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men who solicit the means of having was but to turn them on the Francis-
masses said for him-all contribute to cans, whom he seemed to listen to
lull, to distract his attention, and to with deep interest.
prevent his thoughts froin resting on I was about to have returned home
the fate which attends him. If he then, but I was pressed to go on to
turns his head to the right, the Fran- the great square, to the house of a
ciscan at this side speaks to him of the shopkeeper, from the balcony of which,
infinite mercy of God. On the left, I was told I could command a view of
the other Franciscan is at his side to the execution ; or if I wished to escape
extol the powerful intercession of his from the spectacle, it was in my power
patron, Saint Francis.

He goes to to do so by re-entering the adjoining execution, as a coward to battle, be- apartment. I accordingly proceeded. tween two officers, who keep a close The square was far from being full. eye on him, and keep up his courage. Even the stalls of the sellers of fruit He has not an interval of quiet, will and vegetables were not discomposed. the philosopher exclaiın ? So much It was quite easy for one to make his the better. The incessant excitement way in every direction. The gallows, which they keep up about biin, pre- surinounted by the arms of Arragon, vents his giving himself up to his was erected in front of an elegant thoughts, which would inflict on him edifice of Moorish architecture, the infinitely greater pain.

silk-exchange (la Lonja de Seda). The I now perceived the reason why the market-place is long; the houses, which monks, and especially those of the surround them are small, though conmendicant orders, exercise such extra- sisting of many stories high; and each ordinary influence over the minds of tier of windows has its iron balcony. the lower orders. Nor should this Looking at them from a distance, one excite the choler of the intolerant would be disposed to take them for liberals ; they are, in truth, the support great cages. A considerable number and the consolation of these unfortu- of these balconies were wholly without nates, from their very birth to the last spectators. moment of their lives. What more In the one where I was about to frightful occupation, for instance, can take my post, I found two young girls be imagined, than that of associating of about sixteen or eighteen, comfortoneself, for three days, with a wretched ably established on chairs, and fanning criminal who is about to be put to themselves with an easy, fashionable air. death? For my own part, I do think Both the one and the other were exthat, if I was so unfortunate as to have tremely pretty; and by their exceedthe prospect of hanging before me, I ingly neat dress of black silk, their satin should be delighted to have two Fran- shoes, and mantillas trimmed with lace, ciscans to chat with in the interval. I concluded they were the daughters

The course which the procession of at least some opulent citizen. I took was very tortuous, for the purpose was confirmed in this opinion by obof passing through the widest and serving that, although in speaking to most public streets. I took with my each other they used the Valencian guide a more direct road, by which I dialect, they, notwithstanding, underagain crossed the criminal in his route. stood and spoke the pure Spanish I remarked that in the interval of the correctly. tine which had expired from his leav- In a corner of the square was placed ing the prison to his reaching the a little chapel. This chapel and the street where I saw him again, the gallows, which was not remote from it, height of his figure was considerably were enclosed in a great hollow square bent down. He sunk by degrees ; his formed by the royalist volunteers and head fell upon his chest, just as if it the troops of the line. were held up only by the skin of his The soldiers having opened their neck. Meanwhile, his features betrayed ranks to receive the procession, the no expression of fear. He kept his criminal was taken down off the ass, eyes fixed steadily on the image he and conducted to the front of the altar held between his bands; and if for a I have mentioned. The monks surmoment he averted them from it, it rounded him, lie threw himself on his

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knees, and repeatedly kissed the steps we are upon the chapter of punishof the altar. I could not tell what ments, I must tell you that if I like they were saying to him. In the mean- their mode of conducting an execution while the hangman examined his rope, better than ours; I am still disposed to and his ladder ; and having finished give the preference to their galleys, this survey, he approached the unfortu- rather than to those to which we send nate man, who still continued prostrate, every year about twelve hundred placed his hand upon his shoulder, and rogues. Observe, I do not speak of according to custom said, “ brother, it the presidios of Africa, which I have is time."

not seen. At Toledo, Seville, Granada, All the monks, with the exception of Cadiz, I have seen a great number one, now quitted him ; and the hang- of galley-slaves (presidiarios) who have man was, as it would seem, put in pos- by no means a miserable life of it. They session of his victim. In leading him work either at making or repairing the towards the ladder, (or rather staircase roads. They were badly clad enough, of planks,) he took care, with his but their countenances by no means large hat, which he placed before his gave indication of that gloomy despair eyes, to hide from him the view of the which I have observed among our gallows. But the criminal seemed to galley-slaves. They receive from endeavour to push back the hat with great pots, with which they cook, a his head, wishing, as it were, to show pachero exactly the same of that given that he was not afraid to look the to the soldiers who guard them, and instrument of his punishment in the they afterwards smoke a cigar in the face.

shade. But what pleases me most of Twelve o'clock struck when the all, is, that the people here do not hangman ascended the fatal ladder, repulse them from them, as they do in dragging the criminal after him, who France. The reason of this is a simgot up with some difficulty, because he ple one ; in France every one who is went backwards.

