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Visions of ]
CHAP. VIII.

[idolatry. 15 Then said he unto me, Hast 17 Then he said unto me, Hast thou seen this, O son of man? turn thou seen this, O son of man? Is it a thee yet again, and thou shalt see light thing to the house of Judah that greater abominations than these. they commit the abominations which

16 And he brought me into the in- they commit here? for they have filled ner court of the LORD's house, and, the land with violence, and have rebehold, at the door of the temple of turned to provoke me to anger: and, lo, the Lord, between the porch and the they put the branch to their nose. altar, were about five and twenty men, 18 Therefore will I also deal in with their backs toward the temple of fury: mine eye shall not spare, neither the Lord, and their faces toward the will I have pity: and though they cry east; and they worshipped the sun to- in mine ears with a loud voice, yet will ward the east.

I not hear them. (I)

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. VIII.

2. Among the Phænicians, the god whom (1) Ezekiel shown the image of Jealousy they supposed to preside over the fruits of -the chambers of imagery, &c. - Here the earth, was believed to suffer when those begios a section of prophecy extending fruits were cut down; and therefore, in to chap. xii. In this chapter the Prophet sympathy with him, the women mourned is conveyed by the spirit to Jerusalem, for several days every year, at the end of and there shown the idolatries commiited harvest. “To this rite of Phænician ido. by the rulers of the Jews, even within the Jatry, (says Dr. J. Smith,) the Prophet temple. In the begioning of the vision, alludes when he speaks of the women Idolatry itself is personified as an idol, the mourning for Tammuz: a rite well known resemblance probably of Baal or Moloch, in the mythological fables of the Greeks and the image sublimely called, from the and Romans, under the title of Venus provocation it gave to the God of Israel, weeping for the death of Adonis."-3. The ihe Iinage of Jealousy. (ver. 5.) The Pro- Persian worship, as performed by the phet then proceeds to describe the three priests or Magi, consisted chiefly in adora chief idolatries of the times : the Egyptian, tions to the sun, with the faces of the worthe Phænician and the Persian; giving the shippers directed to the East, as described principal features of each; and coucluding by the Prophet. This also was adopted by with declaring the abhorrence with which the Jewish leaders, and in so doing, of course they were all viewed by the eye of God. they turned their backs upon the temple,

1. The sacred rites, or mysteries of the which was behind them. Egyptian idolatry, above referred to, were It has been a matter of dehate among performed by the most ancient and honour- commentators, whether these scenes were uble of the people, who alone were ad- presented to Ezekiel in vision only, or whemitted to be present; and who offered ther he was really transported from Babyincense in a mystic cell or subterraneous lon to Jerusalem. That the prophets were

auit, called by the Prophet a hole or cham- sometimes locally removed is certain from ber in the wall, on which were pourtrayed the instance of Elijah, who was wont to be che crerping things and abominable beasts thus removed : (See l Kings xviii. 12.; 2 hey worshipped: such as serpents, dogs, Kings ii. 16 :) as was also Philip the evanats, &c. with Apis, (the sacred bull,) and, gelist, under the New Dispensation. (See » Mr. Faber thinks, a variety of monstrous Acts viri. 39.) So we have understood the orms borrowed from the symbols of astro- removal of Ezekiel to Tel-abib; (ch.iii. 14, omy : such as have been described by M. 15;) and not only does there seem nothing Belzopi, and other modern travellers. Bp. absurd in a literal exposition of the pasVarburton understands the description sage now before us, but the text itself (ver. porn ver. 6 to 13, as relating to the rites of 3) appears to us to lead to such an intersis and Osiris, under the form of a male pretation. Was not the hand which raised od female call, which rites were cele- him by the hair, one of the hands of the rated and attended only by princes and man in glory? And does not his being borne ersons of the first rank and consequence. up

“ between the earth and the heaven,"

NOTES. Ver. 16. Between the porch and the altar.- See Ver. 17. They put the branch to their nose.-The Jelii. 17.

