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JEWISH MONIES, WEIGHTS, AND MEASURES.
Chiefly from Mr. Horne's Critical Introduction, Vol. III. p. 354.
A Shekel of Silver
0 Ditto of Gold
1 16 A Drachm_(silver)
0 A Bekah, Didrachma, or Half-shekel
0 1 A Gerah (1-20th of ditto) about
0 A Maneh, or Mina (50 shekels)
14 A Talent of Silver
342 3 Ditto of Gold
5475 Silver is here reckoned at 5s., and Gold at 41., per Oz. WEIGHTS.TROY.
Ib. oz. dwts. grs. A Gerah
0 A Shekel (20 gerahs)
10 A Maneh (60 shekels)
2 6 0 A Talent (50 manebs)
REDUCED TO ENGLISH WINE MEASURE.
galls qts. pts. A Log (1-72d of an ephah) about
A Cab (1-18th ditto)
An Omer (1-10th ditto)
A Hin (1-6th ditto)
1 1 A Seah (1-3d ditto)
2 An Ephah, or Bath..
7 2 An Homer (Chomah), or Cor
75 2 1 *** Carefully distinguish between an Omer and a Homer, which contains 100 Omers. DRY, OR CORN MEASURE.
pks. gals. pts A Cab, nearly..
0 3 An Omer (or Gomer)
0 5 A Seab
1 0 1 An Ephah
3 A Letech, or Half. homer
16 0 A Homer, or Cor
32 0 1
fly copied from the Index affixed to our Quarto Bibles, by anthority, according to
the Chronology of Archbishop Usher, with some Additions and Corrections from
other Authorities, particularly those of Dr. A. CLARKE, Dr. W. Hales, and the
Rev. T. H. HORNE,
Of all the studies connected with Scripture, Chronology
is the most perplexing; and one chief difficulty arises from
the uncertain length of years, whether solar or lunar, and
from the arbitrary manner in which the ancients sometimes
introduced intercalary days or months, to make their Calen-
dars agree with the course of Nature. The author has deeply
felt this, in going through the history of the Old Testament,
the prophetic writings, and particularly the book of the
Apocalypse. The Chronology of our authorised Bibles, as
already remarked, is founded upon the system of Archbi-
shop Usher, which was considered as the best then extant,
and was founded on the Hebrew Bible. The Septuagint
Version and Josephus differ so widely from that account,
that learned men have studied varivus methods to reconcile
them, but with very partial and dubious success.
In our Introduction to the Book of Genesis, we have remarked
the great difference which exists between the chronological reckon.
ings of the Jews, the Samaritans, and the Septuagint Version. Dr.
Kennicott charges the former with deducting 100 years from the
lives of six Patriarchs before the flood, and seven after, making a
difference of 1300 years. (See his Gen. Dissert. pp. 32—46; or
Remarks on Select Passages, 20, 21.) That such a difference does
subsist, cannot be denied; and those who do not admit this deduc-
tion, accuse the translators of the Septuagint, with having added the
like number of years which the others are charged with subtract-
ing. The difference cannot be accidental. Those who wish to pursue
the subject critically, and have tine so to do, will do well to con-
sult the learned Commentary of Dr. A. Clarke; or the “New Ana-
lysis of Chronology,” by Dr. W. Hales, in 3 vols. 410. We feel it
our duty to name the facts, because their concealment might have
the appearance of disingenuity, and prejudice our cause; but
having no opportunity to enter into such abstruse inquiries, we
are happy to know, that such questions do not affect any one fact,
or doctrine, or precept, of Christianity.
In the Chronological Index which follows, the Reader is re-
quested to remark, that the years in the first margin of our Chro-
pology refer to the time before Christ was born-not, indeed,
the exact year of his birth, but that called commonly Anno Do-
mini l-when he was four years old. See our Chronological Index
the New Testament.
Though this Index is taken chiefly from the Bible Index, it
is in some cases abridged, in others enlarged, and in many in-
stances re-writteil. Both the dates and texts have been examined,
and in many instances corrected. They have also been compared
with the chronological notes which we have prefixed to several of
the historical books.
As we may have occasion to refer to what is called the Julian
Period, it may be here proper to apprize our readers, that this
period (which is formed from a coincidence of astronomical cycles)
is always supposed to have taken place 710 years before the creation
of our globe. The first year of creation, or Anno Mundi 1, bere
marked 4004, before A.D., was, therefore, the year 711 of the
§ I. FROM THE CREATION TO TIE FLOOD.
The Creation of the world, and of mankind.
The institution of the Sabbath-the planting of paradise, Gen. -
and the formation of Eve.
The fall of man-his sentence, and a promise of nis re- Gen, i
covery by “ the seed of the woman."
The birth of Cain, the first-born of Adam and Eve; his
brother Abel being also born, either in the same or following
About this time, Cain and Abel [being nearly 130 years Gear
of age] offer sacrifice, and Abel is murdered by his brother.
This date seems wholly conjectural: the event may have
occurred many years before. The estimate proceeds upon the
slow progress of human nature at first. All the Chronologies, ex-
cept the Hebrew, make Adam 100 years old before he had a son!
Adam, at the age of 130, and subsequent to the death of Geo.is
Abel, has another son, whom he names Seth ; and after
him, other sons and daughters.
Seth, at the age of 105, has Enos; and after him other
sons and daughters : and about this time men begin to "call
on the name of the Lord.”
Enos, at the age of 90, begat Cainan, and subsequently Ges. To
various sons and daughters.
Enoch, the seventh from Adam (in lineal succession),
At the age of 65, is born to him Methuselah.
To Methuselah, at the age of 187, is born Lamech, the
father of Noah.
Adam died, aged 930.
Enoch translated without seeing death, aged 365,
Noah born, the patriarch of the new world.
