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some negotiations, so far won his respect as to be allowed the undisturbed possession of his desert. A single dun cow, a relict probably of the Fir-Volgic herds, afforded the chief supply of aliment for the first recluses. Enda's Laura soon increased to a considerable community."

In the Christian period we find it a stronghold of the Clan Mac Teige O'Brien. By the sandy cove of Port Murvey in Aranmore, at the spot still called “ Farran-na-Cann," " the field of skulls," the O'Briens are said at some remote period to have slaughtered each other almost to extermination.

Later the O'Briens were expulsed from their territory by "ye ferocious O'Flaherties of Iar-Connaught."

It is not probable that the O'Briens or the O'Flaherties were Firbolgs.

We know that garrisons were several times quartered on the islands, more particularly on Aranmore, and it is not improbable that owing to wrecks and to possible occasional immigrants from Galway of “foreigners," that mixture of blood may have occurred during the lapse of the last 500 years.

To what race or races the Aranites belong, we do not pretend tosay, but it is pretty evident that they cannot be Firbolgs, if the latter are correctly described as “small, dark-haired, and swarthy."

[graphic]

Group of three Aran Boys. We have been informed that the reason why the small boys are so dressed is to deceive the devil as to their sex. (The negative was kindly lent to us by Mr. N. Colgan.)

IX.-BIBLIOGRAPHY.

[This list does not profess to be exhaustive.] BANIM, MARY:

“Here and There through Ireland,” Chapters viii. and ix.,

pp. 103 and 148. Dublin, 1892.

BARRY, J. G.:

“Aran of the Saints.”—Journ. R. Hist. Arch. Assoc. of Ireland,"

vii. (4th Series), p. 488. 1885–6.

BURKE, OLIVER J. :

“The South Isles of Aran (County Galway.)" London, 1887. DUNRAVEN, E. (edited by MARGARET STOKES):

“Notes on Irish Architecture." I., 1875; II., 1877. [FERGUSON, SAMUEL] S. F.:

"Clonmacnoise, Clare, and Arran." Part i., p. 79; Part ii.,

p. 492.-Dublin University Magazine, xli. 1853. HARDIMAN, J.:

(Cf. O'FLAHERTY'S " H. Iar Connaught.” : HAVERTY, MARTIN:

“ The Aran Isles; or, A Report of the Excursion of the Ethno

logical Section of the British Association from Dublin to the Western Islands of Aran in September, 1857.”

Dublin, 1859. KINAHAN, G. H.:

“Notes on some of the Ancient Villages in the Aran Isles,

County of Galway."-Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., X. (Series

I.), p. 25. 1867. LAWLESS, Hon. Emily:

“Grania : The Story of an Island.” London, 1892. McELHERAN, JOHN:

“Ethnological Sketches, No. 1. The Fishermen of the Claii

dagh, at Galway.”—The Ulster Journal of Archæology, ii., p. 160. 1854.

O'Donovan, JOHN:

“MS. Letters to the Ordnance Survey of Ireland.” An invalu

able collection of information, drawings, archæological data, &c., now in the Library of the Royal Irish Aca

demy. O'FLAHERTY, John T.:

"A Sketch of the History and Antiquities of the Southern

Islands of Aran, lying off the West Coast of Ireland; with
Observations on the Religion of the Celtic Nations, Pagan
Monuments of the early Irish, Druidic Rites, &c. (January
26, 1824).”—Trans. Royal Irish Acad., Antiq., xiv., p. 79.

1825. O'FLAHERTY, R.:

"A Chorographical Description of West or H. Iar Connaught."

1684. Edited in 1846 by JAMES HARDIMAN. PETRIE, G.:

“ The Ecclesiastical Architecture anterior to the Anglo-Norman

Invasion, comprising an Essay on the Origin and Uses of the Round Towers of Ireland." 2nd Edition. 1845.

- (Cf. STOKES.) STOKES, W.:

“Life and Labours in Art and Archæology of George Petrie."

1868.

Wilde, W. R.:

“A Descriptive Catalogue of the Antiquities in the Museum

of the Royal Irish Academy.” Part i., 1857; part ii.,

1861. -"Lough Corrib, its Shores and Islands : with notices of Lough

Mask.” 1867. (Pp. 246, 265 of 1872 ed.) “A short Description of the Western Islands of Aran, County

of Galway, chiefly extracted from the Programme of the Ethnological Excursion of the British Association to these interesting Islands in the Autumn of 1857, under the direction of W. R. WILDE, M.R.I.A.” 1st August, 1858. [No author or place of publication.]

The following papers, arranged in chronological order, deal more particularly with the Flora of the Aran Islands ; but in many of them other interesting observations will be found. This list is mainly taken from the “Cybele Hibernica" :LHWYD (LLOYD), EDWARD :

“Some further Observations relating to the Antiquities and

Natural History of Ireland” (Letter dated Pensans, Cornwall, August 25th, 1700.) Philos. Trans., Vol. 27, p. 524.

1712. ANDREWS, WILLIAM :

“ Observations on the Botany of Great Arran Island.”—

London Journal of Botany, Vol. iv., p. 569. 1845. OQILBY, LESLIE :

“Notes of a Botanical Ramble in Connemara and Arran."

-Phytologist, 0. S., Vol. ii., p. 345. 1845. MOORE, DAVID:

“Notes on some rare plants, including Ajuga pyramidalis, in

Arran.”—Phytologist, 0. S., Vol. v., p. 189. 1854. WRIGHT, E. PERCEVAL:

“Notes on the Flora of the Islands of Arran, West of Ireland."

-Proceedings Dublin Nat. Hist. Soc., Vol. V., p. 96.

1866–7. Hart, HENRY CHICHESTER : A list of Plants found in the Islands of Aran, Galway Bay.”

Dublin : Hodges, Foster, & Co. 1875. NOWERS, J. E., AND WELLS, J. G:

" The Plants of the Aran Islands, Galway Bay.”—Journal of

Botany, June, 1892. Colgan, NATHANIEL :

“ Notes on the Flora of the Aran Isles.”—Irish Naturalist,

Vol. ii., pp. 75 and 106. 1893.

EXPLANATION OF PLATES XXII., XXIII., XXIV.
(The Photographs were taken by Prof. Haddon.)

PLATE XXII.
Figs. 1, 2.-COLMAN FAHERTY, THOMAS, aged about sixty years, Oghil.

MICHAEL O'DONNELL, John, No. 25, Oghil.

When there is more than one man of the same name in the Aran Islands, the individuals are distinguished by the addition of their father's christian name, as in the foregoing cases. Faherty, who is a thirteenth child, is a very typical Aranite. O'Donnel's ancestor came from Ulster. They are standing in

front of St. Sournick's thorn. Figs. 3, 4.-MICHAEL MULLIN, No. 27, Kilronan. A typical Aranite.

FIG.

Plate XXIII.
5.—MICHAEL CONNELLY, No. 10, Inishmaan.

A burly man, with the largest head measured in

the Middle Island. 6.-A characteristic group of the young men of Aranmore. 7.-MICHAEL FAHERTY, and two women, Inishmaan.

Faherty refused to be measured, and the women would not even tell us their names.

Fig. Fig.

PLATE XXIV. Figs. 8, 9.-MICHAEL DIRRANE, No. 1; ROGER DIRRANE, No. 2; ANTHONY

DIRRANE, No. 3 : all from Oghil.

Michael and Roger are brothers, and are by no means typical Aranites. There is an acknowledged foreign strain (? French) in their blood. Their relative Anthony is, on the other hand, quite typical.

END OF VOL. II., SER. III.

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