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More miscellaneous)

(proverbs. strange : but as for the pure, his work CHAP. XXI.

is right.

9 It is better to dwell in a corner The king's heart is in the hand of the housetop, than with a brawling

of the LORD, as the rivers of woman in a wide house. water : he turneth it whithersoever he 10 The soul of the wicked desireth will.

evil: his neighbour findeth no favour in 2 Every way of a man is right in his eyes. his own eyes : but the LORD pondereth 11 When the scorner is punished, the hearts.

the simple is made wise; and when the 3 To do justice and judgment is wise is instructed, he receiveth knowmore acceptable to the LORD than ledge. sacrifice.

12 The righteous man wisely consi4 An high look, and a proud heart, dereth the house of the wicked: but and the plowing of the wicked, is sin. God overthroweth the wicked for their

5 The thoughts of the diligent wickedness. tend only to plenteousness; but of 13 Whoso stoppeth his ears at the every one that is hasty only to want. cry of the poor, he also shall cry him

6 The getting of treasures by a self, but shall not be heard. lving tongue is a vanity tossed to and 14 A gift in secret pacifieth anger : fro of them that seek death.

and a reward in the bosom strong 7 The robbery of the wicked shall wrath. destroy them ; because they refuse to 15 It is joy to the just to do judg. do judgment.

ment: but destruction shall be to the 8 The way of man is froward and workers of iniquity.

EXPOSITION. soffers at religion and all sobriety.”—Bp. as the folly of pretending to perfection in Patrick.

the present life; a doctrine wbich we shall ." Counsel in the heart of nian," that is, find Solomon inculcating with equal de. bis plans and designs, (says Solomon) cision in other places. (See 1 Kings viii. " is like deep water" in a well; " but á 46 ; 2 Chron. vi. 36 ; Eccles. vii. 20.) man of understanding" aad penetration, The maxim (ver. 27.) that “the spirit of "will draw," or wind “ it out" of him. man is the candle (or lamp) of the Lord," Lord Bacon, who was a second Solomon, is more disputed. The word here rendered gives six rules, whereby the secrets of spirit," is the same as is used for the public men may be discovered ; namely, breath of life, which constituted man a their countenances, words, (rather acci- living animal; but it seems here to refer dental than deliberate) actions, dispo- particularly to the conscience, which as the sitions, the ends or objects they are known Jamp of God in the temple, (the sacred le have in view, and the relatious of other chandelier) illuminated the holy place, periods.

and showed all the sacred furniture ; so The question, (ver. 9.) “Who can say, the conscience of man, when not put out I have made my heare clean?" evidently by sin, discovers all the secret recesses of implies its depravity, and the impossi. the human heart. (See Note on ver. 30, bility of cleansing our own hearts, as well and compare 1 Cor. ii. 11.)

NOTES. CHAP. XXI. Ver. 4. An high look - Hebrew, Ver. 9. A corner of the house top. - It was com. " Haughtiness or eyes."

So chap. vi. 17.---The mon to form little closets, like arbours, in a corner ploughing (Marg. - the light," or "Jamp”) of the of the flat roofs, where persons soinetimes slept, in wicked,is sin. - So the ancient versions, and the summer time.---Than with a brawling roman, best andern translators Michaelis silggests, that &c.-Heb." A woman of contentions in a house of " the high look and the proud heart” are the lamp society;"

;" i. e, a large house, in which several of the wicked, discovering his real character and families reside. Orient. Cust. No. 203. Orient. Lit.

No. 839. Ver... Destroy then-Heb. " Awe,” or “terrify Ver. 12. The rightrous wisely considereth the them."

house of the wickeri- that is, investigates their conVer. 8. Froxard. - Mr. Parkhurst thinks the duct. But God orerthroreth the picked.The Ford trans unsteady, allading to an overloaded words" but Ged," seem an unnecessary supplement : beant; but may it not rather allude to a drunken the Heb. literally reads, "overthrowing the wicked," Rab, feeling and staggering as lie goes ?

