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word—tereu: tir is land, and tonneu are waves; and tereu is clearly a verb. The infinitive form is teru; and we have here the past tense of the indicative mood. The meaning of the word is found sub voce ter s. m. from which is formed the verb teru; but as there are two verbs, differing in form only by the accent upon the e, it may be well to examine them more minutely:—
Ter, s. m.—That is fine, clear, or transparent, a. Clear, fine, transparent, pure, clarified, purified.—(Pughe's Dictionary.) MSI ter—Clear purified honey.—(MicJiards' Dictionary.)
Teru, v. a.—To purify, to clear, to clarify; to render fine or smooth. Teru mel.—To clarify honey.—(PugJie.) To cleanse.— (Richards.)
Ter, s. m.—A state of ardency; aptness to pervade or to break out.—(Pughe.)
Teru, v. a.—To act sullenly; to grow sullen, to pout, to sulk. Teru arfwyd, sori arfrcyd, to quarrel with the victuals.—(Pughe.) Of these two verbs, the latter appears to be the one used; and the lines may be thus rendered in English:—
In Abergenoli is the grave of Pryderi:
Carrog literally means a brook; there is a Carrog brook in the place mentioned, in Cardiganshire; there is a Carrog brook near Caernarvon town; and there is another towards the southern extremity of that county. I do not therefore ground my opinion solely upon the name Carrog; there is an M in Macedon as well as in Monmouth; a Clwyd, Rhuddlan, Bangor, &c. in South as well as in North Wales; a Bryn Arien, Tryfan, and Nanllau in Caernarvon, and a Bryn Arien, Tryfan, and Nanllau in Glamorgan and Cardigan. A mere correspondence in name is not therefore conclusive in such cases as the present; and my preference for the Cardigan coast is founded on many other reasons, viz.:—
First,—The correspondence between Carrog and Carrawc, not only in name, but in significance also. The expressions of the verse are Yg or Yng Carrawc—they are emphatically "In Carrawg"—not on the banks of a brook so called, but in a district of that name.
Second,—The land broken over by the waves is unmistakeably that of Gwyddno—the coast of Cardigan. The overflowing of Cantrev y Gwaelod is certainly a very old tradition; it is referred to in some rude and ancient verses attributed to Gwyddno; and I believe that this verse refers to the same legend.
Third,—Gwalloc and Gwyddno were on intimate terms; and it is natural for us to seek the burial-place of the hero in the neighbourhood of his dwelling-place—Gwallog.
Fourth,—There is an evident connexion of some kind between Gwallawg and Pryderi, who was prince of the seven cantrevs of
Fifth,—There is a substantial reason why Gwallog should be buried at Carrog. His daughter Dwywe was married to Dunawd the son of Pabo, and was the mother of Bishop Deiniol and Gwarthan. The church of Carrog is dedicated to Deiniol, and is now called Llanddeiniol; it was natural for the father of a saintess, and the grandfather of a bishop, to desire Christian burial; and it was natural enough for him to be buried in or near a church dedicated to his sonin-law.
For these reasons I still adhere to the opinion given at page 245, but am nevertheless much obliged to Cilmyn for his criticism; and as my sole object is to arrive at the truth, I hope he will favour me with another criticism, should he be dissatisfied with this exposition. I trust however that he will not repeat the error of translating "Carrawg" twice; "he cannot have his cake and eat it too;" and Carrog is either a word signifying a brook, or the name of a place; it must be one or the other—it cannot be both; and if he retains Carrog as a proper name, he must discard the "brook;" or, if he retains the brook, the proper name must disappear.
Cilmyn could write an interesting paper on the ancient tumuli of Arvon, and I trust he will enrich this Journal with such an article.
Merthyr, December 13, 1852.
P.S.—Is there any legend connected with Craig y Dinas? There is a Craig y Dinas not far from here, beneath which King Arthur and his men are lying fast asleep, in the midst of a perfect California of gold and silver.
To the Editor of the Archceologia Cambrensis.
Sir,—In the Archceologia Cambrensis, 1850, p. 214, Mr. W. Wynne Ffoulkes expresses a desire to know by what authors the Gaulish deity, Cernunnos, is mentioned: I have the pleasure to invite his attention to Montfaucon's Antiquite Expliquee, tome ii. pp. 425, 6, and hope the following remarks on symbolic theology, derived from D'Hanearville, Recherches, and other authors too numerous to mention, will be acceptable to those who in these matters are
"At Dulcarnon, right at their wit's end."
Of the emblems of the deity, or of the luminary which, itself the symbol of the supreme, eternal, universal, intellectual first cause, sits enthroned on the riches of the universe, supplied by animals, that of the ox or bull appears to have been the most ancient and the most universal. The Egyptians consecrated heifers to the moon and to the earth, bulls to the sun, acknowledging by these symbols of fecundity the benefits both of the generative and of the productive powers of nature. To the ox they first gave a human head, afterwards a human body, preserving the other parts of the symbolic animal, and at last reduced those figures to statues, in which, instead of the parts of the animal they only preserved its progressional character; whilst in Greece, whose artists were emancipated from uniformity by the subordination of theological ideas, the sun was personified by the human face divine of the Belvidere Apollo; the Greeks retained the primitive ideas and symbols of the Egyptians, and represented the radiate head of the god of light by their Bacchus bull with golden horns. On the confusion of the words cornu and radius, cornuta and luminosa, we need not in this place dwell. We find the same bovine symbol in the Arcadian Pan and in the Celtic Cernunnos. Probably from this figure were derived those of the other gods represented under the human form, and it ought to be looked upon as the germ or first step of sculpture. The same progression has taken place in every part of the world. In western Calais as well as in eastern Heliopolis we may go back from the statue to the emblem from which it originated—from thence to the stone by which were first represented the divine attributes, afterwards expressed by that emblem and that statue.
