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fierce anger.



[ for Jerusalem. afflicted her for the multitude of her is done unto me, wherewith the LORD transgressions : her children are gone hath afflicted me in the day of his into captivity before the enemy.

6 And from the daughter of Zion 13 From above hath he sent fire all her beauty is departed : her princes into my hones, and it prevaileth against are become like harts that find no them: he hath spread a net for my pasture, and they are gone without feet, he hath turned me back: he hath strength before the pursuer,

made me desolate and faint all the day. 7 Jerusalem remembered in the 14 The yoke of my transgressions is days of her affliction and of her mise- bound by his hand: they are wreathed, ries all her pleasant things that she and come up upon my neck : he hath had in the days of old, when her peo- made my strength to fall; the LORD ple fell into the hand of the enemy, hath delivered me into their hands, and none did help her ; the adversaries from whom I am not able to rise up. saw her, and did mock at her sabbaths, 15 The Lord hath trodden under

8 Jerusalem hath grievously sinned; foot all my mighty men in the midst therefore she is removed : all that of me: he hath called an assembly honoured her despise her, because they against me to crush my young men: have seen her nakedness : yea, she the LORD hath trodden the virgin, sigheth, and turneth backward. the daughter of Judah, as in a wine

9 Her filthiness is in her skirts; press. she remembereth not her last end ; 16 For these things I weep; mine therefore she came down wonderfully; eye, mine eye runneth down with she had no comforter. O LORD, be- water, because the comforter that hold my affliction : for the enemy hath should relieve my soul is far from me: magnified himself.

my children are desolate, because the 10 The adversary hath spread out enemy prevailed. his hand upon all her pleasant things: 17 Zion spreadeth forth her hands, for she hath seen that the heathen and there is none to comfort her; the entered into her sanctuary, whom thou Lord hath commanded concerning lidst command that they should not Jacob, that his adversaries should be enter into thy congregation.

round about him: Jerusalem is as a 11 All her people sigh, they seek removed woman among them. read; they have given their pleasant 18 The Lord is righteous; for I hings for meat to relieve the soul: have rebelled against his commandee, O LORD, and consider; for I am ment: hear, I pray you, all people, lecome vile,

and behold my sorrow: my virgins 12 Is it nothing to you, all ye that and my young men are gone into ass by? Behold, and see if there be captivity. ny sorrow like unto my sorrow,

which 19 I called for my lovers, but they

NOTES. Ver. 5. Before the enemy-that is, in sgbjection to Ver. 14. The yoke of my transgression.-See Deut. Tenemy,

xxviii. 48. Ver. 7. When her people, &c.--Blayney renders Ver. 15. In a wine-press – alluding to the great is much clearer, by a different panctuation. elusion of blood. fter placing a semicolon ati old; be reads, " When Ver. 16. Reliete my soul - Boothroyd, “Restore or people fell into the hand, &c. the adversaries my life;" i. e. recover. w, and mocked at her discontinuance," or "de. Ver. 17. As a removed woman. -We snppose it ruction, as Boothroyd renders it.

will scarcely need an apology, that we have adoptVer. 9. She remembered not her last end-that is, ed the word removed instead of menstruous, in this le did not recollect the necessary, consequences of verse, So our translators render the same word, T course of sin.-The enemy hath magnified- Ezek. XXXVI. 17. stead of " himself," Dr. Biayney supplies the Ver. 19. Relieve their souls-Blayney, " Support ord " a thiction;" hath aggravated mine affliction. their life. Ver. 11. To relieve the soul-Blayney, “ To sus. Ver. 20. As death-Blayney, “ Pestilence." See in lite."

chap. xiv. 12. Ver. 12. Is it nothing to you ? This is a bcautiful Ver. 21, The day that thou hast called-Blayney, postropbe to the passing traveller.

" Pronounced;"' , e. predicted,



(against Babylon. fall in the streets, and all her men of it be dwelt ia from generation to genewar shall be cut off in that day, saith ration. the LORD.

40 As God overthrew Sodom and 31 Behold, I am against thee, O Gomorrah, and the neighbour cities thou most proud, saith the Lord God thereof, saith the Lord; so shall no of hosts : for thy day is come, the man abide there, neither shall any son time that I will visit thee.

of man dwell therein. 32 And the most proud shallstumble 41 Behold a people shall come from and fall, and none shall raise him up: the north, and a great nation, and and I will kindle a tire in his cities, and many kings shall be raised up from the it shall devour all round about him. coasts of the earth.