&e. See Bp. Patrick,


eth his way.

More miscellaneous

proverbs. 16 The man that wandereth out of him; for his hands refuse to labour. the way of understanding shall rəmain 26 He coveteth greedily all the day in the congregation of the dead. long : but the righteous giveth and

17 He that loveth pleasure shall be spareth not. a poor man: he that loveth wine and 27 The sacrifice of the wicked is oil shall not be rich.

abomination : how much more, when 18 The wicked shall be a ransom he bringeth it with a wicked mind? for the righteous, and the transgressor 28 A false witness shall perish: for the upright.

but the man that heareth speaketh con19 It is better to dwell in the wil- stantly. derness, than with a contentious and 29 A wicked man hardeneth his an angry woman.

face: but as for the upright, he direct20 There is treasure to be desired and oil in the dwelling of the wise ; 30 There is no wisdom, nor underbut a foolish man spendeth it up. standing, nor counsel against the

21 He that followeth after righte- LORD. ousness and mercy findeth life, righte- 31 The horse is prepared against ousness, and honour.

the day of battle : but safety is of the 22 A wise man scaleth the city of Lurd. (X) the mighty, and casteth down the strength of the confidence thereof.

CHAP. XXII. 23 Whoso keepeth his mouth and his tongue, keepeth his soul from A GOOD name is rather to be troubles.

chosen than great riches, and 24 Proud and haughty scorner is loving favour rather than silver and his name, who dealeth in proud gold. wrath,

2 The rich and poor meet together : 25 The desire of the slothful killeth the LORD is the maker of them all.


armies of heaven, and among the inhabi(X) More miscellaneous proverbs.-Solo- tants of the earth.” (Dan. iv. 35.) mon adverts to the doctrine of providence A most important sentiment occurs frequently, and appareutly with peculiar near the close of this chapter; namely, pleasure. "A man's heart deviseth his "The sacrifice of the wicked is abominaway; but the Lord directeth his steps." tion," meaning, in the sight of God; and for (Chap. xvi. 9.) So here, even the king's this plain reason-Wicked men themselves heart is in the haud of the Lord,

are at enmity with God; and as he reads the rivers of water, he turneth it whither- the heart, he knows this; and that their soever he will." This is an evident allu- sacrifice is brought neither from sion to the antient method of watering of love nor gratitude, and therefore it cangardens, by directing sinall

not be acceptable. Much less can it be so through the grounds by the foot. (Deut. when brought with " a wicked mind," or xi. 10.) So with the same ease doth the “ in wickedness," as the Hebrew reads; Lord dispose of the hearts of men of all that is, from motives of hypocrisy, or to raoks in society, to fulfil bis purposes ; for answer some sinister design. See Ps. I. “ he doeth according to his will in the 7-23.

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NOTES-Chap. XXI. Con. Ver. 16. The congregation of the dead.-Sce Note pride;" i.e. in the excess, or ontrage of pride. on chap. ii. 18.

Ver. 28. A false witness - Hel. A witness of Ver. 17. He that loveth pleasure-Marg." Sport," lies." --But the man that heareth, &c.-The sense but the Hebrew rather means joy and festivity, which is, the false witness (Heb. " the witness of lies' agrees wit: the latter part of the verse.

shall be confronted and coafounded by the true wit Ver. 1R. The wicked shult be a ransom, &c.-See ness, who, having heard to the eod, (as the Hebrew chap, xi. R.

implies) speuketh constantly;" 1, c. gives a tree Ver. 19, in the wilderness-Heb.“ In the land of and consistent evidence, the desert." See ver. 9.

Ver. 29. He direoirth-Marg, " Considereth." Vor. 24. In proud wrath-Heb. “In the wrath of Ver. 31. But safety-Macg. " Victory."

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A continued discourse) CHAP. XXII. (on wisdom and prudence.

3 A prudent man foreseeth the evil, for the grace of his lips the king shall

and hideth himself: but the simple be his friend. atevai pase on, and are punished.