The ladder was sent to the galleys has been a thief at wide, and had a balustrade but at one least, if not worse. In Spain, on the side. The monk was at the side next contrary, very respectable people, at the balustrade, the hangman and the different periods, have been sentenced criminal went up at the other. The to pass their lives there, simply for monk spoke continually, and using having entertained opinions not cona great deal of gesture. When they formable with those of the reigning had reached the top of the ladder, at powers. Although the number of the same instant that the executioner these political victims has been but placed the rope round the neck of the very small, it, nevertheless, is quite sufferer with great adroitness, they sufficient to make a difference in public told me that the monk made him estimation, as to the galley-slaves. It repeat the credo.

Then, raising his would be better we should fall into error voice, he exclaimed—“ my brethren, in treating a rogue better than he unite your prayers with those of this deserved, than that we should put a unhappy sinner." I heard a soft voice slight ou a man of honour. Accorpronounce, at my side, with emotion, dingly, a man readily gives them light Amen. I turned round my head and for their cigar, addressing them as, saw one of my pretty little Valencians, “ my friend, comrade ;” and their with her colour a little heightened, guards do not make them feel as if and using her fan with rapidity. She they were men of an inferior race. was looking fixedly towards the gal- If this letter does not already appear lows. I turned my eyes in the same to you enormously long, I will relate direction—the monk was coming down an occurrence of some time ago, which the ladder, the criminal hung sus- will enable you to understand what are pended in the air, the liangman was the manners of the people towards the on his shoulders, and the assistant was presidiarios. dragging at his legs.

As I was travelling from Granada

on my way to Baylen, I overtook, on PostSCRIPT. I don't well know if the road, a fine-looking man, who your patriotism will suffer you to par- advanced with a good military step. don my partiality for Spain. Since He was followed by a little roughbaired dog. His clothes were of a an attempt made by some of their singular fashion, and different from friends to deliver them, and, at the those of the peasantry I had met. same time, there was a simultaneous Notwithstanding that my horse was in movement amongst our prisoners. Our a trot, he kept up with me without captain was puzzled what to do. If difficulty, and joined in conversation the prisoners were to escape he was rewith me.

We soon became capital sponsible for all the mischief that might friends. My guide addressed him re- accrue. He was obliged to decide, spectfully, in the usual manner (Usted). and gave us order to fire on the priThey spoke to each other of a Mr. soners. We fired, and killed about Such-a-one of Granada, governor of fifteen, and afterwards repulsed their the presidio, whom they both knew, comrades; all this happened in the The hour of breakfast having arrived, time of the famous constitution ; when we stopped at a house where we could the French came back, and took that get some wine. Our friend with the away, proceedings were taken against dog took from his knapsack a piece of us, poor miguelets, because amongst the salt fish, and offered it to me. I presidiarios whom we had killed there invited him to join his fare to mine, and had been several royalist gentlemen we all three breakfasted together, with (caballeros) that the constitutionalists a good appetite. I mu also confess had arrested. Our captain was dead, to you, that we all drank out of the so they came upon us. Our time is, same bottle, by reason of there not however, nearly out, and, as my combeing a glass within a league of us. mandant places confidence in me,

I inquired why he encumbered because I conduct myself quietly, he himself, on the road, with so young a sends me to Jaen to deliver this letter dog. He told me, in reply, that the and this dog to the commandant of the dog was the chief object of his jour- presidio there.” ney, and that his commandant had sent My guide was a royalist, and it was him with him to Jaen, to deliver him evident that the galley-slave was a to one of his friends there. Seeing constitutionalist; nevertheless, they that he was not in uniform, and hearing continued on perfectly good terms. him speak of his commandant, I said When we again took to the road the to him-"you are then a miguelet " little dog was so tired that the galley(a sort of soldier from the Pyrenees,) slave was obliged to carry him on his

no-a presidiario." I was a little back, wrapped up in his cloak. The surprised.

conversation of this man amused me "What, did you not observe his extremely; on his side, the cigars I dress ?” asked my guide.

gave him, and the breakfast he had The manner of this man, who was shared with me, had so attached him an honest muleteer, did not change to me that he offered to accompany after this discovery, in the slightest me to Baylen.

“ The road is not degree. He presented the bottle to quite safe ;" said he, “I shall get a me first, in my quality of caballero, musket at Jaen, from one of my friends, then offered it to the galley-slave- and, even if we meet half a dozen of drank after him, and, in fine, treated brigands, they won't take to the value him with all the politeness which of a pocket-handkerchief from you.” persons of their class use towards each

But,” said I, “ if you do not other in Spain.

return to your presidio, you run the “ And what sent you to the galleys ?” risque of an addition to your time-of I ventured to ask my fellow-traveller.

a year, perhaps ?” “Oh, Sir, a misfortune I met with. “ Pooh! what matter? and sure I happened to have to do with the you can give me a certificate to attest death of some fellows. (Fue por una that I accompanied you. Besides, I desgracia. Me hallé en unas muertes.)" could not feel comfortable if I allowed “ How the devil was that ?"

