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(For Index See at Back, Pages 418-429)
THE NEGRO IN 1913, 1-60
Economic.-Nineteen Hundred and Thirteen, a Jubilee year for
Negroes of United States, 1; Statistical Statement of Negro Progress
in Fifty years, 1; Statistics show Negroes still increasing their
Holdings in Land, 4; Wealthiest Negro in America, 5; Negro is get-
ting into New and Bigger Business in 1913, 6; Negro Insurance En-
larging field of Negro enterprise, 7; Negro Potato King and Ne-
gro Farming, 8; Prize Corn Growers and Negro Farmers' Confer-
ences, 9; Demonstration Farming Among Negro Farmers, 10 ; Arts,
Crafts and Cookery, 11; Negroes Appear to be Making Good as
Factory operatives, 11;Wider Opportunities For Negro Labor, 12;
Negro and Labor Unions, 13.
Religion.-Work Among Negro Baptists, 14; African Methodism
and its work in Africa, 15; Question of Negro Bishops Stirs Epis-
copal Convention in New York, 16; Salvation Army Extends its
Work to Negroes, 17.
Edwation.-Recent Movements in Negro Education, 18; Co-
opertion of Black and White in Educational Campaigns, 19; South-
ern Educational Association Discusses Negro Education, 20,
Building a System of Negro Education in Alabama, 21; Negro
Organizations for Civic Betterment, 22; Negro Schools Organize for
Mutual Aid and Protection, 23; First Annual Meeting of Association
of Colleges, 24; Summer Schools for Negro Teachers in South, 24;
Scholastic Distinctions Gained by Colored Students, 25.
Politics.- Negro in Politics Under a Southern Adminstration,
26; Municipal Politics, 27.
Race Question.—Lynchings in 1913 still show a Tendency to De-
crease, 28; Segregation of Races in Southern Cities, 29 : Segregation
Declared Illegal in Baltimore, 30; Various Types of Segregation
Laws, 31; What Negroes of North Carolina say of Segregation, 32;
Federal Segregation of Races and Protests Against, 34; Real Issue
Behind Segregation Movement, 35; Segregation and Discrimination
on Railways North and South, 36; "Jim Crow" Car Laws as inter-
preted by Court and Jury, 38; Decision of Courts Define Civil
Rights of Negroes, 38; Chinamen are reckoned white in Kentucky
but may not marry in Nebraska, 38; Rights of Negroes to vote upheld
by courts of Maryland, 41; Oklahoma Grandfather Clause in Su-
preme Court, 42 : Growth of a Negro Nationality in America com-
pared with Nationality Movement in Europe, 43; Efforts on part of
Negro people to enforce Respect for Negro Race, 44; Associated .
Press considers the Question of capital “N” in Negro, 45; Southern
white Universities making Local Studies of Negro, 46; Conditions
in Brazil and in United States, 47; Negro in Politics and Prize
Ring, London, England, 49; African People are rising to Racial
Consciousness through contact with Europeans, 50; District Com-
missioners and Native Clerks are objects of Complaint, 51; Native's
View of Native Land Policy in South Africa, 52.
Literature.-Negro Literature in United States in year of
Fiftieth Anniversary of Negro Freedom, 55; Negro contribution to
Academy of Political and Social Science on Negro's Progress in
Fifty Years, 55: Dr. C. V. Roman's Paper before Southern Socio-
logical Congress, 56; Miscellaneous Papers by Negro Writers in
Current Literature of 1913, 57; Negroes' place in American Hig-
tory as defined by Negro Writers, 58.
POPULATION OF EARTH BY RACES, 60-64
Distribution and Number of Black People, 60; Proportion of Black
Population to White in Western Hemisphere, 60; Possessions of
European Powers in Negro Africa, 61; Increase and Decrease in
Native Population of Africa, 61; References on Africa and Afri-
cans, 62; Population of Principal West Indian Islands, 63.
PERIODICALS PUBLISHED BY AFRICANS, 64
WHERE BLACK MEN GOVERN, 64-77
Abyssinia, 64; Liberia, 68; Haiti, 73; Santo Domingo, 76.
NEGROES AND SPANISH EXPLORERS, 77-79
NEGRO SLAVERY IN COLONIES, 79-85
SLAVERY IN STATES, 85-91.
ABOLITION AGITATION IN COLONIES, 92-93
ABOLITION AGITATION IN STATES, 93-95
SLAVERY AND RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS, 95-96
SLAVE INSURRECTIONS, 96-100
THE UNDERGROUND RAILROAD, 101-102
NEGROES CONNECTED WITH ABOLITION AND UNDER-
GROUND RAILROAD, 102-106
Preliminary Proclamation of Emancipation, 106: Emancipation
Proclamation, 108; 13th Amendment, 109; Negro Anti-Slavery
Newspapers, 109; Total Negroes, Free and Slave, 1790 and 1860,
110; Freedmen's Burcau, 112.
CIVIL STATUS OF THE NEGRO, 112-138
Status of Slave.- White Servitude, Legal Bases for Negro Slavery,
112; Growth of Conception that Slave was property, 114; Recogni-
tion of Person of Slave in Law and Custom, 115; Right of Master
to Punish Slave, 116; Christianity and Slavery, 118.