A Rosicrucian. December 14, 1852.
THE HISTORIC INSTITUTE OF WALES.
We have to congratulate our countrymen on the official formation of this very desirable Association. Nothing now remains but that the list of subscribers be completed, when it will be immediately put into active operation. It is absolutely necessary, with the view of guaranteeing the publisher from pecuniary loss, that the number of subscribers amount to three hundred. We sincerely trust that there is that degree of patriotism enshrined in the hearts of Welshmen which will urge them, without delay, to come forward and aid this laudable undertaking. It is of national interest. Therefore let all who love Wales, its History, its Poetry, and its Literature in general, show their attachment, not only by sending in their own adherence, but also by canvassing their neighbours and friends. Were each of those persons, who have already become subscribers, to persuade two more to follow their example, the thing is done, and the first volume will be issued forthwith.
It will be observed, that in consideration of the " Cymro uniaith," it has been determined to publish additional and smaller works, written in the Welsh language, to a copy of each of which all subscribers of Five Shillings per annum will be entitled. Of this class are most of our bards. Surely their "gwladgarwch" will not suffer this list to remain long uncompleted. May we suggest that Brychan's History of Wales, now in possession of the Rhuddlan Committee, be applied for, and adopted as the first volume of the Welsh Series.
COINS FOUND IN THE REMAINS OF A ROMAN VILLA AT ACTON SCOTT.
TnE following description was given by Mr. Birch of the British Museum:—
I.—Neapolis.—Obverse—Head of Apollo, with a wreath. Reverse—Half a bull with a human head (emblem of a river). From 250 to 300 years before Christ.
II.—Athens.—Obverse—Head of the bearded Bacchus, with a wreath of ivy. Reverse—Head of Jupiter. A rare coin, probably struck from 200 to 250 years before Christ.
III.—Smyrna.—Obverse—Head of Apollo, with laurel wreath, the hair arranged like that of a female. Reverse—MPNA [KIN]. Two armed hands of a gladiator or athletae, and a palm branch. There was the name of a magistrate, not legible. Struck about 100 or 150 years before Christ.
IV.—Egypt.—Antiochus VIII. and his mother Cleopatra. Obverse—Portrait of Antiochus with a radiate crown. Reverse—An Egyptian symbol, known as the lotus ornament, placed on a crescent, and two ears of corn. Inscription—[Ba]<rt\t<r<nj[c] [KX]£oirarpa[s] [Gtas] . Kat . [Ba]<ri\£a»e \_Avru>^(ov\. About seventy years before Christ.
V.—Smyrna.—Obverse—Bust of Britannicus when a boy, under the neck 2MYP. now effaced. Reverse—A winged figure of Victory holding a palm branch across her shoulder. Inscription—Em *IAI2T0YEIKAAI02. Struck during the reign of Claudius, about forty-five years after Christ.
VI.—Parium In Mycia.—Obverse—A.I.C.V.P. A lustral vase. Reverse—Q. PAQUI. RVF. LEG. C. D. Occupying all the field of the coin.
STONE OF BODVOCUS.
"On the top of a hill called Mynydd Margam, is a pillar of exceeding hard stone, erected for a sepulchral monument, of about four feet in height and one in breadth, with an inscription."—See Camden, ii. p. 738.
This sepulchral relic, so often visited by antiquaries, has been wantonly and recklessly thrown down, and unless very soon properly replaced, the work of destruction will be completed, and another of our national relics will be lost. As it stood on that very desolate part of Margam Hill, it formed an interesting object to the beholder on the Twmpath Diwlith, the little mound where the Bards of Tir Iarll were accustomed to meet on the morning of the 24th of June, and where it is said they found the author of the Mabinogion, Ieuan ap y Diwlith. It bore the following inscription:—" Bodvocus hie jacet filius Catotis Irni Pronepus Eternali vi domau," &c.
LINES ON SEEING THE DESTRUCTION OF THE LETTERED STONE OF
On Margam mountain's dreary height it stood,
A classic monument, where pilgrims came
As erst it met the longing gaze,—and vain
8th September, 1852.
Lacy Arms.—A correspondent wishes to know if he can, and how, procure a copy of the "Inq. post Mort. A.d. 1311," out of which extracts are given in the Archceologia Cambrensis, No. xi. New Series; also whether this document differs very materially in its contents from the " Extent, 1334." Will A. C. supply him with the required information?
Inscribed Stones, Abermo Bay.—In Waring's Life of Iolo Morganwg, p. 202, it is stated—"There were lately to be seen in the sands of this bay, (Abermo, Merionethshire,) large stones with inscriptions on them, the characters Roman, but the language unknown." Can any of our readers furnish us with any further particulars, and, if possible, with rubbings of these inscriptions, should they still exist.
Petrified Tortoise.—A very perfect and remarkably well delineated tortoise, in a petrified state, may be seen at Cwmcynvelin, near Aberystwyth. It was found at no great distance from Llanidloes, but how it got so far inland, and in what age, are questions which we are not prepared to solve. Perhaps some of our geological readers may favour us with an explanation.
Errata.—Page 259, Charter I. line 8, for teneri lege tenui; line 17, for testimonis lege testimonio; page 261, Charter IV. line 10, for anuaatim lege annuatim; page 265; Charter VIII. line 11, scuario contraction for sanctuario? page 269, Charter XIII. line 17, for latonicse lege latomiae.