Noah begins to preach repentance, and prepare his ark,
To Noah, during this period, being about 500 years old, 1 Peter iii.
are born three sons—Shem, Ham, and Japheth.
Gen, v. 32,
Lamech, the ninth from Adam, dieth, aged 777: he is
21553 the first man who is recorded to have died a natural death
before his father.
19 Methuselah, the oldest man on record, dieth a short time 27.
before the flood, aged 969.
The flood comes upon the earth in Noah's 600th year. Gen. vii.ll.
We have followed our translators in marking the year of the
flood 2349 before Christ, but Dr. Clarke reckons it 2348, or A.M.
1656, the year of the world's creation, according to the Hebrew
computation; according to the Septuagint, 2242; but according to
Dr. Hales, 2256; making a difference between the Hebrew and
Dr. Hales of 600 years. The Hebrew months were lunar, twelve
of them making a year of 354 days ; but as Nuah was in the ark
eleven days more (See Gen. vii. 11, 13, compared with viii. 14), he
was, of course, in the ark (as Dr. C. remarks) a complete solar
§ II. FROM THE FLOOD TO THE CALL OF ABRAHAM.
48 The flood ceasing, Noah, with his family and the crea- Gen, viii.
tures he carried in with him, leave the ark.
Noah offers a burnt-offering, and God covenants with 20-22.
him to drown the earth no more.
Gen. ix. 9,
47 He plants vines, and is intoxicated with their fruit.
Noah predicts the future fortunes of his sons.
Peleg born ; so called because in his days the earth was Gen. xi. 16.
34 Nimrod, the son of Cush, begins to be a mighty one in Gen. x. 8.
the earth, and lays the foundation of the Assyrian empire
in Nineveh, its capital.
33 A part of the human family travelling from the East, rest Gen. xi.
in the plain of Shinar, and there begin the tower of Babel, 4-9.
with ambitious and probably idolatruus intentions; but the
Almighty confounds their language and designs.
8 Mizraim, grandson of Ham, leads colonies into Egypt, Ps. cv. 23.
anciently called “the land of Ham," and lays the founda- Isa. xix. 11.
tion of that kingdom.
6 Terah, father of Abram, born.
Gen. xi. 24.
8 Noah dieth, aged 950 years, 350 of them subsequent to
5 Abram born-75 years before bis father Terah's death. Gen. xi. 32.
3 Sarah, Abram's wife (called also Iscah), daughter of Ha- 29,30.
ran, Abram's brother, born ten years after her husband.
Terah, with his son Abram, Lot, Sarai, and the rest of Gen. xi. 31.
his family, went forth from Ur, of the Chaldees, to go into
the land of Canaan, and came and dwelt in Haran five Gen. xiv. 1,
years, at the end of which Terah dies there.
About this time also, Chedorlaomer, King of Elam, subdueth
the Kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, and other cities of the
plain, who serve him twelve years.
& III, FROM THE CALL OP ABRAM TO THE DEPARTURE
OF ISRAEL OUT OF EGYPT.
Abram, on his father's death, again called to leave Haran Gen. xü. 1.
and his father's house, and go into Canaan, which he does Heb. 11. &
at the age of 75.
A famine, in Canaan, compels Abram and his family to Gen. sild.
go down into Egypt, from whence are reckoned the 430
years of Israel sojourning in Egypt. Abram returns back, Gen.si
and Lot with him ; soon after which they part, the former 1-13.
going to Hebron, and the latter to Sodom.
The King of Sodom and four other kings rebelling against Gen.civ.19.
Chedorlaomer, he subdues them, when Lot is taken prisoner,
but rescued by Abram, who is blessed by Melchisedeck.
Abram complaining for the want of an heir, is promised Gen. 15.
a son, with a numerous seed, and the land of Canaan for
Sarai being still barren, gives to Abram Hagar, her Gen. xvi. 2.
handmaid, who, next year, bears him Ishmael.
God, making a covenant with Abram, changes his name Gen, xvii.
to Abraham, and appoints circumcision as a seal of this
covenant. Sarai's name is also changed to Sarah; and
Isaac, the fruit of her own body, is promised to be his heir.
Abraham entertains three angels unawares, who inform Gen. xviii.
him of the judgment to be inflicted upon Sodom, when he
interests himself on the behalf of Lot and his family.
Lot, by divine command, flees from Sodom; but his wife Gen, xix.
lingering and looking back, is changed into a pillar of
salt." Lot obtains permission to stop, for the present, at
Zoar; but soon after betakes him to the muuntain, with his
daughters, where two children are born to him in incest.
Isaac born in the 100th year of Abraham's age.
Sarah, seeing Ishmael mock Isaac, insists on their being
turned out of the house and family, to which Abraham re- 9-21
luctantly agrees: but they are wonderfully preserved by an
Abraham, at the divine command, offers up his son Isaac; Gen. Trii.
whose life is spared, but the offering is accepted.
Sarah dies at Hebron, in Canaan, in her 127th year.
Isaac marries Rebecca, daughter of Bethuel, the son of Gen. xxif.
Nahor, in his 40th year.
Shem, the son of Noah, dieth,
Esau and Jacob born in the 60th year of their father Gen. [sv.
Isaac, being twins.
Abraham dieth, aged 175.
Heber, the fifth from Noah, dieth); from whom Abraham Gen. xi. 17.
and his posterity are supposed by many to be called Hebrews. Gen. xIv.
Jacob fraudulently obtains his father's blessing, intended
for Esau ; on which he is obliged to fly to Mesopotamia, to Gen. xxvii.
avoid the anger of his brother. Coming to his uncle Laban, Gen. sivui.
he covenants to serve him seven years for his daughter Ra-Gen. xix.