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B.C. Pharoah, in order to put a stop to the Hebrew population, Exod ii.
issues a decree, that all the male children of the Israelites
1571 shall be drowned in the Nile; in consequence of which, Mo-
ses is concealed in an ark of bulrushes, among the flags that
grew on the banks of that river; and Providence so ordered
events, that Pharoah's daughter going to the spot to bathe,
finds the child, which being very beautiful, she adopts for
her own, and has him, as such, educated in all the learning
of the Egyptians.
1531 Moses, at forty years of age, slays an Egyptian who com- 11.
mitted an assault upon a Hebrew. In consequence of which,
he is obliged to flee into the land of Midian, where he mar-
ries a daughter of Jethro, a priest of that country, and
abides there forty years.
1491 At about eighty years old, the Lord appears to Moses, Exod. E
while tending Jethru's sheep, and sends him and his brother 1, &
Aaron back to Egypt, to deliver Israel, by a train of the
most splendid miracles.
Moses and Aaron having delivered the message received Exod. f.
from the God of Israel, confirm it before Pharoah by va-
rious miracles, which are opposed by the sorceries of his
magicians. At length, by ten heavy plagues upon the
Egyptians, Pharoah and his people are at last compelled to
consent to their departure, and even urge them to depart.
§ IV. FROM THE EXODUS, OR DEPARTURE OUT OF
EGYPT, TO THE DEATII OF MOSES.
Upon the 14th of the first month (answering to the 4th of Exade
our May), the Passover is instituted; and on the night fol.
lowing, the first-born being slain in all the families of the
Egyptians, Pharoah and his people arise hastily in the night,
and drive them out of the land, even 600,000 men, beside
children, with all their flocks and herds, and other property,
and a mixed multitude of followers, who voluntarily accom.
pany them. Then by slow marches, conducted by a mi-
raculous pillar of fire and of cloud, they arrive at the border
of the Red Sea.
Pharoah, recovering from his panic, and repenting of Exod.
having consented to their departure, follows them with all
his host, and comes up with them; but the God of Israel,
by throwing between them and Pharoah his dense pillar of
cloud, hides them effectually from him, while the light and
fire on the other side of the cloud direct their way. Coming
to the borders of the sea, Moses, by his rod, divides for
them a way by which they pass safely through the water;
but no sooner are Israel arrived on the other side, than,
by the same means, the sea is brought back upon Pharoah,
and drowns both him and all his hosts; upon which Israel Ed.
sing an ode of praise and triumph, composed by Moses on
B.C. It was but a month from this time (answering to our | Exod. xvi,
June 4), that the Israelites came to the wilderness of Sin, and
1491 there murmured against God and their leaders, for want of
food. In the eventide, God sends them quails (a kind of
winged fowl), and the next morning rains upon them manna
from the clouds--and thus were they miraculously supplied
with food for forty years.
At Rephidim, which seems to have been their next en- Exod. xvii.
campment, Israel murmur again for want of water; and 17.
Moses, by divine direction, gives them water from the rock.
Immediately after this, the Amalekites fall upon the rear 8-16.
of the camp, but are discomfited by Joshua, whilst Moses
holds up his hands to God in prayer for them.
The moral law of the Ten Commandments delivered from Exod. xx.
Mount Sinai, with great and awful solemnity.
Various other laws, ritual and political, are delivered by Exod. xxi.
the hand of Moses, in the most solemn manner, to which
the people unanimously promise their obedience, and ratify
their promises by burnt-offerings and peace-offerings.
Moses and the elders admitted into the divine presence,
on the top of Sinai, where the former continues forty days
without food, receiving laws and regulations for their public
In the six following chapters, Moses receives directions Exod. xxv.
for building and furnishing the tabernacle, during which to xxxi.
time the people of Israel, supposing that they had lost Mo- Exod.xxxii.
ses, make themselves a molten calf (perhaps taken from the
form of the cherubim], as a medium of their worship.
God informs Moses of this act of rebellion and idolatry,
and threatens to destroy them; but Moses pleads earnestly
un their behalf, and is sent hastily down, with the tables
of stone in his hands as inscribed by God himself, to put
an end to these transactions.
Moses finding them engaged in keeping a festival to their 15-19.
idol, and that his brother Aaron had united in the idolatry,
in a fit of grief and anger casts thein from his hands, and
breaks them at the foot of the mountain; for which the Jews
keep a solemn fast to the present day.