About five and twenty men -" Pro- Persians, in their worship, held in their left hand a ably the priests and 'Levites of the weekly service, bunch of twigs of different trees, called the barsom.

itli the high priest at their head." Faber, quoted Rosenmuiler. See Orient. Lit. No. 1013.. = Townsend ii. 543.

Israel's]

EZEKIEL.

[sentence of captivity

peither will I have pity: I will reCHAP. VII.

compense thee according to thy ways MOREOVER, the word of the and thine abominations that are in

LORD came unto me, saying, the midst of thee; and ye shall know 2 Also, thou son of man, thus saith that I am the Lord that smiteth. the Lord God unto the land of Israel; 10 Behold the day, behold, it is An end, the end is come upon the four come: the morning is gone forth; corners of the land.

the rod hath blossomed, pride hath 3 Now is the end come upon thee, budded. and I will send mine anger upon thee, 11 Violence is risen up into a rod and will judge thee according to thy of wickedness: none of them shall ways, and will recompense upon thee remain, nor of their multitude, nor of all thine abominations.

any of their's: neither shall there be 4 And mine eyes shall not spare wailing for them. thee, neither will I have pity: but I 12 The time is come, the day will recompense thy ways upon thee, draweth near: let not the buyer rejoice

, and thine abominations shall be in the nor the seller mourn: for wrath is midøt of thee: and ye shall know that upon all the multitude thereof. I am the LORD.

13. For the seller shall not return to 5 Thus saith the Lord God; An that which is sold, although they were evil, an only evil, behold, is come. yet alive: for the vision is touching the

6 An end is come, the end is come: whole multitude thereof, which shall it watcheth for thee; behold, it is not return; neither shall any strengthen come.

himself in the iniquity of lis life. 7 The morning is come unto thee, 14 They have blown the trumpet, O thou that dwellest in the land : the even to make all ready; but none goeth time is come, the day of trouble is to the battle: for my wrath is upon all near, and not the sounding again of the multitude thereof. the mountains.

15 The sword is without, and the 8 Now I will shortly pour out my pestilence and the famine within : he fury úpon thee, and accomplish mine that is in the field shall die with the anger upon thee : and I will judge thee sword; and he that is in the city, according to thy ways, and will recom- famine and pestilence shall devour pense thee for all thine abominations. him.

9 And mine eye shall not spare, 16 But they that escape of them

EXPOSITION-Chap. VI. Continued. ness with which the prophet is commanded pleasures ; those who are awakened to a (ver. 11) to smite with his hand and stamp just sense of its nature and consequeuces with his foot in warning them of their dan know, that it is “an evil thing and bitter ger: for thouglı sin may seem but a trifle to forsake the Lord," or turn our back to men who are indulging in its forbidden upon his precepts.

NOTES. CHAP. VII. Ver.3. Recompence--Heb. "Give.” Ver. 11. Nor of their multitude - Marg. «Te

Ver. 5. An evil, an only eril. -- Newcome reads, mult, or tumultuous persons :"Boothroyal, following « Evil after evil," upon ihe authority of 27 MSS, Jarchi, understands this of the rabble and their and three Editions. The difference is only part of a leaders. letter in the original.

Ver. 13. Shall not return--namely, in the rear of Ves. 6. It watcheth for Ikee - Heb. “ Awaketh jubilee, (See Levit. xxv. 10.) all kough they were against thee."

yet alire. - Heb. “ Though their life were yet Ver. 7. The day of trouble Newcome, “Tu. among the living." — The whole multitude mult," See Isaiah xxii. 5. - The sounding perhaps, “ all thie turbulent shall not relurn." Come agrin (Marg. "eeho") of the mountains--that is, pare Wote on chap. v.7. In the iniquity – Hed. in joyful acclamations, Newcome and Micbaelis, * Bis iniquity of his life.” "jiful shoutings."

Ver. 16. They that escape-Heb. " The excaper! Ver. 10. The rod (i.e, of oppression) hath blos- of them;"' i. e. according to Newcome, * Tue itu somed - meaning, a autun display of arbitrary are in escape, xual escape." --On lhe mountainpower See the best verse.

thai is, moaging argong the clits.

hare me

verseny declared to be]

CHAP. VII.

