Page images

than in the type ; thus the shell has a sub-cylindrical shape. The penultimate and ante-penultimate whorls are longer, and the body whorl is much shorter than usual. L. 0.94 ; b. 0:40. This curious little specimen, out of Jar A, was almost entirely invested by an anemone, the end of the canal alone been visible. It was inhabited by a hermit crab, and is returned in a box with this Report.

In Box 2 there is a remarkably thick and solid specimen, and in Tube B, Box 3, a similar form. To these might be assigned the varietal appellation of incrassata. This variety also occurs

near Aberdeen. 6. F. jeffreysianus, Fischer. The two dead specimens in Jars B and D,

and the examples in Boxes 5 and 6, call for no special comment. 7. F. berniciensis, King. Two dead specimens in Jar C—one measur

ing 4.34, and the other 1.63 inch in length. These are the first specimens which have been recorded from the Irish coasts, so far as I can ascertain, and this fact imparts a special interest to the specimens notwithstanding their bad condition. This species has been taken in the North Atlantic, midway between the Irish and Labrador coasts, 690 fms.; in the Bay of Biscay, Le Travailleur Expedition; and in the slopes of the Channel,

257–539 fms. 8. F. fenestratus, Turton. Three dead specimens in Jar C—two of them

measuring 2.12, and the other 1.95 inches in length. During the past twelve months a dead but fresh specimen was trawled between the Waterford and Pembrokeshire coasts, 40-60 fms.

Having described the specimens in detail, it may be well to take a brief survey of them in general.

The first impression is one of disappointment at their small number and generally bad condition; nevertheless there is considerable interest attached to them. In the first place the Buccinum ventricosum of Kiener—a Lusitanian and Mediteranean form—is new to the British fauna, and its connexion with B. humphreysianum is established. Again, it is in company with F. islandicus—a boreal and Arctic species —and thus affords another illustration of the "interdigitation of faunæ,” which has been noticed by former Reporters. (Proc. R.I.A., Ser. 3, Vol. 1. p. 42.

Then, again, F. berniciensis is new to the Irish coasts, and there are at least two new varieties of F. propinquus.



[ocr errors]

Of the nine species of Fusus described in British Conchology, seven are represented; the two non-occurring species being F. turtoni and F. norvegicus.

The former occurs off the Yorkshire coast, and northwards, but it has not been recorded from the west coasts of the British Isles. The latter has been taken off the Butt of Lewes, and will probably be found off the west coast of Ireland.

In the “Porcupine" expedition a new species of Fusus was dredged off the S.W. of Ireland. It was named Fusus attenuatus, Jeffr. It has not been described or figured, but a specimen of it is in the Natural History Museum, South Kensington. In the Report of the same expedition mention is made of “an undescribed species of Fusus, allied to F. sabini,having been taken off Valentia (Stations 2-9), 88–808 fms.

In drawing attention to these rare and almost unknown species, I would suggest that if another expedition is fitted out—which, let us hope, may be the case-efforts be directed to the re-discovery of them.

That a further expedition would enrich our knowledge of the marine fauna of the British Isles, and add new species to our lists, there can be little doubt, and, with the exception of the Faroe Channel, there are no localities around our coasts possessing greater attractions than those areas from which the specimens herein described were obtained.





[Read DECEMBER 4, 1891.]

VERY soon after the regular work of the Anthropometrical Laboratory of Trinity College, Dublin, was started, it became evident that there was need for some slight improvement both in our methods and instruments.

The first change made was the abolition of the measurement from tip of mid-finger to centre of patella, as this was found to be difficult,

[blocks in formation]

I may say practically impossible, to get correctly, owing to the very great discrepancies made by slight differences in the attitude of persons being measured.

The next was the introduction of a reliable instrument for taking radial measurements of the head, such as the auriculo-cranial height and the auriculo-alveolar, and auriculo-nasal lengths. To take these, Professor Cunningham introduced a modification of Busk's craniometer. (See fig. 1.) It consists of an L-shaped portion, each limb twentyfive centimetres in length, one arm of which is terminated by a conical ear-piece of ivory, and is graduated on two scales, millimetres and tenths of an inch from below upwards—the zero of the scale corresponding to the centre of the ear-piece. This limb carries a short sliding bar, moving freely up and down by means of a collar. The other limb is plain and ungraduated, and carries, by means of a long collar, a bar equal in length to the graduated limb, parallel to it, and like it terminated by an ear-piece. The mode of action is as follows:The person to be measured being seated in a chair, the operator stands behind, and, having introduced the ear-piece on the fixed limb into one ear, he slowly moves the sliding bar until the plug it carries is well situated in the other, and then, getting the person to hold the extremities of the bars, he still further steadies the instrument by grasping the horizontal limb with one hand while with the other he moves the sliding indicator down upon the vertex, which done, he reads off the measurement from the scale. This instrument has been in use in the Laboratory for some time, and has given very satisfactory results.

The instrument which was first employed in the Laboratory for testing keenness of eyesight was the very excellent apparatus introduced by Mr. Galton. Experience showed, however, that a slight modification of this was advisable, and the instrument which I have devised for the purpose of taking its place may be described as follows:It consists of a square bar, about forty-two inches long (on which is a scale graduated in centimetres and half centimetres), mounted horizontally on a stand; on this bar, and sliding freely along it, is a collar, which carries at its anterior extremity a clip in which is held the testcard printed with numerals of standard type (brilliant), and also holds, by means of a fixed arm, the carriage lamp which provides the light. At one end is the eye-piece, a tube like the end of a telescope, but without lenses, four centimetres in length, and one in diameter at the orifice, set in the centre of a blackened metal disc, which is so large as to cut off all view of the test-tablet except that through the tube. Care is taken to have the light as constant as possible by having the lamp fixed in its position with respect to the test-card, and by cutting off direct daylight by means of a large blackened shield. This shield

is movable, and can be attached to whichever side of the instrument the window giving the direct light may be situated on.

Fig. 2.

The main points in which this instrument differs from Mr. Galton's are-1st, Instead of several fixed test-tablets there is only one which is movable along the graduated bar; 2nd, The distance of the lamp from the test-card is fixed and constant; 3rd, The disc and tubular eye-piece 4th, The shield to cut off direct daylight.

It is in contemplation soon to begin to take a series of records of the curvatures of the cranium by means of leaden strips, such as were used by Professor Cunningham in his investigations upon the lumbar curve.

« PreviousContinue »