33 Thus saith the LORD of hosts ; 42 They shall hold the bow and the The children of Israel and the children lance : they are cruel, and will not of Judah were oppressed together: and shew mercy: their voice shall roar all that took them captives held them like the sea, and they shall ride upon fast; they refused to let them go. horses, every one put in array, like a

34 Their Redeemer is strong; the man to the battle, against thee, O Lord of hosts is his name: he shall daughter of Babylon. throughly plead their cause, that he 43 The king of Babylon hath heard may give rest to the land, and disquiet the report of them, and his hands the inhabitants of Babylon.

waxed feeble : anguish took hold of 35 A sword is upon the Chaldeans, him, and pangs as of a woman in trasaith the LORD, and upon the inhabi- vail. tants of Babylon, and upon her princes, 44 Behold, he shall come up like a and upon her wise men.

lion from the swelling of Jordan unto 36 A sword is upon the liars ; and the habitation of the strong : but I they shall dote : a sword is upon her will make them suddenly run away mighty men; and they shall be dis- from her: and who is a chosen man, mayed.

that I may appoint over her ? for who 37 A sword is upon their horses, is like me? and who will appoint me and upon their chariots, and upon all the time? and who is that shepherd the mingled people that are in the that will stand before me? midst of her; and they shall become 45 Therefore hear ye the counsel of as women: a sword is upon her trea- the Lord, that he hath taken against sures; and they shall be robbed. Babylon; and his purposes, that he

38 A drought is upon her waters; hath purposed against the land of the and they shall be dried up: for it is Chaldeans : Surely the least of the the land of graven images, and they flock shall draw them out : surely he are mad upon their idols.

shall make their habitation desolate 39 Therefore the wild beasts of the with them. desert with the wild beasts of the islands 46 At the noise of the taking of shall dwell there, and the owls shall Babylon the earth is moved, and the dwell therein: and it shall be no cry is heard among the nations. (I) more inhabited for ever: neither shall

EXPOSÍTION. (1) Ver. 21–46. Israel avenged for her as the head quarters of Idolatry, even from sufferings, by the judgments inflicted upon the time of Nimrod, is here described as the Babylon.-Babylon, always distinguished land of “bitterness,"and rebellious against

NOTES. Ver. 36. A sword is upon the liars-Heb.“ Bars," Ver. 39. Therefore the wild beasts, &c.-Compare i, e. supporters; meaning, probably, her diviners, or this and four following verses with Isa. xiii. 17-*. pretended prophets; Blayney,"" The impostors.-- and Notes. They shall dote-Blayney, “ 'Be infatuated."

Ver. 14. Bekold, &c.-Compare ch. xlix, 44



{against Babylon.

8 Babylon is suddenly fallen and CHAP. LI.

destroyed : howl for her; take balm THUS saith the LORD; Behold, I for her pain, if so be she may be

will raise up against Babylon, healed. and against them that dwell in the 9 We would have healed Batylon, midst of them that rise up against but she is not healed: forsake her, and me, a destroying wind;

let us go every one into his own coun2 And will send unto Babylon fan- try: for her judgment reacheth unto Ders, that shall fan her, and shall heaven, and is lifted up even to the empty her land: for in the day of skies. trouble they shall be against her round 10 The LORD hath brought forth about.

our righteousness : come, and let us 3 Against him that bendeth let the declare in Zion the work of the LORD archerbend bis bow, and against our God. him that lifteth himself up in his bri- 11 Make bright the arrows; gather gandine : and spare ye not her young the shields : the LORD hath raised up men; destroy ye utterly all her host. the spirit of the kings of the Medes: for

4 Thus the slain shall fall in his device is against Babylon, to dethe land of the Chaldeans, and stroy it; because it is the vengeance of they that are thrust through in her the LORD, the vengeance of his temple. streets.

12 Set up the standard upon the 5 For Israel hath not been forsaken, walls of Babylon, make the watch nor Judah of his God, of the Lord of strong, set up the watchmen, prepare hosts; though their land was filled the ambushes: for the Lord hath both with sin against the Holy One of devised and done that which he spake Israel.

against the inhabitants of Babylon. 6 Flee out of the midst of Babylon, 13 O thou that dwellest upon many and deliver every man his soul : be not waters, abundant in treasures, thine cut off in her iniquity; for this is the end is come, and the measure of thy time of the Lord's vengeance; he covetousness. will render unto her a recompence.