(irreversible, shall escape, and shall be on the moun- 22 My face will I turn also from tains like doves of the valleys, all of them, and they shall pollute my secret them mourning, every one for his ini- place: for the robbers shall enter into quity.

it, and defile it. 17 All hands shall be feeble and all 23 Make a chain : for the land is der the knees shall be weak as water. full of bloody crimes, and the city is

18 They shall also gird themselves full of violence.
est with sackcloth, and horror shall cover 24 Wherefore I will bring the worst

them; and shame shall be upon all of the heathen, and they shall possess
faces, and baldness upon all their their houses : I will also make the
heads.

pomp of the strong to cease; and their
19 They shall cast their silver in holy places shall be defiled.
the streets, and their gold shall be re- 25 Destruction cometh; and they
moved : their silver and their gold shall shall seek peace, and there shall be
not be able to deliver them in the day none.

of the wrath of the Lord: they shall 26 Mischief shall come upon misvinot satisfy their souls, neither fill their chief, and rumour shall be upon ru

bowels : because it is the stumbling- mour; then shall they seek a vision of block of their iniquity.

the prophet; but the law shall perish 20 As for the beauty of his orna- from the priest, and counsel from the ment, he set it in majesty: but they ancients. made the images of their abomina- 27 The king shall mourn, and the tions and of their detestable things prince shall be clothed with desolation, therein : therefore have I set it far from and the hands of the people of the land them.

shall be troubled : I will do unto 21 And I will give it into the hands them after their way, and according of the strangers for a prey, and to the to their deserts will I judge them; wicked of the earth for a spoil; and and they shall know that I am he they shall pollute it.

LORD. (H)

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EXPOSITION.

ple, in bonds of captivity to Babylon. The CHAP, VII.

whole chapter abounds in bold and beau(H) The desolation of the country and tiful figures, flowing in an easy and forcible Refilement the sanctuary. - This chapter, stream of poetical language. hich forms another distinct prophecy, The higher classes of the Jews, as retells the final desolation of the land of appears by the prophetic writings, were rael or Judah, (for after the captivity of generally the most criminal. Their gold e teu tribes these terms are often used and silver became their snare; partly by

the Jews in general,) on account of the fostering their pride, and partly by suppous sins of its inhabitants, and the porting their idolatry. Thus riches beat distress of the small remnant that come “the stumbling block of their iniutd eventually escape. The temple quity." Our punishment often arises out If, which they hail polluted with idola- of our pride; and those things in which is devoted to destruction, and the Pro- men place their coufidence and their

is directed to make a chain, as a glory, are sometimes made to them objects of their being led, both king and peo- of horror and detestation.

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NOTES. 17. Be weak as rater - Heb. " Go into to be, that their ornaments were abused to the ends » Newcome, • Flow (with) water." See Joel of pride and idolatry.I set it far from thém

Marg. “ As an unclean thing.' 19. Their gold shall be remored - Hebrew, Ver. 23. Alake a chain--that is, to lead them into I be for a separation;" shall be abhorred as captivity.- -Bloody crimes — fleb.“ Judgment of Tean thing; as being not ouly useless but de. bloods." cal, by bringing upon them the vengeunce of Ver. 24. The worst of the heathen.-Newcome, Demies.

“ Crnel nations." See chap. XXX. 24. As for the beauty of his ornament- Ver. 25. Destruction-Heb. “ Cutting off.” See me,

6. Of their ornaments."--Hr set it in Note on, v. II. Sewcome, * Tbey tumed it to pride."

Ver. 27. According to their deserts-Heb, “ With ralhas, “thereol.The sense appenja their judgmeuts will l judge them."

The image]

EZEKIEL.

(of jealousy.

house of Israel committetla here, that CHAP. VIII.

