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“A little while before this, Creirddyllad, (Cordelia,) 1 daughter of Lludd Llaw Ereint, and Gwythyr the son Greidiawl were betrothed. And before she had become 1 bride, Gwyn ab Nudd caine and carried her away by force; a Gwythyr the son of Greidiawl gathered his host together a went to fight with with Gwyn ab Nudd. But Gwyn overcai him, and captured Greid the son of Eri, and Glinneu the son Taran, and Gwrgwst Ledlwm and Dyvnvarth his son. And captured Penn the son of Nethawg, and Nwython, and Kyled Wyllt his son. And they slew Nwython, and took out his hea and constrained Kyledyr to eat the heart of his father. Ai thereupon Kyledyr became mad. When Arthur heard of this went to the north, and summoned Gwyn ab Nudd before him, ai set free the nobles whom he had set in prison, and made pea between Gwyn ap Nudd and Gwythyr ab Greidiol. And tł was the peace that was made, that the maiden should remain her father's house, without advantage to either of them, and th Gwyn ab Nudd and Gwythyr the son of Greidiol should fig for her every first of May, from thenceforth until the day doom, and that whichever of them should then be conquer should have the maiden.”

This appointment of the first of May for the annu combats is a fair presumption that the first battle toc place on that day. The battle seen by Aneurin certain] did so; for the sacrifice at the sacred fire bespeaks tł occasion to have been Bel-tan-day;" and Aneurin, wh elsewhere avows his druidism or paganism, and cal himself “Mab Coelcerth," or son of the sacred fire, wa engaged in an act of Baal or fire worship. Here the are several coincidences; both battles were fought on th first of May; both battles were “inter Brittones;" an in both battles “the men of Nwython lost the day.

This verse has nothing to do with the battle of Catt raeth, and like many others of the verses of Aneurir forms no part of the proper Gododin.

Morial, to whom Gwallog is compared, is said to hav been the son of Cyndrwyn and the brother of Cyn ddylan :-“ Moryal Condolani frater."-(E. Lhuya

4 The month of May is still held sacred in Scotland; in that mont there is neither marrying nor giving in marriage; though but fev appear to know the reason.

Arch. Britt. col. i. p. 261.) He is identified with that family by Llywarch Hen:

The sod of Ercal is on the ashes of fierce
Men, of the progeny of Morial;
And after Rhys there is great murmuring of woe.

Heroic Elegies, p. 93. Rhys, the son of Morial, with his brothers Brych and others, are named in the Gododin, verse 49. Morial is honourably named by Meugant in the elegy on Cynddylan:

Manred gymmined mawr ysgafael
Yrhag Caer Luyd coed neus dug moriael
Pymtheccant muhin a phen gwriael
Pedwar ugein meirch a seirch cyhawael
Pob esgob hunop ym mhedeirael
Nis noddes myneich llyfr afael
A gwyddws yn lu creulan o gynrhan claer
Ni ddeingis or ffosawd brawd ar y chwaer
Diengynt ai herchyll trewyll yn taer
Ef cynnif mi wyf in eru trafwael
O leas Cynddylan clodrydd pob hael.

Myv. Arch. i. p. 160. “Manred gymmined” is a catch phrase with which the first verse terminates and all the rest begin; and the expression appears to derive its significance from the fact that Cynddylan lost his life on the race-course of Tren.

Conflict of the race-course! a great booty,
Did not Morial bring from Caer Lwyd Coed (Lincoln ?)
Fifteen hundred kine, and, chief heroism,
Fourscore steeds, and appropriate trappings,
With a sleepy bishop in each of the four corners,5
It did not protect monks, to have hold of the (sacred) book.
Of those who fell, a gory host, of the illustrious chieftains,
There escaped not from the gashing a brother to the sister ;

5 The Seirch of the British bards is not war harness as is generally supposed, but silken trappings—i, e. serice; and it was customary to ornament them at the corners with tassels and ornamental figures. -See the Mabinogi of Kilhwch, or Pughe's Dictionary, sub voce Peidirael.

Those who escaped had eager and fearful pushing.
I am increasing in marvellous trouble,
Because Cynddylan's slain, praised by every generous (tongu

The last five lines refer to the slaughter of t Cyndrwyn family, at Tren, in Shropshire. Morial again referred to by Aneurin, who extols his bravery pursuing the foe, (Williams' Gododin, v. 54); and all sion to his grave is made in the same work (Note, 133). He appears to have fallen at Cattraeth, and 1 death was avenged by the successes of Cadwallon.

The land of the Čaw is the principality. The C: was the insignia of a bard.—(See Iolo MSS. p. 63 Armlets of the Bards.)

T. STEPHENS. Merthyr Tydfil, Dec. 8, 1852.

P.S.Will any archæologist skilled in the art copying inscriptions favour me with a description of t. best method of doing this? There are several inscri tions of interest in this locality.