14 The LORD of hosts hath sworn 7 Babylon hath been a golden cup by himself, saying, Surely I will fill in the Lord's hand, that made all thee with men, as with caterpillars; the earth drunken: the nations have and they shall lift up a shout against drunken of her wine; therefore the na. thee. tions are mad.

EXPOSITION. the Most High : and its enemies are sum- to assist in their destruction. Awful inmoned from all quarters to unite in its deed is it to contend with him, who com. destruction, and rejoice in its downfal. mands all the armies both of earth and The Lord of Hosts gives them their com- heaven; and yet this is the case with all mission, and calls together the powers of obstinate and impenitent sinners. nature, and the wild beasts of the forest,

NOTES. CAAP. LI. Ver. 2. Fanners .... shall empty her To plant our colours on the walls of an enemy's forland - that is, winnow it from the chaif. See ch. iv. tress, is an act of heroista. 11; xv.7.

Ver. 13. Upon-Blayney, "By the side of " in any Ver. 3. Brigandine.-Ser chap. xlvi. 4.

waters ; that is, engaged in foreign commerce. Ver. 6. Fler.-Compare Rev. xviii. 4.

Compare Rev. xvii, 1, 15.- The measure of thy Ver. 7. A golden cup. - According to Homer, the covelousness -- that is, the full measure. Compare Greeks used golden cups in their libations to their Matt. xxiii. 32. gods. (II. ii. 248.) See ch. xxv. 15, and Rev xiv.8. Ver. 14. Caterpillar s-Blayney, “ Locusts." See

Ver. 11. Make bright-Heb." l'are," or clean. Exod. x. 14–16. -Lift up-Ileb.“ Utter.” Mo.

Ver. 12. Upon the walls — Those who consider rier mentions that, as soon as the locusts appeared in these words as addressed to Babylon, explain them Persia, the gardeners and farmers used to set up a ironically; but Dr. Blaybey supposes them to be ad. shout, if possible to prevent their settling-Orient. dressed to their enemies, and renders the preposition Lit. No, 993. " before;” Boothroyd, “neur:" but wby not "upon?”



[against Babylon [Omit in Family Reading.

25 Behold, I am against thee, O 15 He hath made the earth hy his destroying mountain, saith the Lord, power, he hath established the world by his which destroyest all the earth: and I wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven will stretch out mine hand upon thee, by his unclerstanding. 16 When he and roll thee down from the rocks, and uttereth his voice, there is a multitude of waters in the heavens; and he causeth the will make thee a burnt mountain. vapours to ascend from the ends of the 26 And they shall not take of thee earth: he maketh lightnings with rain, a stone for a corner, nor a stone for and bringeth forth the wind out of his treasures. 17 Every man is brutish by

foundations; but thou shalt be desohis knowledge; every founder is con

late for ever, saith the Lord. founded by the graven image: for his 27 Set ye up a standard in the molten image is falsehood, and there is no land, blow the trumpet among the nawork of errors : in the time of their visita- tions, prepare the nations against her, tion they shall perish. 19 The portion call together against her the kingof Jacob is not like them; for he is the doms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashcheformer of all things: and Israel is the rod naz; appoint a captain against ber; of his inheritance: the Lord of hosts is his cause the horses to come up as the name.

rough caterpillars. 20 Thou art my battle ax and 28 Prepare against her the natious weapons of war: for with thee will I with the kings of the Medes, the capbreak in pieces the nations, and with tains thereof, and all the rulers thereof, thee will I destroy kingdonis ;

and all the land of bis dominion. 21 And with thee will I break in 29 And the land shall tremble and pieces the horse and his rider ; and sorrow : for every purpose of the LORD with thee will I break in pieces the shall be performed against Babylon, to chariot and his rider;

make the land of Babylon a desola22 With thee also will I break in tion without an inhabitant. pieces man and woman; and with 30 The mighty men of Babylon thee will I break in pieces old and have forborn to fight, they have reyoung; and with thee will I break in mained in their holds: their might pieces the young man and the maid : hath failed ; they became as women:

23 I will also break in pieces with they have burned her dwelling places; thee the shepherd and his flock; and her bars are broken. with thee will I break in pieces the 31 One post shall run to meet an. husbandman and his yoke of oxen; other, and one messenger to meet anand with thee will I break in pieces other, to shew the king of Babylon captains and rulers.

that his city is taken at one end; 24 And I will render unto Babylon 32 And that the passages are and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea, stopped, and the reeds they have all their evil that they have done in burned with fire, and the men of war Zion in your sight, saith the Lord. are affrighted. (K)


may, in prophetic language, be called a (K) Ver. 1-32. A farther poetical de- mountain-hut Babylon is here compared scription of the judgments of God against to a volcano, a burning or destroying Babylon.--Any great power or potentate mountain," and it is the crater that seems

NOTES. Ver. 15 to 19 are copied verbatim from chap. Armenin, and the third, a part of Phrygia. Xense X. 12-16.

phon mentions that the army of Cyrus included both Ver. 20. My battle ax.-See Isa. x. 15.