12 The eyes of the LORD preserve 4 By humility and the fear of the knowledge, and he overthroweth the of the poll Lord are riches, honour, and life. words of the transgressor.

5 Thorns and snares are in the 13 The slothful man saith, There wiched er way of the froward : he that doth keep is a lion without, I shall be slain in the his soul shall be far from them.

streets. 6 Train up a child in the way he 14 The mouth of strange women is

go: and when he is old, he will a deep pit : he that is abhorred of the no bartet pot depart from it.

Lord shall fall therein.

15 Foolishness is bound in the POGB, DD 7 The rich ruleth over the poor, and the borrower is servant to the heart of a child; but the rod of correc

tion shall drive it far from him. 8 He that soweth iniquity shall 16 He that oppresseth the poor to reap vanity: and the rod of his anger increase his riches, and he that giveth

to the rich, shall surely come to 9 lle that hath a bountiful eye want. (Y) shall be blessed; for he giveth of his 17 [ Bow down thine ear, and hear

the words of the wise, and apply thine 10 Cast out the scorner, and con- heart unto my knowledge.

tention shall go out; yea, strife and 18 For it is a pleasant thing if thou sather reproach shall cease.

keep them within thee; they shall 11 He that loveth pureness of heart, withal be fitted in thy lips.



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stand before the judgment seat of his CHAP. XXII.

Maker? (1) Ver. I-16. Conclusion of the second Another maxim of great importance, petrt of this book. The second maxim in and perhaps more frequently quoted than this chapter contains the true doctrine of any other in the book, relates to the great, equality: “The rich and the poor meet advantage of early education : “ Train up together: the Lord is the Maker of them a child in the way that he should go." The all.". Creatures, as creatures, are all equal margin says, “ Catechise;" but the frue in his sight: and however unequal their sense appears to be, initiate, or “ train up"

character and circumstances in life may in the practice of bis duty; and then there ed is any be, they are all equal in the grave, and

is great reason to hope be will form habits

of religion and good morals, from which of God u shall stand upon the same principle of

equality before his judgment' bar: “ for he will not be easily divertel. The word We must all appear before the judgment also siguifies to dedicute, (as Gesenius obSeat of Christ, that every one may receive serves) and the solemn dedication of chilthe things done in his body, whether good dren to God, is a probable means of deeply

This doctrine impressing them with their sense of duty; cuts up the rout of pride. What bath any and furnishes them with an important plea man that he hath not received ? Who shall dare to treat with cruelty and oppres

in prayer-" Our fathers Trusted in thee,

aud thou didst deliver them." sion the poor man, at whose side he may Ps. xxii. 4.

apter 1

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CHAP. XXII. Ver. I. A good name - that is,

Ver. 8. The rod of his anger shall fail-Marz.
Marg. “Favour is “ Shall be co'sumed.” So Holden. “ The rol (or

sceptre) of his anger," mcans his assumed authoriiy. ber. By humility-Marg. “ The reward of hu. Ver. 9. He tha: huth a bountiful eye-Heb." He mility," &c. 3o Mr. Holden and Dr. Boothroyd,

that is good of eye."
Ver. 6. Train up a child-Heb. "Initiate upon Ver. 11. For ihe grace of his lips-Marg. “ (And
the Boeth" i.e. hy the command, namely, of God. bath) gruce in his lips," &c.

In the way he should go - Hebrew, . In his Ver. 14. A deri pil-See chap, sxiii. 27.
#loitiate a child by the command (of God) in Itis
So that this clause might read literally,

Ver. 18. Within thee-Heb. " In thy belly." See
Nole on chap. xx. 30,

Ver. 29. Alean - Heb. “ Obscure;" i. e. either, Ver.7. To the lender-Heb. “To the man that


1. Men in darkness themselves, ignorant and mean; or, 2. Men unknowi, and undistinguished,


Farther miscellaneous] PROVERBS


ing of a lion ; but his favour is as dew CHAP. XIX.

upon the grass.

