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Boston. Introduction of Methodism into Boston. A Discourse at
the Formation of the “N. E. Methodist Historical Society,"
Feb. 28, 1859. S. W. Coggeshall. pp. 53. Boston, 1859. Sights, or Hand Book for Visitors. David Pulsifer. pp.
138. Boston, 1859. Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Installation of Nehemiah
Adams. Essex Street Church, March 28, 1859. pp. 128.
Magazine, Vol. 5, Boston, 1861.
of the new City Hall, Dec. 22, 1862. pp. 55. Boston, 1862. In 1740. " Bennett's History of New England." "Mass.
Hist. So. Proceedings," 1860-1862. Boston, 1862.
Hist. Proceedings,” 1862–1863. Boston, 1863..
Lewis G. Pray. pp. 123. Boston, 1863.
Vol. 1, 1857; Vol. 3, 1859, and Vol. 8, 1864. Boston and
Ephraim Eliot. “Mass. Hist. Proceedings," 1863–1864.
Boston, 1864. " " Diary of Ezekiel Price," 1775-6. “ Mass. Hist. Proceed
ings,” 1863–1864. Boston, 1864. A Journal kept by John Leach, during his confinement by the British, in Boston Gaol, in 1775. pp. 11. Boston,
1865. Ibid. “ New England Historical and Genealogical Register,"
Vol. 19. 1865. “New England's Rarities Discovered.” John Josselyn.
London, 1672. Reprint. pp. 169. Boston, 1865. Chronological History of the Boston Watch and Police, from 1631 to 1865. Edward H. Savage. Second Edition. pp.
408. Boston, 1865. " . 1633. See “Wood's New England's Prospect." London,
1634. Reprinted by the “ Prince Society." Boston, 1865. "Sir Charles Henry Frankland, or Boston in the Colonial
Times." Elias Nason. pp. 129. Albany, N. Y., 1865. Address on the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the First
Baptist Church, June 7, 1865. Rollin H. Neale, pp. 80.
Proceedings,” 1864-1865. Boston, 1866.
Diary of Rev. Samuel Cooper-Boston in 1709-Christ'
and 10. New York, 1866.
(To be continued.]
JOURNAL OF THE REV. JOSEPH BAXTER, OF MEDFIELD, MISSIONARY TO THE EASTERN INDIANS IN 1717.
· [Communicated by the Rev. ELIAS Nason.] We are happy to be able, through the courtesy of Mr. John Langdon Sibley, the learned librarian of Harvard College, to present to the readers of the Register, verbatim, literatim et punctatim, the very valuable Journal kept by the Rev. Joseph Baxter while missionary to the Indians at Arrowsic island, Maine, in the early part of the 18th century.
The Journal, which is written in Mr. Baxter's own hand, has upon the title-page the following memoranda :
"Medfield, 16th Jan., 1826. This MS. was sent to me by Rev. Thomas Mason, of Northfield, Mass., a lineal descendant of Rev. Joseph Baxter. Reference is perhaps made to this book at the beginning of Medfield Church Records.
D. C. SANDERS." This diary sheds new light upon an interesting period in the Colonial history of Maine, and shows that the attempts to evangelize the Eastern Indians were more earnest and effectual than is generally supposed.
The Rev. Joseph Baxters was the son of Lt. John Baxter, of Braintree, Mass., and was born in that town in 1676. His grandfather, Gregory Baxter, possibly a relative of the celebrated author of the “Saints' Rest," settled in Braintree in 1632. Joseph' was graduated at Harvard College in 1693, and ordained at Medfield (Allen erroneously says Medford) April 21, 1697. Ante, xx. 57. He kept an exact record of the baptisms, admissions to the church, &c. during his ministry, the last entry in which is, “ The sacrament of the Lord's Supper was administered Nov. 2, 1729. Total 197 times." .
He was a man of promise, and when Gov. Samuel Shute visited Arrowsic for the purpose of forming a treaty with the Indians in the summer of 1717, he selected Mr. Baxter as a person well qualified to disseminate the gospel among the aborigines of the East, and to win them to the English, as well as to the celestial, crown.
