Dec. 23, 1839.. 88 18, Texas, Treaty with ..
London, Nov. 16, 1840.. 93 Declaration, signed at Washington,
February, 16, 1844 19. Mexico, Treaty with .. .. .. .. Mexico, Feb. 24, 1841.. 99 20. Austria, Prussia, Russia, Treaty with .. London, Dec. 20, —..103 21. Portugal, Treaty with ..
July, 3, 1842.. 108 Additional Article to, signed at Lis
bon, October 22, 1842 22. Madagascar. Engagement with Radama,
King of Madagascar .. Tamatave, Oct 23, 1817..113
Additional Article to do., October 11, 1820.
Additional Article to do., May, 31, 1823. 23. New Cestos. Engagement with King Free
man and Prince Freeman
country .. .. .. New Cestos, Jan. 11, 1841..116 24. Gambia. Engagement with the King of
Cartabar .. .. .. Cartabar, April 23, — .118
Two Additional Articles to do. do.
May 7, —..120
River, May, 7, - ..120
Aug. 28, ..123
the Attah of the Egarra
do. 27. Old Calebar. Engagement with Eyo, King
of Creek Town, Calebar
River, .. Dec. 6, .,127
River, .. Dec. 6,-..127 Additional Articles to do., November 30, 1842.