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THIRD SERIES.]

(VOL. II.-No. 1.

CONTENTS.

PAGE

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1.-Notes on the Structure of Tmesipteris. By A. VAUGHAN JENNINGS,

F.L.S., F.G.S., Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy to the Birkbeck

Institute ; and KATE M. Hall. (Plates I. to V.), . . . . 2.—Report on the Marine Invertebrate Fauna near Dublin. By G. Y.

Dixon, M.A., and A. F. Dixon, B.A., . . . . . . 3.-On the Orbit of the Binary Star 35 Comæ Berenices = 1687. By J. E.

GORE, M.R.I.A., F.R.A.S., Honorary Member of the Liverpool Astro

nomical Society, . . . . . . . . . 4.--On the Determination of the Melting Points of Minerals. Part I.—The

Uses of the Meldometer. By J. JOLY, M.A., B.E., an Assistant to
the Erasmus Smith Professor of Experimental Physics, Trinity Col-

lege, Dublin. (Plate VI.), . . . . . . . . 5.—Note on the Moon's Variation and Parallactic Inequality. By Rev.

M. H. CLOSE, M.A., Treasurer of the Academy, . . . . 6.—The Cistercian Abbey of Kill-Fothuir. By the Right Rev. Dr. REEVES,

Bishop of Down, Connor and Dromore, President of the Academy, .

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7.--On the Book of Armagh. By the Right Rev. Dr. REEVES, Bishop of Down, Connor and Dromore, President of the Academy,

e, President of the Academy, . :

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8.- Some Ancient Crosses and other Antiquities of Inishowen, County

Donegal. By WILLIAM J. DOHERTY, C.E., . . . ... 100

[Minutes of the Meetings of the Academy, from December 8, 1890,

to March 16, 1891, . . . . . . . 69–84]

Dublin : Printed at the University Press, by PONSONBY & WELDRICK,

Printers to the Academy,

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PDUBLIN:
PUBLISHED AT THE ACADEMY HOUSE, 19, DAWSON-STREET.

SOLD ALSO BY
HODGES, FIGGIS, & Co., GRAFTON-ST.;

AND BY WILLIAMS & NORGATE.
LONDON:

EDINBURGH:
14, Henrietta-street, Covent Garden. I 20, South Frederick-street.

1892.

KRVARD COLLEGE

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STUDY OF THE INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION PRODUCED BY THE INJECTION OF WOOLDRIDGE'S TISSUE-FIBRINOGEN. BY A. E. WRIGHT, M.D., DUBL., late Grocers' Research Scholar. (From the Laboratories of the Conjoint Colleges of Surgeons and Physicians, Victoria Embankment, London.)

[COMMUNICATED BY D. J. CUNNINGHAM, M.D., F.R.S.]

[Read December 14, 1891.] I PROPOSE in this Paper : (1) to endeavour to define the physiological tests for tissue-fibrinogen ; (2), to report the results of experiments directed to the isolation of this substance by means of the physiological tests; (3), to deal shortly with the chemistry of the substance so isolated ; and (4), to discuss certain alterations in the physiological reaction to injections of tissue-fibrinogen which can be brought about by changes in the condition of the animal which is the subject of injection. Lastly, I shall venture to put forward an hypothesis to explain the connexion between the positive and the negative phases of coagulation observed after injections of tissue-fibrinogen.

Tho Physiological Tests for Tissue-fibrinogen.

We have two methods for applying a physiological test for the presence of tissue-fibrinogen in a solution; (a), we can test it as to whether its addition to an extravascular plasma produces a coagulation there ; or (b), we can inject it directly into the vessels, and determine whether this injection is followed by intravascular coagulation.

These tests will need to be explained in some further detail, and we may first take up the tests with extravascular plasma.

We have some six varieties of extravascular plasma at our disposal. These are: (1), cold horse plasma; (2), 5 per cent. NaCl plasma ; (3), decalcified plasma (the oxalated plasma of Arthus and Pagès); (4),

R.J.A. PROC., SER. III. VOL. II.

issue-ja horse pleased in ito

the quantity of ed, in rapiditshlation which on

“peptone" plasma ; (5), 10 per cent. MgSO4 plasma ; and (6), leechextract plasma. The behaviour of these six plasmas on addition of tissue-fibrinogen is as follows:

Cold horse plasma. The coagulation which occurs spontaneously on warming is increased in rapidity by the addition of tissue-fibrinogen, and the quantity of fibrin formed is largely increased (Rauschenbach).

Five per cent. NaCl plasma. 2—The coagulation which occurs spontaneously on dilution is increased in rate and in firmness by addition of tissue-fibrinogen.

Oxalated plasma.3— The coagulation which occurs spontaneously on the restoration of the abstracted calcium salts is similarly increased in firmness and in rapidity.

Peptone plasma. -Clots upon the addition of tissue-fibrinogen.5

Ten per cent. MgSO4 plasma. 8_Does not clot upon addition of tissuefibrinogen. Is not spontaneously coagulable. Leech-extract plasma. — Does not clot upon the addition of tissuefibrinogen. Is not spontaneously coagulable.

We have thus seen that of our available plasmas peptone plasma is the most readily applicable test for tissue-fibrinogen. Even in the case of this extravascular plasma we have, however, to be upon our guard against fallacies which may arise by mistaking a coagulation due (a) to simple dilution, or (6) to the addition of calcium salts with a coagulation due to the addition of tissue-fibrinogen.

1 Obtained by receiving horse blood into a freezing mixture.

2 Obtained by receiving blood into an equal volume of 10 per cent. Naci solution.

3 Obtained by receiving blood into one-tenth of its volume of 1 per cent. oxalate of potassium solution.

• Obtained by the intravascular injection of albumose.

5 This plasma also clots on dilution, but there is seldom any difficulty in distinguishing between a coagulation due to this cause and a coagulation due to the addition of tissue-fibrinogen. The dilution has generally to be carried very far before coagulation is obtained, and the coagulum obtained is in the form of the thinnest transparent jelly, whereas with tissue-fibrinogen the clot is firm and opaque. Peptone plasma also clots on the addition of a salt of calcium. The fact that it clots when filtered through a clay cell is possibly referable to this cause.

6 Obtained by receiving blood into an equal volume of a 20 per cent MgSo. solution.

7 The absence of coagulation on adding tissue-fibrinogen to this plasma is evidence that the coagulative properties possessed by such solutions are not referable to the presence of free fibrin-ferment.

8 Obtained by the addition of leech extract to blood.

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