Inspired by the great example of Eliot and Mayhew, he most heartily dedicated himself to the self-denying task of publishing the gospel among the Indians, and though he had not the scholarship or wit of his opponent Sebastian Rale, he nevertheless engaged in his work with all his heart, and continued laboring faithfully until the hostile attitude of the Indians broke up the mission.
It will be seen by the journal that he began at once to learn the Abnaki language, and that he labored as he had opportunity to instruct the savages in the principles of the gospel, and to fulfil every duty of his holy mission. '
In a letter addressed to him, as also in another to Gov. Shute, the Jesuit, who was truly a fine Latin scholar, speaks contemptuously of Mr. Baxter's want of skill in Latin composition ; but the Governor most sensibly tells the Frenchman that the main qualification of a missionary to the barbarous Indians was “not to be an exact scholar as to the Latin tongue, but to bring them from darkness to the light of the
gospel." (Mass. Hist. Collections, v. p. 112.) A part of the second letter of Mr. Baxter to Rale, written in Latin, April, 1719, is extant, and it must be allowed that the style is far from elegant; but many people know the Latin well, who are not able to compose in it.
That Mr. Baxter was acceptable to the friendly Indians appears from the fact that a petition, dated at Fort George, Brunswick, Oct. 3, 1717, and signed by several chieftains, was sent to the Governor and Council, praying that Mr. Baxter “ may be at Pejepscot where there is an interpreter, for he is a good man, we heard him spcak well," &c. V. Mass. State Papers.
It will be seen by the journal that Mr. Baxter visited the Eastern Indians three several times, and then returned to his flock in Medfield, with whom he remained a faithful pastor until his death, May 2, 1845.
On the first day of August, 1717, being ye first day of ye 4th year of the Reign of King George, His Excellency Samuel Shute, Esq. set off, from ye Long wharfe in Boston about six a clock at night in order to go to Arousick,* and Casco Bay, &c. : being attended with Hon, ourable Samuel Sewal, Penn Townsend, † Andrew Belcher, and Edmund Quincy, Esqrs. The Revd M'. Henry Gibbs, I M". Henry Flint, and divers other Gentlemen, and that night they fell down about a mile or Two below yo castle, and there came to an anchor, and lay that night.
The next day being ye 2d of August about Ten of ye clock they weighed Anchor the wind blowing very fair, and briskly, till towards night, then we had some rain, and thunder for a little while, afterwards .we had a calm, and ye sloop rouled about till we were almost all sick, and especially my wife, and it was so calm yt we gained but little that night.
On Saturday yo 3d of August we had yo wind blowing fair some part of yo day, but a great part of ye day we had a calm, so y we got along but slowly ; my wife remained sick that day altho ye most of us were well, and all ye night following, and the next morning was very calm, so yt we gained but little, and were upon ye water, and 'under sail upon yo sabbath day, which was ye 4th of August, and then we had Two exercises about yo middle of ye forenoon yo wind blew up briskly, and continued blowing so till night, and about five of ye clock we arrived at ye harbour of Casco-bay, and there cast anchor. All that day we were all of us very well, and my wife did eat stoutly as well as others,
* Arrowsic, spelled by Morse " Arrowsicke," and by others variously, is an Island at the mouth of the Kennebec river, which the Indians called “ Arrowscag," containing about 20,000 acres of land. It was purchased of Robinhood by John Richards, in 1649, and formed a part of the ancient George-town. .
7 Col. Penn Townsend died in Boston Aug. 25, 1727, aged 75 years. He was a man of influence in the colony, and held many important offices, among which was that of Judge of the Common Pleas. He was early appointed one of the commissioners for propagating the gospel among the Indians. V. Drake's “Hist. of Boston," page 317.
Dunton says, "He was a gentleman very courteous and affable in his conversation.” Id. 463.
Henry Gibbs was son of Robert, a noted Boston merchant. He graduated at H. C. 1685, was ordained minister at Watertown in 1697, died Oct. 26, 1723, aged 55. His wifo was Mercy, daughter of William Greenough.