I should go far off from my sanctuary?

but turn thee yet again, and thou shalt AND it came to pass in the sixth see greater abominations. year,

in the sixth month, in the 7 And he brought me to the door of fifth day of the month, as I sat in the court; and when I looked, behold mine house, and the elders of Judah a hole in the wall. sat before me, that the hand of the 8 Then said he unto me, Son of Lord God fell there upon me.

man, dig now in the wall: and when 2 Then I beheld, and lo a likeness I had digged in the wall, behold a as the appearance of fire : from the door. appearance of his loins even down- 9 And he said unto me, Go in, and ward, fire: and from his loins even up- behold the wicked abominations that ward, as the appearance of brightness, they do here. as the colour of amber.

10 So I went in and saw; and be3 And he put forth the form of an hold every form of creeping things, hand, and took me by a lock of mine and abominable beasts, and all the head; and the spirit lifted me up be- idols of the house of Israel, pourtrayed tween the earth and the heaven, and upon the wall round about. brought me in the visions of God to 11 And there stood before them seJerusalem, to the door of the inner venty men of the ancients of the house gate that looketh toward the north; of Israel, and in the midst of them where was the seat of the image of stood Jaazaniah the son of Shaphao, jealousy, which provoketh to jea- with every man his censer in his hand; lousy.

and a thick cloud of incense went 4 And, behold, the glory of the up. God of Israel was there, accord- 12 Then said he unto me, Son of

ing to the vision that I saw in the man, hast thou seen what the ancients plain.

of the house of Israel do in the dark, 5 Then said he unto me, Son of every man in the chambers of his imaman,

lift
up
thine

eyes now the way gery? for they say, The Lord seeth us toward the north. So I lifted up mine not; the Lord hath forsaken the earth. eyes the way toward the north, and 13 He said also unto me, Turn thee behold northward at the gate of the yet again, and thou shalt see greater altar this image of jealousy in the abominations that they do. entry.

14 Then he brought me to the door 6 He said furthermore unto me, of the gate of the Lord's house which Son of man, seest thou what they do? was toward the north ; and, behold, even the great abominations that the there sat women weeping for Tammuz.

NOTES. CHAP. VIII. Ver. 2. As the appearance of fire. mountains of Chusistan to this day. Todian Antiq. do For ash," fire.” The LXX read ish, (or aish) “ a vol, ii, p. 212. man," which makes this verse nearly synonymous Ver. 10. Abominable beasts, - Diodorus Sicales with chap. i 2, 27. Secker, Newcoine, Booth- relates, that around the room where the body of royd, &c. consider this the true reading, and it seems King Osymanduas seemed to b. baried, a multitate implied in the following sentence, “ From the ap- of clanibers was built, which had elegant paintings pearance of his loins, &c.

of all the beasts sacred in Egypt. Seeker in hex Ver. 4. According to the rision, &c.--See chap.i. come. Round about-Ieb. About, about." 28; iii. 22, 23.

Ver. I). Jaazaniuh - one of the princes of Ibe Ver. 5. Al the gate of the aliar –“ Probably so peonle. Chap. xi, 1. called from the time of Ahaz.2 Kings X 14, 15. Ver. 12. Do in the dark

Ver. 6. That I should go-that is, to provoke me “ His eye surveyed the dark idoiatries to go; so Vulgate and Chaldee: or, is that they 01 alienated Jadah." Par, Lost. b. i. p. 435. should go," (or be driven) from my sanctuary, LXX. Ver. 14. Women weeping for 7'amartiand Syriac. See chap. ix. 3.

-The love-tale Yer: 7. A hole in the wall. - Mr. Maurice con- Infected Sion's daughters with like heat, as this as the description of a cavern temple, Whose wanton passions in the sacred porch its mystic cells; such as are to be found in iho Ezekiel saw."'

Ibid. i. 453.

Visions of ]
CHAP. VIII.