Origin of Free Negro Class.-Free Negroes and Manumitted Slaves.
120; War of Independence and Manumission of Slaves, 122; Begin-
ning of Divergence of North and South on Slavery, 122; Slavery
after 1832 becomes a sectional issue, 124;
Status of Free Negro... Gradual Decline of Status of Free Negro
with Growith of Slavery, 126; Free Negro loses his standing in
Courts, 127; Free Negroes not Permittd to Move from one State to
another, 128; Negroes denied Right of Public Assemblage after 1831,
130; Schools Denied Free Negroes in Virginia and Education Re-
stricted in Maryland, 131; Free Negro from 1862-1868, 132-138;
Status of Free Negro in North at Beginning of Civil War, 132;
Fredmen Given Status of Free Negroes by Emancipation Procla-
mation, 133; Occupations of Freedmen that of servants and husband-
men, 134; Labor contracts Bound Laborer from Sunrise to Sunset,
135; Apprentice Laws of 1865-1868 and their Applicatiin to Freed-
men, 136; Vagrancy Laws with Special Reference to Freedmen,
137; Pauper Laws made each Race liable to support its own Pau-
CIVIL RIGHTS, 139-150
Constitutional Amendments, 139; Federal Legislation, 140; State
Legislation, 141; Separation of Races in Public Conveyances, 142;
In Schools, 143; Suffrage-Negro Suffrage before 1865, 143; From
1865-1870, 144; From 1870-1890, 144; From 1890-1914, 145. Legal
Definition of a Negro, 147-Miscegenation,147.
OFFICE HOLDING, 151-154
Former Members of Congress, 151; First Negro Members of a
State Legislature, 152; Colored Persons now Holding Federal Offices,
152; Colored Persons in Diplomatic and Consular Service, 153
OES, 18671904 Organizativenominaticers
NEGRO SOLDIERS, 154-161
In Revolutionary War, 154; In War of 1812, 155; In Civil War,
156; Negro Soldiers in Confederate Army, 157 Negro Soldiers in
Regular Army, 159: In Spanish-American War, 160; Negroes at
West Point, 160; Colored Officers in United States Army, 161.
Negroes to whom the Carnegie Hero Fund has made awards, 161;
White Persons to whom the Carnegie Hero Fund has made Awards
for Saving Negroes, 164.
THE CHURCH AMONG NEGROES, 166-197
First Churches Organized, 166; Date of Organization of Colored
Denominations, 168; Noted Negro Preachers, 170; Denominational
Statistics, 176; Publishing Houses, 179; Bishops, General Officers,
etc., of Various Denominations, 179; Negro Priests in Catholic
Church, 183; Religious Sisterhoods and Brotherhoods, 184; Young
Men's Christian Association among Negroes, 186; Young Women's
Christian Association among Negroes, 190; National Woman's Chris-
tian Union Work among Colored People, 191; Nashville Institute
for Negro Christian Workers, 193; Work of the American Baptist
Publication Society Among Negroes, 194; Salvation Army and Ne-
gro, 194; International Sunday School Association Work Among Ne-
groes, 195; American Sunday School Union Work Among Negroes,
196; Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sabbath School Work
Among Negroes, 197.
Education Before Civil War, 198; Educational Policy during Civil
War and Reconstruction, 201; Benovolent Agencies which co-operated
with Freedmen's Bureau, 203; Temperance Movement among Ne-
groes, 208; Dates of Establishment of Public School Systems in
Southern States, 210; Present Educational Policy, 211; Boards of
whit Denominations carrying on educational and religious work
among Negroes in United States, 213; Public Schools, 216; Illiteracy,
225; Secondary, Higher and Private Education, 229; Negro Col-
lege Graduates, 231; Charts of Expenditures, etc., for Negro Edu-
cation, 232; Finances Negro Schools, 235; Contributions of Ne-
groes for Education, 236; Educational Funds, 237: Educational In-
stitutions, 246; Universities and Colleges, 246; Institutions for Wom-
en, 248; Schools of Theology, 248; Schools of Law, 250; Schools of
Medicine, 250; Schools of Dentistry, 250; Schools of Pharmacy, 250;
State A. and M. Colleges, 251 ; Normal and Industrial Schools, 252.
Composers of Music, 266, Singers of Prominence, 268; Negro Folk
Songs, 271; Folklore References, 273.
PAINTERS, SCULPTORS, POETS AND ACTORS, 273-277
Number in each main class of Occupations, 278; Proportion in gain-
ful occupations, 278; Per cent Negroes of total persons in main
classes of occupations, 278; Negroes making gains in trades. 279;
Negroes increasing as factory workers, 278; Large numbers of Ne-
groes engaged in business, 280; Occupations of Negro women, 280;
Negro and Trade Unions, 281.
First Negro to receive patent on invention, 283; Number patents
granted to Negroes, 283; Range of Negro inventions, 284.