you to go that road alone.” “ I'll tell you how it happened ; I I should have consented to his was a miguelet-I was one of a party accompanying me, but that he got into of about twenty of my comrades, who a quarrel with my guide. The followescorted a convoy of presidiarios to ing was the cause of it :-after having Valencia. Upon the road there was kept up, nearly cight leagues, Spanish,

with our horses, which went at a trot, miguelet, and our horses could not pasr whenever the road permitted, he took him. The self-love of their mastes it into his head to say he could even do could not overlook the affront the so when they galloped. My guide began presidiario had inflicted on him. He to make game of him. Our horses ceased to converse with him ; and by were not mere garrons; we had a the time we had reached Campillo de quarter of a league of level ground Arenas, he succeeded so well that the before us, and the galley-slave had galley-slave, with that tact which chathe dog on his back. He felt he was racterises a Spaniard, perceived that challenged. We set off, but this devil his presence was unwelcome, and went of a fellow had, indeed, the legs of a off with himself.



From this dim dell, which gloom and cloud,
And death-black mists for ever shroud,
Could I but wander, dared I fee,
How gladsome should my spirit be!
0! who will lend me wings to fly

tall hills that kiss the sky,
And rise majestic and eternal,
The bright, the young, the ever-vernal !

Soft seraph-lutes from thence I hear,
Divinest lyres enchant mine ear-
I feel the warm young wind that brings
Me balsam on his fanning wings-
I see the gold-red fruits that bloom,
And twinkle far through leafy gloom,
And flowers whose never-waning dycs
Dread not the blight of winter skies.

How lovely all must be where shines
A sun whose glory ne'er declines !
What richly-odorous airs must wander
Around the immortal mountains yonder !
But hark! that low funereal sound
Of waters gathering darkly round!
In sullen gloom the surges roll
That seem to drown my fainting soul.

A bark, a bark appears !-it nears!
But where is he who guides or steers ?
In waverer! in, and unalarmed-
In, trembling fool! the sails are charmed!
Thou must believe thou shalt not falter,
The gods disown the doubter's altar.
Nought but a wonder like to this,
Can waft thee to the land of wonders and of bliss.



Colonel Napier's fourth volume of ledge and the actual experience of a the History of the Peninsular War has military man are almost, if not altogemade its appearance; and we may ther, indispensable in such a work as fairly congratulate the public upon the that which Colonel Napier has underprospect of the speedy completion of taken, and the peculiar excellencies of decidedly the ablest military narrative which are clearly traceable, less to his in the language. The colonel pos- craft as an author, than to his tact and sesses talents which peculiarly qualify his intelligence as a gallant soldier. him for the work in which he is en. Indeed, in those parts of the work gaged, and has been able to avail him- that are not strictly military, the coloself of information not accessible to nel is not unfrequently liable to censure. many others. He was himself an His party prejudices are very strong, eye-witness of many of the events and an envenomed spirit is clearly which he has undertaken to record ; observable in all his political animadand his powers of graphical delineation versions. With him the amiable and are such as make his readers almost gifted Perceval was a low and groveleye-witnesses of them. Indeed it is ing bigot, and Canning a species of our opinion, that military transac- charletan, whose political caprioleries tions, upon a large scale, can only be might furnish a farcical parody upon adequately narrated by a military man. the graver and more dignified eccen

To him alone can be accurately known tricities of Don Quixotte. Now, we are their exact value and their relative not called upon to maintain that the importance. To the eye of an un- measures of the former were as bold professional observer many things as they might have been ; but if they may appear of great moment, by were not, that was clearly not more which, either in their immediate or ascribable to the character of the man remote results, the issue of the cam- than to the nature of the accursed paign might be very little affected ; Whig opposition against whom he had while, by things of apparently litt!e to contend in parliament, and who, if moment, its entire character may have they had been actually employed by been determined. The ordinary reader Buonaparte for the purpose of forwardis too apt to regard a military history ing his views in Spain, could not have as a romance, and to conceive, that all been more directly instrumental in enits interest consists in the brilliancy of abling him to acccmplish his nefarious the exploits which are detailed, and object. And while we do admit that the traits of individual heroism that the policy of Mr. Canning was not are exhibited. It is for the soldier regulated by all the foresight or all the alone to preserve an undazzled eye prudence that might have been desired, amid all this adventitious splendour, we never can set down the chivalrous and to regard every event and every ardour with which he identified himself character only in their subserviency to with the cause of Spain as amongst his the object sought to be attained by the heaviest political delinquencies, nor help general system of scientific combina- regarding the generous courage with tions. Therefore it is, in our humble which he hurled defiance at a sordid judgment, that the professional know- and unprincipled opposition, backed

History of the War in the Peninsula and the South of France, from the year 1807 to the year 1814. By W. F. P. Napier, C. B., Colonel, H. P. 43d regiment, Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Military Science. Vol. IV. 8vo. London: Boone, 1834.

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