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(10.) The Dervacus stone, or Maen Madoc, on the Sam Helen, near Ystradfellte. These three inscriptions are in Latin and in debased Roman capitals. The last named stone has the inscription still perfectly legible. It has not previously been deciphered but is as follows:—
DERVACI FILIVS IULII IC IACIT.
We now arrive at the Christian period, and have to regret the loss of several very interesting memorials of the early Christianity of Wales.
One of these (11.) was engraved in Gibson's Camden, from a drawing by Humphrey Lhuyd, in whose time it was used as a cross in the highway road in Vaenor parish, eleven miles from Brecon; it was inscribed with a cross, and the words IN NOMINE D(E)I 8UM(M)I ILUS, or FILUS, in letters similar to those used both in the Irish and Anglo-Saxon MSS. of the seventh and eighth centuries. Jones (ii. p. 623) states that he was not able to find this stone, and Taliesin Williams could give me no information concerning it.
(12.) Here belongs also the CATACVS inscription, carefully preserved by Mr. Price, and inserted into the south wall of the church of Cwmdu, as well as
(13.) The stone inscribed CATVC, formerly forming the threshold of the church of Llandefailog, now destroyed. (Jones, ii. p. 174.)
(14.) The figure of a warrior rudely figured by Strange in the Archceologia, v. i., and in Gibson's Camden, &c, is worthy of a careful representation, and is still fixed in the churchyard of Llandefailog. Not only does it bear an ornamental cross in the upper part of the design, but the inscription commences with a cross, which could hardly be surmised from the representations published of it.
(15.) There is also an inscribed stone built into the wall of the tower of Merthyr Tydfil Church, which bears a slightly ornamented cross, and the word artgen in very early minuscule characters; and,
(16.) A stone inserted into the tower of Defynog Church, also bearing an ornamented cross, and an inscription which I could only partially decipher, being turned upside down, in two lines; one appears to be the name LIVENDONI, in mixed characters.
(17.) The inscribed stone on the Gellygaer mountain, near Merthyr Tydfil, is, I am sorry to say, almost defaced, a party of colliers from the neighbouring works at Dowlais having, as I was informed, amused themselves one afternoon in chipping it away with their hammers. I could only clearly make out the last three letters, ini. Taliesin Williams told me his father had made several rubbings of it, which he read "Deffro ini," "May we awake." From what still remains of some of the letters in the middle of the word, I can scarcely think this correct.
(18.) Mr. Price also pointed out to me another stone, which he had found to have been chiselled, and used in the construction of the old church at Cwmdu; it bears an inscribed cross on one side, and on the other the words IC IACeT still remain.
Several very interesting stones are also to be mentioned, although
ARCH. CAMB., NEW SERIES, VOL. IV. 2 X
destitute of inscriptions, yet bearing evidence of their Christian use, by having the cross inscribed upon them in a more or less ornamental manner.
(19.) One of these is figured by Jones, (pi. xii. fig. 3,) at Ystradfellte, on Pen y mynydd; it appears to have been a square upright block, on one side bearing a Maltese cross, with three small dots in a triangle in each space between the arms, surrounded by a circle, which is extended into a narrow stem formed of two lines. I do not know if this stone be still in existence. Here may also be mentioned
(20.) The numerous small crosses and cross-like marks cut in the sides of the cromlech at Llanhamlach; and,
(21.) The beautiful ornamented stone built into the corner of a mean cottage at Llanynys, called Neuaddsiarmon. It is a disgrace that so beautiful a relic of early art should be allowed to remain in such a situation. Jones' figure (pi. viii. fig. 1) is not quite correct, nor is his designation, "a Saxon cross," more so, as it is doubtless a work of Welsh ecclesiastics, most probably of the ninth or tenth century.
(22.) A small stone in the churchyard of Llanspyddid, of great antiquity, and which is, I believe, traditionally considered as the gravestone of Brychan Brycheiniog; it bears a small Maltese cross in a circle, with four smaller circles on the outside, and one in the centre, in the middle of the stone.