13 A foolish son is the calamity of BETTER is the poor that walketh his father : and the contentions of a

in his integrity, than he that is wife are a continual dropping. perverse in his lips, and is a fool. 14 House and riches are the inhe

2 Also, that the soul be without ritance of fathers : and a prudent wife knowledge, it is not good; and he that is from the Lord. hasteth with his feet sinneth.

15 Slothfulness casteth into a deep 3 The foolishness of man perverteth sleep; and an idle soul shall suffer his way: and his heart fretteth against hunger. the LORD.

16 He that keepeth the command4 Wealth maketh many friends; but ment keepeth his own soul ; but he that the poor is separated from his neigh- despiseth his ways shall die. bour.

17 He that hath pity upon the poor 5 A false witness shall not be un- lendeth unto the LORD; and that which punished, and he that speaketh lies he hath given will he pay him again. shall not escape.

18 Chasten thy son while there is 6 Many will intreat the favour of hope, and let not thy soul spare for the prince: and every man is a friend

his crying. to him that giveth gifts.

19 A man of great wrath shall suf7 All the brethren of the poor do fer punishment: for if thou deliver hate him: how much more do his him, yet thou must do it again. friends go far from him ? he pursueth 20 Hear counsel, and receive inthem with words, yet they are wanting struction, that thou mayest be wise in to him.

the latter end. 8 He that getteth wisdom loveth his 21 There are many devices in a own soul: he that keepeth understand- man's heart; nevertheless the counsel ing shall find good.

of the Lord, that shall stand. 9 A false witness shall not be un- 22 The desire of a man is his kindpunished, and he that speaketh lies ness; and a poor man is better than a shall perish.

liar. 10 Delight is not seemly for a fool; 23 The fear of the LORD tendeth to much less for a servant to have rule life: and he that hath it shall a bide over princes.

satisfied; he shall not be visited with 11 The discretion of a man defer- evil. reth his anger; and it is his glory to 24 A slothful man hideth his hand pass over a transgression.

in his bosom, and will not so much as 12 The king's wrath is as the roar- bring it to his mouth again.

NOTES. CHAP. XIX. Ver. 1. Betler is the poor, &c.- Ver. 16. He that keepeth the commandmert, (ri: This apothegm evidently wants point, which Mr. of God) keepeth, &c. Holden and others give it, by adding, from the Ver. 17. That which he hath giren-Boothroyd, parallel passage chap. xxviii. 6. the words, “though he be rieb," which make the sense complete.

“ His recompence will be rendered unto him." Ver. 2. He that hasleth with his seei -Compare

Ver. 18. Let nol thy soul spare for his crying

Marg. “ Spare to bis destruction." Holden, " And Isa, xxviii. 16.

thy soul will not desire (Boothroyd, not lift up a Ver.3. His heart fretteth-Holden,“ Murmureth.”

Wisla for) his death.”
Ver. 5 and 9. Be' unpunished —Heb. “ Held inno- Ver. 19. A man of great wrath ..:

I thou de cent." Ver. 6. To him that giveth gifts-Heb. “ To a

liver . . . . thou must do it again. That is, a vio

lent and passionate man is always getting into broils, man of gifts."

and incurring panishment. Ver. 8. Getteth nisdom-Heb. "Getteth an heart." Ver. 10. Delight-Rather " delicacy." See Deut.

Ver. 21. There are many devices, &c.-See chap.

xvi. I, 9. xxviii, 54, 56.

