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(against Babylon. fall in the streets, and all her men of it be dwelt in from generation to genewar shall be cut off in that day, saith ration. the LORD.

40 As God overthrew Sodom and 31 Behold, I am against thee, O Gomorrah, and the neighbour cities thou most proud, saith the Lord God thereof, saith the Lord; so shall no of hosts : for thy day is come, the man abide there, neither shall any son time that I will visit thee.

of man dwell therein. 32 And the most proud shall stumble 41 Behold a people shall come from and fall, and none shall raise him up: the north, and a great nation, and and I will kindle a tire in his cities, and many kings shall be raised up from the it shall devour all round about him. coasts of the earth.

33 Thus saith the Lord of hosts ; 42 They shall hold the bow and the The children of Israel and the children, lance : they are cruel, and will not of Judah were oppressed together: and shew mercy: their voice shall roar all that took them captives held them like the sea, and they shall ride upon fast; they refused to let them go. horses, every one put in array, like a

34 Their Redeemer is strong; the man to the battle, against thee, O Lord of hosts is his name: he shall daughter of Babylon. throughly plead their cause, that he 43 The king of Babylon hath heard may give rest to the land, and disquiet the report of them, and his hands the inhabitants of Babylon.

waxed feeble : anguish took hold of 35 A sword is upon the Chaldeans, him, and pangs as of a woman in trasaith the LORD, and upon the inhabi- vail. tants of Babylon, and upon her princes, 44 Behold, he shall come up like a and upon her wise men.

lion from the swelling of Jordan unto 36 A sword is upon the liars ; and the habitation of the strong : but I they shall dote : a sword is upon her will make them suddenly run away mighty men; and they shall be disc from her: and who is a chosen max, mayed.

that I may appoint over her ? for who 37 A sword is upon their horses, is like me? and who will appoint me and upon their chariots, and upon all the time? and who is that shepherd the mingled people that are in the that will stand before me? midst of her; and they shall become 45 Therefore hear ye the counsel of i as women : a sword is upon her trea- the LORD, that he hath taken against sures; and they shall be robbed. Babylon; and his purposes, that he

38 A drought is upon her waters ; hath purposed against the land of the and they shall be dried up: for it is Chaldeans: Surely the least of the the land of graven images, and they flock shall draw them out: surely he are mad upon their idols.

shall make their habitation desolate 39 Therefore the wild beasts of the with them. desert with the wild beasts of the islands 46 At the noise of the taking of shall dwell there, and the owls shall Babylon the earth is moved, and the dwell therein: and it shall be no

among the nations. (1) more inhabited for ever: neither shall

cry is heard

EXPOSITION. (1) Ver. 21–46. Israel avenged for her as the head quarters of Idolatry, even from sufferings, by the judgments inflicted upon the time of Nimrod, is here described as ibe Babylon.-Babylon, always distinguished land of “bitterness, "and rebellious against

NOTES. Ver. 36. A sword is upon the liars-Heb. “Bars," Ver. 39. Therefore the wild beasts, &e.-Coropart i.e. supporters; meaning, probably, her diviners, or this and four following verses with Isa. xiii. 17-mes pretended prophets ; Blayney, “ The impostors.--- and Notes, They shall dote-Blayney, " Be infatuated."

Ver. 14. Behold, &c.-Compare cho xlix, 44-46




{against Babylon.

8 Babylon is suddenly fallen and CHAP. LI.

destroyed : howl for her; take balm VHUS saith the Lord; Behold, I for her pain, if so be she may be

will raise up against Babylon, healed. and against them that dwell in the 9 We would have healed Batylon, midst of them that rise up against but she is not healed: forsake her, and me, a destroying wind;

let us go every one into his own coun2 And will send unto Babylon fan- try: for her judgment reacheth unto Ders, that shall fan her, and shall heaven, and is lifted up even to the empty her land: for in the day of skies. trouble they shall be against her round 10 The LORD hath brought forth about.

our righteousness : come, and let us 3 Against him that bendeth let the declare in Zion the work of the LORD archerbend his bow, and against our God. him that lifteth himself up in his bri- 11 Make bright the arrows; gather gandine: and spare ye not her young the shields : the LORD hath raised up men; destroy ye utterly all her host. - the spirit of the kings of the Medes: for

4 Thus the slain shall fall in his device is against Babylon, to dethe land of the Chaldeans, and stroy it ; because it is the vengeance of they that are thrust through in her the LORD, the vengeance of his temple. streets.