Moses, having defaced and burnt the idol, orders military 20-35.
execution on the idolaters, as guilty of a capital offence, and
3000 of them fall sacrifices to their crime.
After this, God commands Moses to prepare other tables Exodus
of stone, and to bring them into the mount to be inscribed.
Moses does so, and has a fresh display of the divine glory,
and God's laws and covenant are renewed.
In the first six months of this year, the Tabernacle and Exod. xl.
its furniture are completed. The Tabernacle is then set up
and anointed; also Aaron and his sons are consecrated for
Nadab and Abihu are struck dead by fire from heaven, Levit. x.
for offering incense with strange fire, contrary to the law.
The princes of the tribes present their offerings towards Num. vii.
B.C. the dedication of the Tabernacle; and God speaketh unto
w Moses from the mercy-seat.
1490 The Passover enjoined. A second time allowed for those Nun.is.
who could not observe the first.
Jethru (called also Hobab) brings his daughter Zipporah, Exod. xviä.
with her two sons, Gershon and Eliezer, who were left
with him, to his son-in-law Moses ; and, having congratu-
lated him and the people on their deliverance from bondage,
openly avows his faith in the God of Israel. By his advice,
Moses appoints magistrates to assist him in the decision of
Moses still complains of the weight of government, and Num. xi.
God appoints him a court of seventy elders to assist him.
The people having lived lately, as it should seem, almost
entirely upon manna, now hanker after flesh, the more (as
it should seem) from the apparent impossibility of procuring
it: the Almighty, however, to display his power, sends theni
a flock of quails, of which they eat with su much eagerness,
and to so great excess, that it produces a pestilence amongst
them, and many die and are there buried.
Aaron and his sister Miriam raise a sedition against Mo- Num. sü.
ses,' but God rebukes them, and justifies him.
From Kadesh Barnea, in the wilderness of Paran, twelve Num. siž.
men are sent as spies to view the land of Canaan, who, on
their return, bring, suspended on a branch between two, a
cluster of the grapes, which appears to have been of extra-
ordinary size, with pomegranates and figs: at the same
time, ten of them represent the inhabitants as giants, and
the cities as very strong; and, therefore, utterly discourage
the Israelites from attempting to subdue them: but Jo-
shua and Caleb, the two faithful spies, animate the peo-
ple to go up at once; and, God being with them, they
make no doubt but they shall succeed. The people, how-
ever, murmur, and refuse to go, in consequence of which Numb. 17.
they are condemned to wander forty years in the wilderness,
till all that generation should die, except the two faithful
spies just mentioned. A few of the people then change
their mind; and, venturing upon the attack without a di-
vine sanction, are defeated and slain.
1489 In this part of the wilderness they continue many days, Deut.
and perhaps some years, for we read of seventeen encamp-
ments only during thirty-seven years. And it was here, Num. svi.
probably, that the insurrection occurred, of Korah, Dathan,
and Abiram, who were swallowed up, with all their com-
pany, by earthquake; and the discontents afterwards rising
on account of this judgment, produced a plague far more
The people come to the wilderness of Zin, in the begin- Nuid, 11. I.
ning of the fortieth year after their leaving Egypt. Here
Miriam died; and a few months after, Aaron, her brother,
died, on Mount Hor, aged 123; and was succeeded by his 23
B.C. Here also, not only do the people murmur again for want | Numbers
~ of water, but Moses is guilty of speaking “unadvisedly with
1452 bis lips," in striking the rock to produce it for them. The Ps. cvi. 33.
people are punished with fiery flying serpents, and saved Num. xxi.
by looking to a brazen one.
About the end of this year, all those who had been pro- 21-35.
hibited from entering Canaan being dead, the Israelites pass
over Zared, and come to Mount Pisgah ; from whence they
send messengers to Sihon, king of the Amorites, requesting
a passage through his country: but he sends an army to at-
tack them, as does Оg, king of Basan; both, however, are
defeated, and their land possessed by Israel.
The Israelites then encamp in the plains of Moab, when Num. xxii.
Balak, the king, sends for Balaam to come and curse Israel,
which he appears willing to do, but is prevented, and com-
pelled to bless them. But by his wicked advice, the Moabitish
women are employed to seduce Israel to idolatry, which,
by the judgment of God, costs the death of 24,000 persons.
In the plain of Moab, by divine command, Moses numbers Num, xxvi.
the people, from twenty years old and upward, being 601,730,
besides 23,000 Levites; and orders are given for parting
the land by lot among them.