Henry Flint, tutor and fellow of Harvard College, was son of Rev. Josiah Flint, of Dorchester, and was born in that town May 5, 1675. In 1705 he was appointed tutor, which office he resigned Sept. 25, 1754, having sustained the position nearly half a century. Many of the most eminent men in the country were educated under his care. Dr. Chauncey pronounced him a solid, judicious man, and one of the best of preachers. He died Feb, 13, 1760, aged 84. Sce Allen's Dictionary. "Mass. Hist. Coll." ix. 183; 1. 165.. i
On Monday August 5th, we weighed anchor about twelve of ye clock, and sailed towards Arousick the wind very fair, and about 3 of ye clock came to an anchor before ye Great Chebeego-land. That day it rained at times : but we were all of us very well, and some of us went on' shoar at ye Great Chebeeg.* Judg Sewal went on shoar upon cousens's Island, † and before ye Governour, and Divers Other Gentlemen took possession of that Island for ye Indian Corporation.
On Tuesday August 6th, about Twelve a clock we set sail from Chebeeg Island. That day we had but little wind, and so got along but slowly, we were under sail all yo following night. About Sun rise we came by Segwin Island. I
On Wednesday, August ye 7th in ye forenoon we came to an Anchor near yo Island of Arousick, and there we lay till towards night, and then we sailed up to George-Towns and landed at M'. Watts’s,|| and lodged in his House divers of us that night.
Thursday ye gth of August was dark, and a little wet, so y the man of warf did not come up, and the Governour remained on board.
On Friday August ye gth, the man of war came up in yo forenoon and cast anchor before M. Watts's house, and ye cables of ye anchors coming foul of one another the ship run upon yo rocks and was likely to be lost. In ye afternoon the Governour came ashoar and about 3 of ye clock had a Treaty** with yo Heads of yo Indians. He made a
* An island-Great Gebeag-in Casco Bay-containing about 1800 acres, and situated some six miles from the main land.
† This beautiful Island forms a part of North Yarmouth, Mc., and was purchased of Richard Vines, an agent of Sir Fernando Gorges, by John Cousins, or Cossins, who resided here until 1675. He removed to York, where he died in 1683, at the age of about 87 years. V. Williamson's " Maine,” i. 670.
# Seguin, anciently Salquin Island, lies at the mouth of the Sagadahock River, about two miles from the S. E. corner of Phipsburg. It contains about 42 acres.
Georgetown, one of the oldest towns in Lincoln Co., Me., was incorporated June 13, 1716, and then included all the territory within the present limits of Bath, Woolwickly, and a part of Phipsburg. It embraced Parker's Island, where the Patentees of the Plymouth Colony began to lay the foundation of a State in 1607. It received its name from “Fort St. George.”
1 John Watts, who married a granddaughter of Major Clark, an original proprietor of Arrowsic, removed from Boston in 1714, and erected a large brick house on the lower end of the island, near a place called Butler's Cove. He brought the bricks from Medford. I 1718, his and Mr. Preble's, near the upper end of the island, were the only two houses leftthe others having been destroyed by the Indians. Mr. Watts's house was occupied in 1720, by John Penhallow. V.“ Collections of Maine Hist. Society," ii. p. 198; also p. 201-2.
His Majesty's Ship the Squirrel. ** An account of this celebrated treaty was printed by B. Green, Boston, 1717, under the following title:-“ Georgetown on Arrowsick Island, Aug. 9, 1717. Annoquc regni regis Georgii magnæ Brittanniæ, &c. A conference of his Excellency the Governour with the Sachems and chief men of the Eastern Indians." Quarto. Eight Indian Sagamores and chief captains attended, and Capt. John Gyles and Samuel Jordan were
nterpreters. In the treaty Gov. Shute addressed these words to them. « Tell them that King George and the British nation are Christians of the reformed Protestant religion, that the great and only rule of their faith and worship and life is contained in the Bible (the governor holding one in his hand), here in this book, which is the word of God, and we would gladly have you of the same religioni with us, and therefore we have agreed to be at the charge of a Protestant missionary am you, and this is the gentleman (showing Mr. Baxter to them), and I hope also in a little time to appoint a schoolmaster among you to teach your children; and that I hope and expect that they treat this Protestant missionary with all affection and respect, not only for the sake of the King's government, but of his own character, he being a minister of Jesus Christ our only Lord and Saviour, who will judge them and us at the last day." See “ Collections of Maine Hist. Society," vol. iii. p. 364; also, vol. vi. p. 231, where the treaties are printed in full, with the fac-similes of the signatures.
