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could not be supposed to be perfectly acquainted with it. But Mr. M. insisted, that he was therefore more inexcusable, for England had revolted most with respect to church government; and that he, being born and educated there, could not but be acquainted with the matter in debate. Mr. Whitefield told him, he had never yet made the solemn league and covenant the subject of his study, being too busy about matters which he judged of greater importance. Several replied, that every pin of the tabernacle was precious. He answered, that in every building, there were outside and inside workmen; that the latter, at present, was his province; that if they thought themselves called to the former, they might proceed in their own way and he would proceed in his. He then asked them seriously, what they would have him to do? The answer was, that be was not desired to subscribe immediately to the solemn league and covenant, but to preach only for them, till he had further light. He asked, why only for them ? Mr. R. E. said, “ They were the Lord's people. He then asked, Were no other the Lord's people but themselves ? If not, and if others were the devil's people, they had more need to be preached to; that for his part, all places were alike to him ; and that if the Pope himself would lend him his pulpit, he would gladly proclaim in it the righteousness of the Lord Jesus Christ. Something passed about taking two of their brethren with him to England, to settle presbytery there; and then with two more, to go and settle presbytery in America. But he asked, suppose a number of independents should come, and declare, that after the greatest search, they were convinced that independency was the right church government, and would disturb no body, if tolerated, --should they be tolerated ? They answered, No.-Soon after this the company broke up. And Mr. M. preached upon Isa. xxi. 11, 12. " Watchman, what of the night ? &c. And took occasion to declaim strongly against the ceremonies of the church of England,
,* • That one who held communion with that church, or with the backslidden church of Scotland, could not be an instrument of reformation. The consequence
and to argue,
*" I attended; but the good man so spent himself in the former part of his sermon, in talking against prelacy, the Common Prayer-Book, ihe surplice, the rose in the bat, and such like externals, that when he came io the latter part of his text, to invite poor sioners to Jesus Christ, his breath was so gone, that he could scarce be heard. What a pily, that the last was not first, and the first last!” Letter cccxxxix. VOL. IV.
of all this was an open breach. Mr. Whitefield retired thoughtful and uneasy to his closet, and after preaching in the fields, sat down and dined with them, and then took a final leave.*
Many waited at Edinburgh to know the issue of the conference, who were not disappointed in the event. Thither he returned, after preaching at Inverkeithing, and the Queensferry; and continued preaching always twice, often thrice, (and once, seven times a-day)
for some weeks together. The churches were open, but not being able to hold half the congregations, he generally preached twice a-day in the Orphan Hospital Park to many thousands. Persons of the best fashion, as well as of the meaner rank, attended ;+ at some of their houses he generally expounded every evening. And every day, almost, there were new evidences of the success of his labours. Numbers of ministers and students came to hear him, and aged, experienced Christians told him, they could set their seal to what he preached. In this first visit to Scotland, he preached at Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dundee, Paisley, Perth, Stirling, Crieff, Falkirk, Ayr, Kinglassie, Culross, Kinross, Cupar of Fife; and also at Stonehive, Benholm, Montrose, Brechin, Forfar, Cupar of Angus; and at Iuverkeithing, Newbattle, Galashiells, Maxton, and Haddington; and in the west country, at Killearn, Fintry, and Balfrone. To other places to which he was invited, he did not go at this time. But (having collected above five hundred pounds in money and goods for his orphans,) he left Edinburgh in the latter end of October, to go through Wales, in his way to London.
After having gone through evil report and good report in Scotland, Mr. Whitefield left Edinburgh in October 1741, and travelled to Abergavenny in Wales, where, in consequence of a former resolution, he married Mrs. James, a widow lady of that place. From thence he went to Bristol, where he preached twice a-day with his usual success. After various excursions into the country, he went to London in the spring of the year 1742, and now ventured to take a very extraordinary step. It had been the custom for many years past, in the holiday seasons, to erect booths in Moorfields, for mountebanks, players, puppet-shows, &c. which were attended from morning till night by innumerable multitudes of the lower sort of people. He formed a resolution to preach the gospel among them, and executed it.
* “ Having dropt something about persons building a Babel, Mis. tress
said, ' It was a hard saying.' Upon wbich I replied, “ I feared it was a true one, and that they would find the Ba. bel fall down about their ears. I was never received into their house any more. Thus was I called to make another sacrifice of my affecrions. But what I had met with in England, made this tbe more easy.'' Letter cccxlvii.
+ Amongst his particular friends were the Marquis of Lothian, the Earl of Leven, Lord Rae, Lady Mary Hamilton, Lady Frances Gardiner, Lady Jean Nimmo, Lady Dirleton. See his Letters from August to December 1741.