[Mr. Westwood has given in the Archeologia Cambrensis, 1851, 148, a very easy and effective method of copying inscriptions.-E ARCH. CAMB.]


REG. CAR. I. The three following letters are offered to the members the Cambrian Archæological Association simply fro: their relating to events which took place within t] Principality during one of the most momentous perioo of our history.

The originals formed part of the collection long pri served in the family of the late Mr. Benett, of Pyt House, Wilts, whose ancestor, Col. Thomas Benett, ha been Secretary to Prince Rupert during the civil wars.

From Mr. Benett they passed into the hands of Mr. Bentley, the publisher, and were finally dispersed by public auction in the summer of 1852.

J. P. O.

No. I.

12th March 1643. Si

The newes is very sad and of as much consequence to the Kings affairs as any accident that hath happened almost since these troubles began; The Shipping vppo wensday in the evening appeared before Tenbigh and summoned them to yeald the towne; wh they refusing, they continued before it vntill Thursday morning, and then began to storme it violently from sea with their ordinance. The same morning their land forces, likewise sate downe before the towne; and plied it hotly with their canon continueing for yť most part day and night, vntill Saturday about 5 of the clock. at wh time their shott forced the very gate, and no where else as I learne, and gained the towne. plundring to ye utmost but gave quarter for life, there were taken prisoners of them that commanded Colonell David Gwyn. Comissary Gwyn Capi George Lewis and Butler the now Sherif of Pembrokeshire. no releefe cam for want of horse. and the truth is that all the mischances hapend for want of a moveing reserve of strntgh to releeve the garrisons that should happen to be distrest whereof there was no; the Ammunitio as is reported was very scarse in towne; it was absolutely the strongest hold in South Wales, and of greatest conseqvence to the King, had it been provided for with Knowing care it was scarsly forrcable; and to regayne it will require a mighty strntgh and knowing souldiers whereof there was little afore in my poore iudgement. it sweeps with it those contreys . . . . . . . and powerful. all the armes of Carmarthenshire few excepted. and a few in the hand of the traynd men here besides those sent into the contry by M' Bushell? wh are all fixed now

tgh to rele vere was no; the Amabsolutely the

1 « Thomas Bushell one of the wardens of his Majesty's Mint He was Governor of Lundy Island which by the Kings permission he surrendered on the 24th February 1647 to the Honb Richd Fiennes son of Will Ld Say & Sele.”-See A Brief Declaration of the severall Passages in the Treaty concerning the surrender of the Garrison of Lundy now under the Command of Thos Bushell Governour thereof for his Majestie. London Printed in the Year 1647 By order of Parliament.—Tracts presented to British Museum by King George III.

were lost. The people are disheartened by the greatnes of 1 loss, that it will require no less a name then the Prince to n spiritt them, being yet for the most part (I am confident) loy: but additionall succes which threatens the vulgar with presi danger, for the most part governs the actions of the comm sort. they would heare of no treaty. at all from the Earle. wl farther resources they have I know not; but am certayne t] the greatness of events rayses men into attempts they durst i have thought of before. we. are all ruined, by this mischan without a timely reskue There is universall complaynt agaii the conduct of things, here & certainly not without cause. Seasonable and Resolved crossing of their current, would bri them to other & more temperate considerations, wh can not don, by the souldiery of these parts only. Some Ammunitio tl cam fro Bristoll and ventured to releeve the towne, was chas by a friggat of Swanleys and hardly scapte putting into a Cree at llanelly. and is safe : wch is vpon the matter all wh the countyes, have the armes & stores of both being used in the late vnfortunate actios. what is intended must be with gre: secrecy and speede; and the actio is of much more difficu then it was before. had Tenbigh been saved, the country h been easily commanded with horse but now they have the holds Pembrok Tenbigh & Haviford and by this time beleeve Carew castle wh was garrisond as I heare but with men. They are numerous in ordinance of what nature th please by the shipping all their successes were p'formed. Mariners. who being promisd the Plunder adventure boldly vpp attempts neare the water. that country is wholly theirs and t other 2 unfurnisht with armes or Ammunitio nor have the peoj will because they wante hopes to doe any thing vnder ti military conduct wch brought them to these extremityes were well if his Highness intends to redeeme this mischiefe, th hee had more particulars and sincere advertisement on eve point.

Yors &

Jo: VAUGHAN. To my worthy ffriend

Morgan Herbert? Esq". ["" John Vaughan one that will upon fitts talke loud for monarch but scrupulous to wet his finger to advance it. He served Burge for Cardigan in the long Parliament; but quitted it upon Straffor tryal; named by his Majesty one of the Commissioners to attend t.

2 Morgan Herbert, probably son of William Herbert of Havo county Cardigan.

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