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they believed them not.” That is the account which St. Luke has given of the testimony of the women to the resurrection of Jesus. And it is very observable. I make no question, that herein is included Mary Magdalene's second report to the apostles, inentioned by St. John, xx. 18. And it confirms the supposition, before mentioned, that Mary Magdalene was not then alone, but that all the other women were then with her, though they are not mentioned by St. John.
These observations are sufficient to account for the two disciples not mentioning distinctly the report of Mary Magdalene, though they did not set out from Jerusalem until after it had been made to the apostles.
But there are other considerations, which may support the same persuasion. It is confirmed by the order of narration in St. Mark's gospel, ch. xvi. 9, “ Now when Jesus was risen, early the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, out of whom he had cast seven demons.” Ver. 10, “ And she went, and told them that had been with him, as they mourned and wept.” This is what St. John says, ch. xx. 18, “ Mary Magdalene came, and told the disciples, that she had seen the Lord, and that he bad spoken these things unto her.” It follows in Mark xvi. 11, “ And they, when they had heard that he was alive, and had been seen of her, believed not.” Then, at ver. 12, “ Aftero that he appeared in another form unto two of them, as they walked, and went into the country.” This is full proof, that these two did not set out for Emmaus, till after that Mary Magdalene had told the disciples, “ she had seen the Lord.”
And, I pray, what is the meaning of his appearing to them in another form? You say, in another dress, that of a traveller. Which I think does not give the true meaning of the phrase. Grotius Psays, in another dress, that is, • different from what had been used by him. And Dr. Doddridge, to the same purpose: “in a different habit • from what he ordinarily worė. But neither does that, as I apprehend, fully represent the design and meaning of the evangelist's expression. I think, he refers to some appearances of Christ, which had been made before that now made to these two. What can that be, but “ the appearance to Mary Magdalene,” mentioned by himself, ver. 9, 10? This
• Μετα δε ταυτα δυσιν εξ αυτων περιπατωσιν εφανερωθη εν έτερα μορφη, TOPEVOLEVOLS ELS aypov.
P Ev ¿repą popor, in alià effigie.] Habitu alio, quam quo uti solebat. Ideo napolkov habitantem in proximo, putabant. Grot. in Marc. xvi. 12.
seems to me to be the plain and evident meaning of St. Mark. And it fully shows, that Mary's second report to the apostles had been made, before these two set out from Jerusalem to go to Emmaus.
There is still another argument of great force, which offers to our consideration. These two disciples did not set out till eleven or twelve o'clock, according to our computation. Emmaus was little more than two hours' walk, if at all. They arrived at the village about three in the afternoon, or sooner, Luke xxiv. 29. As they were engaged in discourse, during a great part of the journey; we will suppose, that they made three hours of it. Consequently, they set out at twelve, or not much sooner. But before that, Mary had made her second report to the disciples, that “ she had seen the Lord.” And these two were with the disciples when that report was made. Mary and the other women went early to the sepulchre. They got to the sepulchre by the rising of the sun. When Mary came first to the apostles, as is related, John xx. 1, 2, it could not be more than six o'clock, or thereabout. After which Peter and John went in great baste to the sepulchre, and Mary with them, or after them, as fast as she could. Peter and John did not stay long at the sepulchre. But having taken a view of the state of things there," they went away again to their own home,” John xx. 10. Soon after these two apostles were gone away, the Lord appeared to Mary Magdalene, and presently after that to all the other women, who had gone up early in the morning with the spices. Then Mary and the rest caine down to the apostles, and let them know that they had seen the Lord," and they delivered to them the message, with which they had been entrusted, together with all the circumstances of his appearing to them. It could not be then more than seven or eight or nine in the forenoon. This is much confirmed by the circumstance observed by my friend from Matt. xxviii. 11, “ Now when they [the women] were going, behold, some of the watch came into the city, and showed unto the chief priests all the things that were done.” It may be well supposed, that this part of the watch, or guard, came to the priests as soon as they could have access unto them in a body, when met together. Which may be reckoned between seven and eight, or, at the farthest, between eight and nine in the morning. At that time Mary Magdalene, and the women with her, came down to the disciples, and made their report to them, that “ they had seen the Lord.”
There can then no longer be any question made, but that the two disciples were acqarainted with that report of Mary Magdalene, and the rest of the women, before they set out for Emmaus.
St. Luke says, ch, xxiv, 33–36, “ And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them. Saying, the Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared unto Simon. And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread. And as they thus spake, Jesus bimself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them: Peace be unto you."
We should now observe the time, when these two disci. ples arrived at Jerusalem, and returned to the company of the disciples, whom they had left to go to Emmaus.
When they arrived at that village, and entreated Jesus “ to abide with them, they said : It is toward evening, and the day is far spent,” or bas already begun to decline;" óri apos eo tepay coti, kai kerlikev quepa, ver. 29. It was past noon, and might be near our three, afternoon. As they were sitting down to eat, looking more directly at Jesus, than they had yet done, they knew him. Our Lord thereupon retired, and they hastened to Jerusalem. Emmaus was about a two-hours' walk from Jerusalem. They might get thither about five, afternoon, more than an hour before sun-set; and, probably, did so. Soon after, our Lord caine in. He might have been there before them. But he was willing that the disciples, and they that were with them, should be prepared for his appearing among them, by the testimony of these two, added to the testimonies of Peter, and the women, who had already seen him.