Ver 22. The desirp Ver. 13. A continual dropping.-" The waters,"

Rather, “the desirable," by a continual dropping," wear away the stones;">

Holden, "A desirable thing in man is his kindness," so the perpetual contentions of a brawling woman

and (or “but”) a poor man who can do nothing, wear away the peace and patience of her husband,

is better than a liar, who promises and nili de


Various moral]


[precepts continued. 25 Smite a scorner, and the simple cease from strife: but every fool will will beware: and reprove one that hath be meddling. understanding, and he will under- 4 The sluggard will not plow by stand knowledge.

reason of the cold ; therefore shall he 26 He that wasteth his father, and beg in harvest, and have nothing. chaseth away his mother, is a son 5 Counsel in the heart of man is like that causeth shame, and bringeth re- deep water; but a mau of understand, proach.

ing will draw it out. 27 Cease, my son, to hear the in- 6 Most men will proclaim every one struction that causeth to err from the his own goodness ? but a faithful man words of knowledge.

who can find ? 28 An ungodly witness scorneth 7 The just man walketh in his injudgment: and the mouth of the tegrity: his children are blessed after wicked devoureth iniquity.

him. 29 Judgments are prepared for 8 A king that sitteth in the throne scorders, and stripes for the back of of judgment scattereth away all evil

9 Who can say, I have made my CHAP. XX.

heart clean, I am pure from my sin ? WINE is a mocker, strong drink is 10 Divers weights, and divers mea

raging: and whosoever is de- sures, both of them are alike abomiceived thereby is not wise.

Dation to the LORD. 2. The fear of a king is as the roar- 11 Even a child is known by his ing of a lion : whoso provoketh him to doings, whether his work be pure, and anger sinpeth ugainst his own soul. whether it be right.

3 It is an honour for a man to 12 The hearing ear, and the seeing

fools. (T)

with his eyes.


especially the latter, of which he appears (T) Farther miscellaneous apothegms.- to have seen and felt the great importance, lo several of the proverbs in the early part and probably regretted his own neglect in of this cbapter, integrity, knowledge, and the case of his son Rehoboam, who, in truth, are contrasted with riches and folly: many respects, answered to the character and the poor man who is honest, intelli- · of the fool which he so well describes. gent, and pious, is preferred before the “Chasten,” or “ correct thy son while rieb man who is ignorant, perverse, and there is hope," implies that parental dis. fretful. Yet, such is the state of the world, cipline should begio early, to have its prothat Wealth maketh many friends, while per effect; for when habits of insubordiPoverty scatters them: still, in the sight nation are formed, the task is almost of God and good men, wisdom' is beiter bopeless. Of the latter clause, the margin than fully; and “ be that getteth and seems to direct to the preferable interprekeepeth understanding," shall find good tation : “Let not thy soul spare him to in the issue.

his own ruin," when perhaps even a palodustry, charity, and parental dis- rent's heart might rather wish to see him cipline, are favourite topics with Solomon, dead, than alive and criminal. (See Notes.)


NOTES. Ver. 24. Hideth his hand in his bosons.-T'sala. CHAP. XX. Ver. 2. The fear-that is, his wrath, chet is never the bosoia, but a pan, dish, or bowl, which excites fear, Comp. chap. xvi. 14.-xix. 12. wuch as the poor eat out if with their hands. 2 Kings Ver. 3. It is an honour for a man-Heb. Ish, a XXL 13; 2 Chron. xxxv. 13. See Oriental Customs,

man of rank or eininence, as opposed to a fool. No, Ni. The idle man dippeth his hand into the dish for soup, and will not so much as bring it to his

Ver.4. Cold-Marg.“ Winter," which is more ace : month again,

curate. Ver. 2. He that wasteth his father-Hodgson, Ver. 6. Most (or many) mon : : : . his own good. "He that plandereth his father, or driveth away his ness, (Marg:" bounty") hut a faithful man-a man other, is, &c.

who is all that he pretends to be-who, &c. Ver. 27. The instruction .... to err-that is, to hear errontans teachers. The supplemeulary words

Ver. 10. Divers weights, &c.-Heb. " A stone and A stone." --- Measures-—"An ephah and an ephah ?

i. e. stones of different weigbt, and measures of dir. Ver. 28. an ungodly witness-Heh. * A witness of Belial." See I Kings xxi. 10.

ferent capacity.

seen unnecessary.

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