Negro farmers increasing, 287; Farm property rapidly increasing,
288 : Relative value of cash and share tenancy, 289; Principal crops
raised by Negroes, 290; Farm Tenure, 291; Farm Demonstration
rk improves Negro farming, 296; Negro Agents in United Farm-
Co-operative Demonstration Work, 296.
NEGRO TOWNS AND SETTLEMENTS, 298-299
NEGRO IN BUSINESS, 300-313
First Negro Insurance Company, 300; Fifty years' business prog-
ress, 300; Some Negro Business Men, 301; Business Leagues, 303;
Business League Directory, 304; Negro Banks, 309; Bank Directory,
Differences in number of prisoners considerea Vitiate compari-
son of Crime Rates, 314: Rate of Crimne higher in the North, 314;
Negro Crime Rate Lower than Rate for Emigrant Races, 315; Lynch-
Mortality Statistics, 317; Health Charts, 319; Number of Deaths
per 100,000 from certain diseases, 333; Physicians, 334; Medical
Associations, 335; Hospitals, 338; Necrology, 341.
From 1790-1910, 344; Map, percentage of Negroes in total Popu-
lation, 345; Black and Mulatto population, 346; Sex, 346; Marital
conditions, 347 : Negro Population in North and South, 347; in South
by States, 348; Migration, 350; Urban and Rural Population, 351;
Black Counties, 352; Population in cities, 356; Negroes of Voting
and School age and Illiterates by States, 361.
NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, 362-365
Educational, 362; for economic advancement, 362; for profes-
sional advancement, 363; for political advancement, 363; in the
interest of women, 364; for general advancement of the Negroes, 364;
for improving social conditions, 365.
SOCIAL SETTLEMENTS FOR NEGROES, DIRECTORY OF,
FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS, 367-372.
General statement concerning, 367-368; the principal organiza-
PERIODICAL PUBLICATIONS, 372-389.
Number, 372; Religious, 373; School, 377; Organs of National
Associations, 379; Magazines of General Literature, 379; Fraternal,
380; Newspapers, 381.
Bibliographies, 390; Collections of Books by Negroes on Ne-
gro, 390; Negro before Civil War, 391; Pro-Slavery discussions, 393;
Slave Trade, 394; Colonization, 395; Slave narratives, 396; Slavery
in Particular States, 397; Histories including Slavery controversy,
397; Economic and social conditions in South, 398; Reconstruction
Period, 398; Present conditions, 399; Publications of Committee of
Twelve, 401; Special Studies relating to Negro, 401 : Books by Negro
writers, 403; Articles in current periodicals on Negro, 405; On
education, * 405; On Economic Conditions, 407; On Crime, 412; On
Health and Sanitation, 412; On Suffrage, 413; On Religion, 414;
On Race Problem, 415.
The 1914-1915 Negro Year Book
The Negro Year Book for the year 1914-1915 has been considerably enlarged and greatly improved. The size of the page has been increased twenty-five per cent over that of previous years. The number of pages has been increased from 348 in 1913 1914 to 417 in 1914-1915. Not only has much new material been added, but the information contained in the previous volumes has been expanded, revised, rewritten, and brought down to date.
The success of the previous years has encouraged the publishers to believe that there is a very real need for a book which shall provide, in an inexpensive form, a succinct, comprehensive and impartial review of the events of the year which affect the interests and indicate the progress of the race. The Negro Year Book attempts to provide this, together with a compact but comprehensive statement of historical and statistical facts arranged for ready reference. It seeks to be at once a permanent record of current events, an encyclopaedia of historical and sociological facts, a directory of persons and a bibliographical guide to the literature of the subjects discussed. In addition to the extended bibliography of the Negro race at the end of the volume the reader will also find in this year's issue of the Book throughout the volume in connection with each special topic further references to the specific subject mentioned, so that the student who wishes to pursue the investigation of any subject referred to will find the way opened to him. In addition to its interest for the general reader, the book is also especially adapted for use in schools where historical and sociological courses on the Negro are given.
During the coming year the publishers are desirous of still further extending the directory feature of the Book so as to include every organization and every individual of any importance in every part of the country. We therefore ask the co-operation of our readers in furnishing the correct name and titles of the organizations to which they belong; also, the exact facts in regard to the personal history of individuals who by their success or by their service have distinguished themselves. During the past year, through the kindness of readers of the Negro Year Book, the Editor, Mr. Monroe N. Work has come into possession of considerable valuable material. So far as the facts furnished this way can be verified, they have been or will be used to make up the annual record of the race's achievement and to expand the historical statements. Mr. Work is particularly desirous of receiving the names and copies of the writings of Negro authors, the names of inventors and inventions, of those who are making historical collections relating to the Negro, of those who are making investigations of Negro life and history, and especially the names of all publications of whatever kind by Negroes.
In asking your co-operation in our efforts to make a bigger and a bet. ter book we trust you will do so in the confidence that you are doing something not merely for the Negro Year Book but for the Negro race as well.
Owing to the increase in the size of the Book the publishers find it necessary to charge ten cents postage on single copies sent through the mail instead of five cents as charged on copies of previous editions and as announced in the advance advertisements of this edition. Price 25 cents. By mail 35 cents. Agents' rates furnished on appli