[idolatry. 15 Then said he unto me, Hast 17 Then he said unto me, Hast thou seen this, O son of man? turn thou seen this, O son of man? Is it a thee yet again, and thou shalt see light thing to the house of Judah that greater abominations than these. they commit the abominations which

16 And he brought me into the in- they commit here? for they have filled ner court of the Lord's house, and, the land with violence, and have rebehold, at the door of the temple of turned to provoke me to anger: and, lo, the Lord, between the porch and the they put the branch to their nose. altar, were about five and twenty men, 18 Therefore will I also deal in with their backs toward the temple of fury: mine eye shall not spare, neither the Lord, and their faces toward the will I have pity: and though they cry east; and they worshipped the sun to- in mine ears with a loud voice, yet will ward the east.

I not hear them. (I)

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. VIII.

2. Among the Phænicians, the god whom (1) Ezekiel shown the image of Jealousy they supposed to preside over the fruits of --the chambers of imagery, &c. - Here the earth, was believed to suffer when those begios a section of prophecy extending fruits were cut down ; and therefore, in to chap. xii. In this chapter the Prophet sympathy with him, the women mourned is conveyed by the spirit to Jerusalem, for several days every year, at the end of and there shown the idolatries commiited harvest. “To this rite of Phænician ido. by the rulers of the Jews, even within the Jatry, (says Dr. J. Smith,) the Prophet temple. In the beginning of the vision, alludes when he speaks of the women Idolatry itself is personified as an idol, the mourning for Tammuz: a rite well known resemblance probably of Baal or Moloch, in the mythological fables of the Greeks and the image sublimely called, from the and Romans, under the title of Venus provocation it gave to the God of Israel, weeping for the death of Adonis.”—3. The the Image of Jealousy. (ver. 5.) The Pro- Persian worship, as performed by the phet then proceeds to describe the three priests or Magi, consisted chiefly in adorachief idolatries of the times : the Egyptian, tions to the sun, with the faces of the worthe Phænician and the Persian; giving the shippers directed to the East, as described principal features of each; and concluding by the Prophet. This also was adopted by with declaring the ablıorrence with which the Jewish leaders, and in so doing, of course they were all viewed by the eye of God. they turned their backs upon the temple,

1. The sacred rites, or mysteries of the which was behind them. Egyptian idolatry, above referred to, were It has been a matter of debate among performed by the most ancient and honour- commentators, whether these scenes were able of the people, who alone were ad- presented to Ezekiel in vision only, or whemitted to be present; and who offered ther he was really transported from Babyincense in a mystic cell or subterraneous lon to Jerusalem. That the prophets were

ault, called by the Prophet a hole or cham- sometimes locally removed is certain from ber in the wall, on which were pourtrayed the instance of Elijah, who was wont to be the creeping things and abominable beasts thus removed : (See l Kings xviii. 12.; 2 they worshippeil: such as serpents, dogs, Kings ii. 16 :) as was also Philip the evancats, &c. with Apis, (the sacred bull,) and, gelist, under the New Dispensation. (See as Mr. Faber thinks, a variety of monstrous Acts viji. 39.) So we have understood the forms borrowed from the symbols of astro- removal of Ezekiel to Tel-abib; (cb.iii. 14, nomy : such as have been described by M. 15;) and not only does there seem nothing Belzoni, and other modern travellers. Bp. absurd in a literal exposition of the pasWarburton understands the description sage now before us, but the text itself (ver. froin ver. 6 to 13, as relating to the rites of 3) appears to us to lead to such an interIsis and Osiris, under the form of a male pretation. Was not the hand which raised and fernale calf, which rites were cele- him by the hair, one of the hands of the brated and attended only by princes and man in glory? And does not his being borne persons of the first rank and consequence. up

“between the earth and the heaven,"

NOTES. Ver. 16. Between the porch and the altar.- See Ver. 17. They put the branch to their nose.—The Joel jj. 17.-About five and twenty men — “Pro- Persians, in their worship, held in their left hand a bably the priests and Levites of the weekly service, bunch of twigs of different trees, called the barsom. with the high priest at their head." Faber, quoted Rosenmuller. Sec Orient. Lit. No. 1013, in Townsend ii, 513,

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