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O R, A

D I C T I O N A R Y
A R T S, SC I E N C E S,

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MISC ELL ANEO U S L IT ERATURE;
Constructed on a PLAN,

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THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS
Are digested into the ForM of Distinét

T R E A T I S E S on S Y S T E M s,

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The H is To R Y, T H E o Ry, and PRA c T 1 c E, of each,
according to the Latest Discoveries and Improvements;
A ND Full EXPLANATIONS G1ze N of rh E

VARIOUS DETACHED PARTS OF KNOWLEDGE,

W H E or H E R RE LAT I N G ‘i’ o
NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL Obječts, or to Matters Ecclesi AsticAL,
Civi L, MILITARY, CoMMERcIAL, &c.

Including Elucid ATIONs of the most important Topics relative to RELIGION, Morals,
MANNERs, and the OEconoMY of LIFE :
T 0 G E T 11 E R w i t .
A Description of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, &c.
throughout the Wo R L D ;
A General History, Ancient and Modern, of the different Empires, Kingdoms, and States;
A N d
An Aecount of the L1 v e s of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,
from the earliest ages down to the present times.

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1 w docri D is c 4 N T E r 4 MENT ME M1 N is $ E P or 1T I.

E D I N B U R G H.
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- ** B A R north to south, does not exceed 128 German miles. Barbary. More particularly, Barbary begins on the west of the -w-4. famed mount Atlas, called by the Arabs Ay Duacal, or Al Duacal, inclosing the ancient kingdoms of Suez and Dela, now provinces of Morocco; thence stretching north-eastward along the Atlantic to the pillars of Hercules at Cape Finisterre, then along the coast of the Mediterranean, it is at last bounded by the city of Alexandria in Egypt. 2. Concerning the origin of the name Barbary, there whence are many conjećtures. According to some, the Ro-named. mans, after they had conquered this large country, gave it that name out of contempt and dislike to the barbarous manners of the natives, according to their custom of calling all other people but themselves Barbarians. Marmol, on the contrary, derives the word Barbary from Berber, a name which the Arabs gave to its ancient inhabitants, and which they retain to this day in many parts of the country, especially along the great ridge of the mountains of Atlas; and which name was given them on account of the barrenness of their country. According to Leo Africanus, the name of Barbary was given by the Arabs on account of the strange language of the natives, which appeared to them more like a murmur or grumbling of some brute animals than articulate sounds. Others, however, derive it from the Arabic word bar, fignifying a desart, twice repeated; which was given by one Isric, or Africus, a king of Arabia, from whom the whole continent of Africa is pretended to have taken its name. According to them, this king being driven out of his own dominions, and closely pursued by his enemies, some of his retinue called out to him Bar, bar; that is, To the desart, To the desort ; from which the country was afterwards called Barbary. Among the Romans this country was divided into So, to the provinces of Mauritania, Africa Propria, &c. and the R. they continued absolute masters of it from the time of mans. Julius Caesar till the year of Christ 428. At that time Bonifacius the Roman governor of these provinces, having through the treachery of Ætius been forced to revolt, called in to his assistance Genseric king of the Bocius Vandals, who had been some time settled in Spain. calls in the The terms offered, according to Procopius, were, that Vandals. Genseric should have two thirds, and Bonifacius one third, of Africa, provided they could maintain themselves against the Roman power; and to accomplish this they were to assist each other to the utmost.—This proposal was instantly complied with ; and Genseric set sail from Spain in May 428, with an army of 80,000 men,

according to some, or only 24,000 according to oA thers,

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thers, together with their wives, children, and all their effects. In the mean time, however, the Empress Placidia having discovered the true cause of Bonifacius's revolt, wrote a most kind and obliging letter to him, in which she assured him of her favour and protection for the future, exhorting him to return to his duty, and exert his usual zeal for the welfare of the empire, by driving out the Barbarians whom the malice of his enemies had obliged him to call in for his own safety and preservation. Bonifacius readily complied with this request, and offered the Vandals considerable sums if they would

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7 Peace concluded with the Vandals.

8 Getseric's treachery.

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