speech to ym and after a complement they desired time to consider of what was said before they gave their answer, which was readily complied with. And on Saturday ye 10th of August they came and gave an Answer to what the Governour proposed, and manifested a dislike of ye building of Forts in ye Eastern parts, and pretended y' they had a right to ye lands which the English claimed. The Governour told them ye what was their own they should peaceably and quietly possess, but what ye English had purchased they would hold and improve as they saw meet, only the Indians might have liberty to fish, and fowl, and hunt on ye lands belonging to ye English, at length ye Indians broke away disorderly, and in an ill humour. The Governour was resolved not to buckle to them, and on ye Lords Day went aboard and acted as if he were going away, whereupon the Indians quickly sent on board and desired to speak with ye Governour before he went away, and in answer to their desire the Governoúr came ashoar and in ye evening they came to him, and declared ye they were sorry for what had happened, and manifested their willingnesse yt the English sho do what they would with their lands, and in regard of Forts, &c.: notwithstanding a scurrillous Letter sent by Sabastian Ralle* y* French Jesuit to the Governour, wherein he declared yt what the English had said concerning ye French Kings resigning ye lands in new england to yo English had been reported to ye Governour of Canada, and he said yt it was false, and he would assist ye Indians in defending of these lands.
On Monday ye 12 of August, yo Indians Signed Articles of agreement which was a confirmation of what they had before done at former Treaties, and they manifested a desire y the English might peaceably enjoy all their lands, and ye they might live in friendship with ye English as long as the sun and moon endured having ye day before made a Present of Two Wampum Belts. After all was concluded the young Indians came on shoar with their arms, and honoured ye Governour with several volleys, and diverted him with a dance. This day Capt." Belcher on board his sloop having Coll: Quincey on board, M'. Gibbs, M". Harris, Capt" Chambers, and divers others weighed anchor, and set sail for Boston.
On Tuesday August ye 13th, The Governour in ye man of war and Capt: Wier, who had on board his sloop Samuel Sewal, and Penn Townsend, Esq", M". Flint, and divers others weighed anchor, and sailed for Boston. This Day uncle Minot, † M'. Watts and his wife,
* Sebastian Rale, called by the English Rallé and Rasles, the learned French Jesuit missionary to the Abnakis at Norridgewock, or Narantsouak, was killed at that place, with some 30 of the natives, Aug. 23, 1724. He labored as a missionary among the Abnakis about 26 years; conforming to their modes of life, and mastering their difficult language, so that he came at length to exercise a powerful religious and political influence over them, and thus to render himself peculiarly obnoxious to the English settlers. He left a dictionary of the Abnaki language, which is now in the library of Harvard College. It is a quarto vol. of some 500 pages, and is invaluable to the student of Ethnology. There is a very pleasant story of Rale's mission in the" Atlantic Souvenir" for 1829, entitled- Narantsauk."
Rale's Indian village at Norridgewock was at that beautiful place now called "Indian Old Point." A monument was erected over his grave, Aug. 23, 1833, twenty feet in height, inclusive of an iron cross by which it is surmounted. A good life of Rale is now a desideratam. V. “Lettres Edifiantes.” Drake's "Book of the Indians," Bk. iii. p. 127, and Life of Rale, by Dr. Convers Francis; also, Memoir of Father Rasles, by Rev. T. M. Harris, D.D., Mass. Hist. Coll., 2d Series, vol. viii. p. 250.
+ John Minot, son of Stephen, was born Dec. 27, 1690, and died at Brunswick, Jan. 11, 1764. [Ante, i. 174.]