12 Set up the standard upon the 5 For Israel hath not been forsaken, walls of Babylon, make the watch nor Judah of his God, of the Lord of strong, set up the watchmen, prepare hosts; though their land was filled the ambushes : for the Lord hath both with sin against the Holy One of devised and done that which he spake Israel.

against the inhabitants of Babylon. 6 Flee out of the midst of Babylon, 13 O thou that dwellest upon many and deliver every man his soul : be not waters, abundant in treasures, thine cut off in her iniquity; for this is the end is come, and the measure of thy time of the Lord's vengeance; he covetousness. will render unto her a recompence.

14 The Lord of hosts hath sworn 7 Babylon hath been a golden cup by himself, saying, Surely I will fill in the Lord's hand, that made all thee with men, as with caterpillars ; the earth drunken: the nations have and they shall lift up a shout against drunken of her wine; therefore the na. thee. tions are mad.

EXPOSITION. the Most High: and its enemies are suin- to assist in their destruction. Awful inmoned from all quarters to unite in its deed is it to contend with him, who coin. destruction, and rejoice in its downfal. mands all the armies both of earth and The Lord of Hosts gives them their com- heaven; and yet this is the case with all mission, and calls together the powers of obstinate and impenitent sinners. nature, and the wild beasts of the forest,

NOTES CAAP. LI. Ver. 2. Fanners .... shall empty her To plant our colours on the walls of an enemy's forland -- that is, winnow it from the chaif: See ch. iv. tress, is an act of heroism. 11; xv.7.

Ver. 13. C pon-Blayney, "By the side of " ዝ many Ver. 3. Brigandine.-Ser chap. xlvi. 4.

walers; that is, engaged in foreign commerce. Ver. 6. Flee.-Compare Rev. xviii. 4.

Compare Rev. xvii, 1, 15. —The measure of thy Ver. 7. A golden cup. - According to Homer, the covriousness -- that is, the full measure, Compare Greeks used golden cups in their libations to their Matt. xxiii. 32. gods. (11. vi. 248.) See ch. xxv. 15, and Rev xiv.8. Ver. 11. Caierpillar s-Blayney, “ Locusts." See

Ver. 11. Make bright-Heb. " Pare," or clean. Exod. x. 14–16.-- Lift up-leh. " Uller." Mo

Ver. 12. Upon the walls – Those who consider rier mentions that, as soon as the locusts appeared in these words as addressed to Babylon, explain them Persia, the gardeners and farmers used to set up a ironically; but Dr. Wayney supposes them to be ad. shout, if possible to prevent their settling.-Orient. dressed to their enemies, and renders the preposition Lit. No, 990. "before ; " Boothroyd, * neur:" but wby not " upon ?"



(against Babylon [Omit in Family Reading.)

25 Behold, I am against thee, O 15 He hath made the earth by his destroying mountain, saith the Lord, power, he hath established the world by his which destroyest all the earth: and I wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven will stretch out mine hand upon thee, by his unlerstanding. 16 When he uitereth his voice, there is a multitude of and roll thee down from the rocks, and waters in the heavens; and he causeth the will make thee a burnt mountain. vapours to ascend from the ends of the 26 And they shall not take of thee earth: he maketh lightnings with rain, a stone for a corner, nor a stone for and bringeth forth the wind out of his foundations ; but thou shalt be desotreasures.

17 Every man is brutish by late for ever, saith the Lord. his knowledge; every founder is confounded by the graven image: for his 27 Set ye up a standard in the molten image is falsehood, and there is no land, blow the trumpet among the nabreath in them. 18 They are vanity, the tions, prepare the nations against her, work of errors : in the time of their visitar call together against her the kingtion they shall perish. of Jacob' is pot 'like them; for he is the doms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashcheformer of all things : and Israel is the rod naz; appoint a captain against her ; of bis inheritance: the LORD of hosts is his

cause the horses to come up as the name.

rough caterpillars. 20 Thou art my battle ax and 28 Prepare against her the nations weapons of war: for with thee will I with the kings of the Medes, the capbreak in pièces the nations, and with tains thereof, and all the rulers thereof, thee will I destroy kingdoms;

and all the land of his dominion. 21 And with thee will I break in 29 And the land shall tremble and pieces the horse and his rider; and sorrow: for erery purpose of the Lord with thee will I break in pieces the shall be performed against Babylon, to chariot and his rider;

make the land of Babylon a desola22 With thee also will I break in tion without an inhabitant. pieces man and woman; and with 30 The mighty men of Babylon thee will I break in pieces old and have forborn to fight, they have reyoung; and with thee will I break in mained in their holds: their might pieces the young man and the maid : hath failed ; they became as women:

23 I will also break in pieces with they have burned her dwelling places; thee the shepherd and his fock; and her bars are broken. with thee will I break in pieces the 31 One post shall run to meet anhusbandman and his yoke of oxen ; other, and one messenger to meet anand with thee will I break in pieces other, to shew the king of Babylon captains and rulers.

that his city is taken at one end; 24 And I will render unto Babylon 32 And that the passages are and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea, stopped, and the reeds they have all their evil that they have done in burned with fire, and the men of war Zion in your sight, saith the Lord. are affrighted. (K)


may, in prophetic language, be called a (K) Ver. 1-32. A farther poetical de- mountain-hut Babylon is here compared scription of the judgments of God against to a volcano, a burning or “ destroying Babylon.--Any great power or poteutate mountain," and it is the crater that seeds

NOTES. Ver. 15 to 19 are copied verbatim from chap. Armenia, and the third, a part of Phrygis. Xena* x. 12-16.

pllon mentions that the army or Cyrus includes both Ver. 20. My battle ar.–See Isa. s. 15.

Armenians and Phryginns. See Blayney. Ver. 28. Desolations for erer-Hel)." Everlasting Ibid. Catase the horses to come up ar the radio desolations."

caurpillars. - Biayney, ** Like the bristled locust. Ver. 27. Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz.-The two Se: Joel ii. 4; Rev.ix. 7. former, Bochart concludes to be greater and less



(against Babylon. 33 For thus saith the Lord of hosts, 42 The sea is come up upon Bathe God of Israel; The daughter of bylon : she is covered with the multiBabylon is like a threshing-floor, it is tude of the waves thereof. time to thresh her: yet a little while, 43 Her cities are a desolation, a dry and the time of her harvest shall come. land, and a wilderness, a land wherein

34 Nebuchadrezžar the king of Ba- no man dwelleth, neither doth any son bylon bath devoured me, he hath of man pašs thereby. crushed me, he hath made me an 44 And I will punish Bel in Babyempty vessel, he hath swallowed me lon, and I will bring forth out of his up like a dragon, he hath filled his mouth that which he hath swallowed belly with my delicates, he hath cast up: and the nations shall not flow tome out.

gether any more unto him: yea, the 35 The violence done to me and to wall of Babylon shall fall. my flesh be upon Babylon, shall the in- 45 My people, go ye out of the midst habitant of Zion say; and my blood of her, and deliver ye every man his, upon the inhabitants of Chaldea, shall soul from the fierce anger of the Lord. Jerusalem say.

46 And lest your heart faint, and 36 Therefore thus saith the LORD; ye fear for the rumour that shall be Behold, I will plead thy cause, and heard in the land ; a rumour shall take vengeance for thee; and I will both come one year, and after that in dry up her sea, and make her springs another year shell come a rumour, dry.

and violence in the land, ruler against 37 And Babylon shall become ruler. heaps, a dwelling-place for dragons, 47 Therefore, behold, the days

come, an astonishment, and an hissing, that I will do judgment upon the grawithout an inhabitant.

ven images of Babylon : and her whole 38 They shall roar together like land shall be confounded, and all her lions : they shal yell as lions' whelps. slain shall fall in the midst of her.

39 In their heat I will make their 48 Then the heaven and the earth, feasts, and I will make them drunken, and all that is therein, shall sing for that they may rejoice; and sleep a per- Babylon : for the spoilers shall come petual sleep, and not wake, saith the unto her from the north, saith the Lord.

Lorn. 40 I will bring them down like 49 As Babylon hath caused the lambs to the slaughter, like rams with slain of Israel to fall, so at Babylon he-goats.

shall fall the slain of all the earth. 41 How is Sheshach taken ! and 50 Ye that have escaped the sword, how is the praise of the whole earth go away, stand not still: remember surprised ! How is Babylon become an the Lord afar off, and let Jerusalem astonishment among the nations ! come into your mind.

EXPOSITION. more particularly intended-the burning doubtedly relating, in their first and pritop is to he rolled down the rocks into the mary sense to the literal Babylon, have sea. (See Rev. viii. 8.) Then it becomes, evideutly a farther reference to the fall of not a burning, but a burnt mountain, whose mystic Babylon, and most of the images fires are exhausted, and whose bowels are are so applied by the apostle John, in his changed to pumice stone, and therefore equally sublime description of the latter's utterly unfit for building, as is here stated. complete and external' overthrow, in the These sublime prophecies, though me 18t! chapter of his sy "alypse.