(23.) From information received by me from Joseph R. Cobb, Esq., there is also a carved stone bearing a cross in a circle, with other ornaments, built into the churchyard wall at Llangammarch; and,
(24.) A stone at Penmiarth is also stated to bear some kind of an inscription or ornament.
(25.) The stone erected by Johannis Moridic, at Llanhamlach, is evidently more recent, (possibly eleventh or twelfth century,) and has been lately engraved in the Archceologia Cambrensis; but I regret that the curious ornamentation of the stone was omitted in the engraving. From the dilapidated state of the building in which it is placed, and the broken state of the stone itself when I saw it, it is probably by this time destroyed.
We must not conclude this list of early inscribed stones, without noticing several very interesting fonts. These are,—
(26.) The circular basin-like font at Patrishow, with the inscription "Meinhir me fecit in tempore Genillin," in very debased minuscule letters, and which has been ascribed to the eleventh century.
(27.) The font in Brecknock Abbey, with an inscription which has, I believe, never been deciphered. The curious carvings round the font are evidently of the Norman period.
(28.) The font at Defynog appears also to be of the last named period, but it is so thickly coated with whitewash that it is impossible to make out the ornamentation, which appears to have been partially of a foliated nature.
Such is the list of the early memorials existing in the neighbourhood of Brecon, with which a ramble of only a few days made me acquainted. It will be observed that at least one-third of the number have not been recorded by any previous writer. Is it to be doubted that the list would not be greatly increased by persons living in the county, and especially by a correspondence opened with the incumbents of the several village churches in the outlying districts?
I purposely avoid speaking of the curious class of sepulchral monuments ornamented with the cross-fleurie, as these are generally of the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. Brecon and its vicinity is however extremely rich in them, the Priory Church alone containing a great number of very interesting examples. I regret however to have seen, in some of the neighbouring churches, many curious stones of this kind squared for the subsequent flooring of the church, by which means the marginal inscriptions have been either entirely or partially cut away. Such desecration is disgraceful.
Before concluding these remarks I would beg leave to solicit for my collection of rubbings of Welsh inscribed stones, which is now of very considerable extent, rubbings of the following, numbered as in the preceding list:—
No. 4. The stone near Sir Joseph Bailey's chapel.
No. 6. The miliary stone between Coelbren and Mynydd Kerr.
No. 7. The Tiberius Catiri stone, if any rubbing has been preserved and is accessible.
No. 11. The stone at Vaenor containing the invocation of the Deity, if any rubbing has been preserved of it, and the like of No. 13. The Catvc stone at Llandefailog.
No. 15. The stone built into the angle of the tower of Merthyr Tydfil Church.
No. 16. The stone built in the south-west angle of Defynog Church.
No. 17. The Teffroini stone on Gellygaer mountain, if any rubbing exists in its entire state.
No. 19. The Ystradfellte crossed stone.
No. 22. The small crossed stone in Llanspyddid churchyard.
No. 23. The Llangammarch crossed stone.
No. 24. The Penmiarth stone (if inscribed or ornamented); and,
No. 27. The inscription on the rim of Brecon Priory font.
These rubbings may be best made by using a small leather ball or rubber, with common powdered black lead and common whited-brown cap paper.
Trusting that the meeting at Brecon will prove not only an interesting one to the members, but also beneficial to the objects of the Association,—I remain, &c,
Jwo. O. Westwood.
At the conclusion of the paper, Mr. Basil Jones observed that the inscription at Llanhamlach, "Johannis Moridic surrexit hunc lapidem," was probably imperfect. The difficulty of the double name "Johannis Moridic" occurring at so early a period, had been noticed already. He should suggest that the inscription originally ran thus: "Pro salute Johannis," &c. The peculiar blunder, "surrexit hunc lapidem," deserved notice, as one which none but a Welshman could have made. In speaking English, he would say "rose," for "raised, this stone;" the construction being an exact translation of his own (a gododd y garreg hon). While they were on the subject of inscribed stones, Mr. Jones wished to call the attention of the Society, not only to the floriated crosses of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, to which Mr. Westwood had alluded, and in which the neighbourhood was unusually rich, but to the incised monuments of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, which were also extremely common in this district, and nowhere else, and which were in every way most remarkable as an instance of the retention of mediaeval forms down to the commencement of the last century.