Arinenians and Phryginns. See Blayney. Ver. 26. Desolations for ever--Heb." Everlasting Ibid. Catase the horses to come up at the rough desolations."

calirpillars. – Blayney." Like the bristled locust. Ver. 27. Araral, Minni, and Ashchenaz.-The two

See Joelii. 4; Rev. ix. 7. former, Bochart concludes to be greater and less



{against Babylon. 33 For thus saith the Lord of hosts, 42 The sea is come up upon Bathe God of Israel; The daughter of bylon : she is covered with the multiBabylon is like a threshing-floor, it is tūde of the waves thereof. time to thresh her : yet a little while, 43 Her cities are a desolation, a dry and the time of her harvest shall come land, and a wilderness, a land wherein

34 Nebuchadrezzar the king of Ba- no man dwelleth, neither doth any son bylon hath devoured me, he hath of man pass thereby. crushed me, he hath made me an 44 And I will punish Bel in Babyempty vessel, he hath swallowed me lon, and I will bring forth out of his , up like a dragon, he hath filled his mouth that which he hath swallowed belly with my delicates, he hath cast up: and the nations shall not flow tome out.

gether any more unto him: yea, the 35 The violence done to me and to wall of Babylon shall fall. my flesh be upon Babylon, shall the in- 45 My people, go ye out of the midst habitant of Zion say; and my blood of her, and deliver ye every man his , upon the inhabitants of Chaldea, shall soul from the fierce anger of the Lord. Jerusalem say.

46 And lest your heart faint, and 36 Therefore thuố saith the LORD; ye fear for the rumour that shall be Behold, I will plead thy cause, and heard in the land; à rumour shall take vengeance for thee; and I will both come one year, and after that in dry up her sea, and make her springs another year shell come a rumour, dry.

and violence in the land, ruler against 37 And Babylon shall become ruler. heaps, a dwelling-place for dragons, 47 Therefore, behold, the days come, an astonishment, and an hissing, that I will do judgment upon the grawithout an inhabitant.

ven images of Babylon : and her whole 38 They shall roar together like land shall be confounded, and all her lions : they shall yell as lions' whelps. slain shall fall in the midst of her.

39 In their heat I will make their 48 Then the heaven and the earth, feasts, and I will make them drunken, and all that is therein; shall sing for that they may rejoice; and sleep a per- Babylon : for the spoilers shall come. petual sleep, and not wake, saith the unto her from the north, saith the LORD.

Lorn. 40 I will bring them down like 49 As Babylon hath caused the lambs to the slaughter, like rams with slain of Israel to fall, so at Babylon he-goats.

shall fall the slain of all the earth. 41 How is Sheshach taken ! and 50 Ye that have escaped the sword, how is the praise of the whole earth go way, stand not still: remember surprised! How is Babylon become an the Lord afar off, and let Jerusalem astonishment among the nations ! come into your mind.

EXPOSITION. more particularly intended—the burning doubtedly relating, in their first and priop is to be rolled down the rocks into the mary sense to the literal Babylon, have ea. (See Rev. viii. 8.) Then it becomes, evidently a fariber reference to the fall of wot a burning, but a burnt mountain, whosé mystic Babylon, and most of the images ires are exhausted, and whose bowels are are so applied by the apostle John, in his changed to pumice stone, and therefore equally sublime description of the latter's itterly unfit for building, as is here stated. complete and external' overthrow, in the These sublime prophecies, though tin- 18th chapter of his Ay "alypse.

NOTES. Ver. 33. It is time, &c.—Marg." In the time that Ver.39. Make their feasts-- Boothroyd," banquets. e thresheth her."

Ver. 41. That which he hath swallowed up-may Ver. 35. The violence done, &c.-Blayney, “Let perhaps reser particularly to sacred vessels of the he violence done to my flesh be upon Babyloa.” temples, 2 Chron. xxxvi. 10; Ezra i. 7.

Ver. 18. They shall yell-Marg." Shake tbem- Ver. 47. Do judgment-Heb. “ Visit” elves,"

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