NOTES. Ver. 33. It is time, &c.—Marg. " In the time that Ver. 29. Maketheir feasts-- Boothroyd,“banquets." he thresheth her."

Ver. 44. 7hnt which he hath swalioned up--may Ver. 3.5. The violence done, &c.—Binghey, "Let the violence done to my flesh be upon Babyloa.”

perhaps refer particularly to sacred vessels of the

temples, 2 Chron. rrsvi. 10; Ezra i. 7. Ver. :33. They shall yell-Marg. “ Shakie tbem. selves,"

Ver. 47, Do judgment-Heb. “ Visit.”

shall groan.



(against Babylon 51 We are confounded, because we 58 Thus saith the Lord of hosts; have heard reproach: shame hath The broad walls of Babylon shall be covered our faces: for strangers are utterly broken, and her high gates shall come into the sanctuaries of the Lord's be burned with fire; and the peuple house.

shall labour in vain, and the folk in 52 Wherefore, behold, the days the fire, and they shall be weary, come, saith the Lord, that I will do 59 The word which Jeremiah the judgment upon her graven images: prophet commanded Seraiah the soa and through all her land the wounded of Neriah, the son of Maaseiah,

when he went with Zedekiah the king 53 Though Babylon should mount of Judah into Babylon in the fourth up to heaven, and though she should year of his reign. And this Seraiah fortify the height of her strength, yet was a quiet prince. from me shall spoilers come unto her, 60 So Jeremiah wrote in a book al saith the LORD.

the evil that should come upon Ba54 A sound of a cry cometh from bylon, cven all these words that are Babylon, and great destruction from written against Babylon. the land of the Chaldeans :

61 And Jeremiah said to Seraiah, 55 Because the Lord hath spoiled When thou comest to Babylon, and Babylon, and destroyed out of her the shalt see, and shalt read all these great voice; when her waves do roar words; like great waters, a noise of their voice 62 Then shalt thou say, O LORD, is uttered :

thou hast spoken against this place, to 56 Because the spoiler is come upon cut it off, that none shall remain in it, her, even upon Babylon, and her neither man nor beast, but that it shall mighty men are taken, every one of be desolate for ever. their bows is broken : for the Lord 63 Aud it shall be, when thou hast God of recompences shall surely re- made an end of reading his book, that quite.

thou shalt bind a stone to it, and cast 57 And I will make drunk her it into the midst of Euphrates : princes, and her wise men, her captains, 64 And thou shalt say, Thus shall and her rulers, and her mighty men: Babylon sink, and shall not rise from and they shall sleep a perpetual sleep, the evil that I will bring upon her: and not wake, saith the king, whose and they shall be weary:

Thus far name is the LORD of hosts.

are the words of Jeremiah. (L)

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EXPOSITION. (L) Ver. 33–64. The description of Ba- reign went to Babylon accompanied by bylon's final overthrow continued in the Seraial, to pay the tribute which Nebusume sublime poeticul languuge.--From the chadnezzar had imposed ou hin; but the close of this chapter it has been inferred ablest commentators are of opinion that that Zedekial, in the fourth year of his Seraiah went, uot with, but from Zedekiah.

NOTES. Ver. 54. A sound of a cry-Blayney, “ The voice Ver. 59. With Zedekiah-So the particle eth is of a cry."

most usually rendered. But Blayney and Boothroyd Ver. 5.5. The great voice--Boothroyd, “The boi. here' render it," on the behalf of;" and the same sterous noise."

particle is used in the sense of from, Gen. iv.l.Ver. 38. The broad walls of Babylon.-Historians Aliv. 4, &c. See Notes in Blayney, and Dr. Tas. relate, that the walls of Babylon were of sufficient lor's Concordance. width to admit the passing of two chariots on the Ibid. Seraiah ras a quiet prince-Blaynes and top, and their depth from their foundation above Boothroyd, " Seraiah carried a present." See 200 feet. The bricks of this wall were duy out of 1 Sam. X. 27; 2 Sam. vii, 2 and 6; 1 Kings ir. 21 the surrounding diteli, and being mixed up with &c.; also Lowth's Note on Isu. Irii.9. chopped straw and dried, were then cemented with Ver. 62. Desolate-Heb. “ Desolations." warın bitumen (or asphaltum); yet of these walls Ver. 63. Bind u stone.-Compare Rer, avui. 2. there are now no remains. See Faber's Archsel. pt. i. p.:93, and Lowth in Isa. xiii. 19. The poeoral part of Jeremiaa ends with this verse,

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