The case of the daughters of Zelophehad, and the law of Numbers
Moses drawing near his end, after blessing the tribes by
the spirit of prophecy, ascends Mount Nebo, t view the Deut.xxvii.
promised land, and there dying, at the age of 120, is suc-
ceeded by Joshua.
Here ends the history of the Pentateuch, or five Books of Moses,
containing (according to our translators) the history of nearly 2553
years from the creation; or, according to Dr. Hales, of 3803.
The Book of Joshua begins in thc 4 Ist year after the Exodus.
Ş Y. FROM THE DEATH OF MOSES TO THE APPOINTMENT
OF SAUL AS KING,
Joshua being confirmed in his government, sends spies to Josh. ii,
Jericho, who are received, and carefully preserved, by
Upon the tenth day of the first month (answering to April Josh, iii.
30), Joshua and the Israelites pass dry-shod through the
Jordan, the waters being miraculously divided for them.
Next day, the rite of circumcision is renewed ; and three
days after this, is celebrated the first passover in the land of
Canaan. From this time the daily manna ceaseth.
Jericho being surrounded seven days successively by the Josli. yi,
priests bearing the ark, is entered upon the last, by the walls
falling down flat; and the inhabitants are put to the sword —
except Rahab and her family.
Soon after this, the Israelites are smitten before Ai, on Josh, vii.
account of Achan's sin, on the discovery of which he is
stoned and burned, with all his family and property. After
this, Ai is taken by ambushment, and utterly destroyed.
B.C. The blessings and curses of the law recited on mounts | Josh. vü.
w Gerizim and Ebal.
1451 The kings of Canaan combine against Israel, only the Josh. il.
Gibeonites, by a crafty league, save their lives, but are de-
voted to the menial service of the tabernacle.
Five kings of Canaan besiege Gibeon, but Joshua raises
the siege, and pursues them to destruction, the sun and
moon standing still, until his victory is complete.
1450 From the autumn of this year, the Israelites till the land Exod. tü.
of Canaan, and from this time the Sabbatical years are
1445 Joshua, now grown old, is commanded to divide all the Josh. siii.
land, west of Jordan, among the tribes not yet provided for.
The remaining kings of Canaan, with whom Joshua had Josh...
now warred six years, unite all their forces, but Joshua de-
feats them by stratagem, and thus obtains possession of their
He next proceeds to root out the giants from the hill
countries, and having got the whole land (with some excep-
tions) into his possession, divides it among the tribes, and Josh. If.
the land has rest from war.
1444 The first Sabbatical year, whence the Jubilee years are
reckoned, every fiftieth year.
This year the tabernacle is set up in Shilo (a city of Josh. sviz.
Ephraim), where it continued 328 years.
1443 The tribes of Reuben, Gad, and the half tribe of Manasseh, Josb. xxi.
are sent back to their possessions on the other side of Jordan; Josh. sz.
after which, Joshua gathers together all Israel, exhorts Josh. I.it.
them to obedience, briefly recites God's benefits, renews the
covenant between them and God, and dies at 110 years old.
1413 After the decease of Joshua, and the elders who outlived Jadges i.
him, there succeeds a generation of men, who, forgetful of
the divine benefits, marry with the remnant of the idola-
ters, and worship their idols. This introduces a system of iii. 1, &c.
anarchy and confusion, in which every one does “what is
right in his own eyes ;” and thus originated all the crimes
and disorders related in the five last chapters of the Book Judy. svä
of Judges; namely, the idolatry of Micah, and of the chil-
dren of Dan, &c. at which the Almighty being highly pro-
voked, gave them up into the hands of Cushan, King of Judg. i. 12.
Mesopotamia; this lasted, however, for eight years only. 13.
1405 Othniel, son-in-law to Caleb, defeats Cushan, avenges Judg. ü.
Israel, and gives the land rest forty years from that time.
1343 Othniel dying, the people again fall into sin, and are
given into the hand of Eglon, king of Moab, eighteen years;
1325 but Ehud avenges Israel by stabbing Eglon, and the land
has another forty years rest and peace,
After the death of Ehud, Israel relapse to their old sin, Judg.is. "
1305 are given into the hands of Jabin, king of Canaan, twenty
years ; but are rescued by Deborah and Barak, and again
enjoy a similar interval of rest.
1245! Israel again sinning, are delivered into the hands of the vi