The Chairman read a letter from a lady, stating that the stone erected to Brychan Brycheiniog, at Llanspyddid, was accidentally broken some years ago by a fire being kindled near it, but the fragments are now put together. The writer expressed her surprise to learn that the existence of Brychan had been doubted, and remarked that his career was recorded in a very ancient MS. which is still preserved.
Mr. Freeman observed that the argument by which the Chairman's anonymous correspondent endeavoured to prove the existence of Brychan Brycheiniog, namely that a tomb was shown as his, would also establish that of a still more celebrated personage, who was also the reputed father of many sons and daughters, though perhaps they had not all of them equal claims with the Brychanidae to the title of saints. The tomb of Jupiter was anciently shown in Crete, and Mr. Freeman was anxious to learn whether the lady in question adhered to the creed of Lempriere and Bishop Cooper as to his veritable existence. The whole question is this; in other branches of history we do not accept myths as themselves being true history, though much true history may lurk in them; we do not accept the Iliad or the Nibelungen Lied as the true history of the early Greek and Teutonic nations, though doubtless much historical information might be extracted from them. Why should Welsh history remain an exception, and not be treated according to the same rules of common sense? Brychan Brycheiniog was evidently a mythical personage, the "eponymus " of Brecknock, just like Pelasgus, Hellen, Romulus, Angul, or Dan; but it by no means followed that the legend of himself and his family contained no elements of truth, if it were dealt with according to the method of Niebuhr and Arnold.
Mr. Fitzwilliams told a humourous story about the removal and restoration of one of the inscribed stones. The man who had taken it from its place, intending to make use of it in building, was so uneasy that night,—frightened by seeing something, he did not know what, as he lay in bed,—that he resolved to restore the stone at once; and accordingly he took it back to its place next morning. His conscience being thus appeased, his uneasiness passed away, and the stone has never been meddled with since.
Mr. Moggridge begged to call attention to a suggestion made in the paper of Mr. Longueville Jones, read on a previous evening. He recommended that a number of gentlemen should undertake to make a catalogue, with drawings, where practicable, of all the antiquarian remains in their neighbourhoods. He should be happy to make one. By such an arrangement one of the main objects of the Association would be served, by preserving at least a careful record of what has remained until the present time. Many persons who do not belong to the Association, would, he thought, join in such a work. The effect of it would be to aid in preserving from destruction, not merely an accurate list, but the invaluable records themselves. He suggested that any gentleman who felt inclined to do so should give in nis name to the Secretaries, and undertake to make a list by next year.
Mr. T. Allen coincided with the remarks of Mr. Moggridge, and proceeded to read a letter from a member who had been present at an earlier part of that meeting, but had been called away. The writer remarked that it was by collecting facts that geology had been established, and that a similar course must be adopted in order to make the labours of this Association effective. He recommended that, instead of theorizing, each member should bring replies to a set of questions such as the following:—What are the size and the number of the inscribed stones in your neighbourhood? What other remains are there? What are the measurements, the materials of which they are constructed, and the inscriptions, if any? If such questions were answered, the members would come together prepared to read thirty papers for one now read. He himself should be happy to answer such questions. He felt greatly obliged to those gentlemen who had read such valuable papers at this and other meetings; but he thought that the Association would make more progress if it followed out his suggestion; it would certainly collect a great deal of valuable information. Mr. Allen added that the writer was the Rev. G. N. Smith, of Gumfreston, Pembrokeshire, a gentleman who has already done considerable service to the Association.
The following members were then elected Vice-Presidents:—
And the vacant places on the Committee were filled by the election of
C. C. Babington, Esq., M.A.; M. Moggridge, Esq.; John
The motion for reducing the minimum number of General Secretaries to one, of which notice was given in No. XIV. of the ArcJueologia Cambrensis, together with Mr. Freeman's notice respecting