On Whitmonday, at six o'clock in the morning, attended by a large congregation of praying people, he began. Thousands, who were waiting there, gaping for their usual diversions, all flocked round him. His text was John iii. 14. They gazed, they listened, they wept : And many seemed to be stung with deep conviction for their past sins. All was hushed and solemn. “ Being thus encouraged, (says he) I ventured out again at noon, when the fields were quite full; and could scarce help smiling to see thousands, when a merry-andrew was trumpeting to them, upon observing me mount a stand on the other side of the field, deserting him, till not so much as one was left behind, but all flocked to hear the gospel. But this, together with a complaint that they had taken neartwenty or thirty pounds less that day than usual, so enraged the owners of the booths, that when I came to preach a third time in the evening, in the midst of the sermon, a merry-andrew got up upon a man's shoulders, and advancing near the pulpit, attempted to slash me with a long heavy whip several times. Soon afterwards they got a recruiting serjeant with his drum, &c. to pass through the congregation. But I desired the people to make way for the King's officer, which was quietly done. Finding these efforts to fail, a large body, quite on the opposite side, assembled together, and having got a great pole for their standard, advanced with sound of drum, in a very threatening manner, till they came near the skirts of the congregation. Uncommon courage was given both to preacher and hearers. I prayed for support and deliverance, and was heard. For just as they approached us with looks full of resentment, I know not by what accident, they quarrelled among themselves, threw down their staff, and went their way, leaving, however, many of their company behind, who, before we had done, I trust were brought over to join the besieged party. I think I continued in praying, preaching, and singing, (for the noise was too great at times to preach) about three
hours. We then retired to the tabernacle, where thousands flocked. We were determined to pray down the booths; but, blessed be God, more substantial work was done. At a moderate computation, I received (I believe) a thousand notes from persons under conviction, and soon after, upwards of three hundred were received into the society in one day. Some I married, that had lived together without marriage. One man had exchanged his wife for another, and given fourteen shillings in exchange. Numbers, that seemed, as it were, to have been bred up for Tyburn, were at that time plucked as firebrands out of the burning."
Soon after these transactions, he embarked a second time for Scotland, and arrived at Leith, on the 3d of June. 1742. Here he had much to do with the bigotry and parrowness of some particular people, and especially with the seceders, into the particulars of which Dr. Gillies has entered with fulness and candour, but which we have not space nor inclination to recite. Upon his second arrival in Scotland, June 1742, he was received by great numbers, among whom were some persons of distinction, with much joy : And had the satisfaction of seeing and hearing more and more of the happy fruits of his ministry. At Edinburgh he preached twice a day, as usual in the Hospital Park, where a number of seats and shades, in the form of an amphitheatre, were erected for the accommodation of his hearers. And in consequence of earnest invitations, he went to the west country, particularly to Cambuslang, where he preached no less than three times upon the very day of his arrival, to a vast body of people, although he had preached that same morning at Glasgow. The last of these exercises he began at nine at night, continuing till eleven, when he said he observed such a commotion among the people, as he had never seen in America. Mr. M‘Culloch preached after him, till past one in the morning, and even then could hardly persuade the people to depart. All night in the fields might be heard the voice of prayer and praise. As Mr. Whitefield was frequently at Cambuslang during this season, a description of what he observed there at different times, will be best given in his own words: “ Persons from all parts flocked to see, and many, from many parts, went home convinced, and converted unto God. Abrae, or hill, near the manse at Cambuslang, seemed to be formed by providence, for containing a large congregation. People sat unwearied till two in the morning, to hear sermons, disregarding the weather. You could scarce walk a yard, but you must tread upon some, either rejoicing in God
for mercies received, or crying out for more. Thousands and thousands have I seen, before it was possible to catch it by sympathy, melted down under the word and power of God. At the celebration of the holy communion, their joy was so great, that at the desire of many, both ministers and people, in imitation of Hezekiah's passover, they had, a month or two afterwards, a second; which was a general rendezvous of the people of God. The communion-table was in the field; three tents, at proper distances, all sur, rounded with a multitude of hearers ; above twenty ministers (among whom was good old Mr. Bonner) attending to preach and assist, all enlivening and enlivened by one another."
Besides his labours at Glasgow and Cambuslang, it is somewhat surprising to think how many other places in the west of Scotland he visited within the compass of a few weeks, preaching onee or twice at every one of them, and at several three or four times. It is worth while to set down the journal of a week or two. In the beginning of July, he preached twice on Monday at Paisley; on the Tuesday and Wednesday, three times each day at Irvine; on Thursday, twice at Mearns; on Friday, three times at Cumbernaud ; and on Saturday, twice at Falkirk. And again in the latter end of August, on Thursday, he preached twice at Greenock; on Friday, three times at Kilbride ; on Saturday, once at Kilbride, and twice at Stevenson; on Sabbath, four times at Irvine; on Monday, once at Irvine, and three times at Kilmarnock; on Tuesday, once at Kilmarnock, and four times at Stewartón; on Wednesday, once at Stewarton, and twice at the Mearns. He was also at Inchanan, New Kilpatrick, Calder, and Kilsyth, (where the religious concern still increased) and at Torphichen. He was indeed sometimes taken very ill, and his friends thought he was going off: " But in the pulpit (says he) the Lord, out of weakness, makes me to wax strong, and causes me to triumph more and more." And even when he retired for a day or two, it was on purpose to write letters, and to prepare pieces for the press, so that he was as busy as ever.
When he was at Edinburgh, he received accounts that the Spaniards had landed in Georgia. Upon this occasion he wrote to Mr. Habersham: “ I am glad my dear family is removed to Mr. Bryan's, and rejoice that our glorious God had raised him and his brother up, to be such friends in time of need. My thoughts have been variously exercised, but my heart kept stedfast and joyful in the Lord of all lords, whose merey endureth