We proceed in Luke xxiv. 36, “ And as tbey thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst, and saith : Peace be unto you." Ver. 37, “ But they were terrified, and affrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit.” [Which shows, that there were still several, who did not believe bim to be risen from the dead.] Ver. 38, “ And he said unto them : Why are ye troubled ? And wby do thoughts arise in your hearts ?" Ver. 29, “ Bebold my hands, and my feet, that it is I myself. Handle me, and see. For a spirit bath not flesh and bones, as ye see me bave.” Ver. 40, " And when he had thus spoken, he sbowed them his hands and his feet.” Ver. 41, “ And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered; he said unto them : Have ye here any meat ?” Ver. 42, “ And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb."' Ver. 43, “ And be took it, and did eat before them.”
The words, last quoted, “ Have ye here any meat,” &c. deserve notice. They should be compared with Mark xvi. 14, “ Afterwards he appeared to the eleven, as they sat at meat, 'Yotepov, avakeluevous avtous TOUS evdeka epavepwon. The eleven were yet at table, or were not yet risen up from their places. There is no improbability in this, considering the transactions of the day, and the great concern they had been in for their Lord, and their apprehensions from the Jews. It might well bappen, that they had not dined before five, afternoon. Coming in; then, at that time, when their repast was just over, and finished, he might well put that question : “ Have ye here any meat? And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an boneycomb."
Upon this you say, p. 654,. He tarried so long with them, • that they had time to make ready some fish for supper, • wbich he took a share of.' But the other way of accounting for that question, appears to me preferable. “ Have ye here any neat ??? Εχετε τι βρωσιμον ενθάδε is properly said to persons now risen, or just rising from table. . And they gave it him presently. He does not desire them to prepare, or make ready for him. But he asks, if they had any meat at hand, or any thing left. Beza disputes this interpretation of the word.9 But be acknowledgeth that it is the rendering both of the Vulgate, and of Erasmus. To me it appears very right. And Beza's objections against it are frivolous and ill grounded.
We proceed, Luke xxiv. 44, “ And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was with you, that all things must be fulfilled which are written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms concerning me." Ver. 45, " Then opened he their understanding, that they might understand the scriptures." Ver. 46, “ And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day.” Ver. 47, “ And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all pations, beginning at Jerusalem.” Ver. 48, “ And ye are witnesses of these things." Ver. 49, “ And bebold I send the promise of my Father upon you. But tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, till ye be endowed with power froin on higb."
Of this appearance of our Lord to the disciples, St. John writes to this purpose, ch. xx. 19—23, “ Then the same day, at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut, where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, came Jesus, and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. And when he had so said, he showed them bis hands and bis side. Then were the disciples glad when they saw the Lord. Then said Jesus unto them again, Peace be unto you. As my Father hath sent me, so send I you. And when he had said this, he breathed upon them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain, they are retained.”
9 Postremo vero una sedentibus ipsis undecim.' (Recumbentibus ipsis undecim. Vulg.) Id est, cum unâ domi essent. Vulg. et Erasmus de accubitu interpretantur, &c. Bez. ad Marc. xvi. 14.
Thus concluded the first day of the week, the day on which Jesus rose from the dead. Says St. John, “ Then, the same day at evening, before the first day of the weekcame Jesus, and stood in the midst.” The first evening, according to Jewish computation, began at three afternoon, and ended at six afternoon, or sun-setting. Of this use of the word, we have divers examples in the New Testament. In the bistory of the uniracle of the five thousand fed with five loaves, St. Matthew says, ch. xiv. 15, “ And when it was evening, his disciples came to him, saying, This is a desert place, and the time is now past.” It was then about three afternoon. So likewise, Matt. xxvii. 57, “ When the even was come, there came a rich man of Arimathea, named Joseph, wbo also bimself was a disciple.” Every one knows that Jesus expired at three afternoon. At that time, called here the evening, came Joseph to take care of the body of Jesus. And when St. John in this text says, “ the saine day at evening, being the first day of the week, came Jesus:" he must be understood to say that Jesus came to the disciples, in that space of time, between tbree afternoon, and sun-setting, or six afternoon. And from the history of the two disciples who had been at Emmaus, [as related, Luke xxiv.] who had arrived just before Jesus came in, we bave argued, that Jesus came in at five afternoon, or possibly somewhat sooner, when there was yet an hour's daylight. And I believe, that upon due consideration, it will be thought to be a strange conceit, which has been admitted by some christian cominentators, that Jesus did not now appear to the disciples till after sun-setting, when it was night, and even late in the night: wbich is, really, to expose this history to the scoffs of infidels. St. Jobn says, “ the doors were shut," but he does not say that they were shut because it was dark : but for “ fear of the Jews :" which they inay have been all that day." " What is above said, is very similar to some observations of the author of VOL. X.