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[divine protection. of thy wings will I make my refuge, 8 Awake up, my glory; awake, until these calamities be overpast. psaltery and harp: I myself will awake
2 I will cry unto God most high; early. unto God that performeth all things 9 I will praise thee, O LORD, among
the people: I will sing unto thee among 3 He shall send from heaven, and the nations. save me from the reproach of him that 10 For thy mercy is great unto the would swallow me up. Selah. God heavens, and thy truth unto the clouds. shall send forth his mercy and his 11 Be thou exalted, O God, above truth.
the heavens: let thy glory be above all 4 My soul is among lions: and I the earth. (I) lie even among them that are set on fire, even the sons of men, whose teeth
PSALM LVIII. are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword.
To the chief Musician. Al-taschith; Mich
tam of David. 5 Be thou exalted, O God, above the heavens; let thy glory be above all Do ye indeed speak righteousness,
O congregation? do ye judge up6 They have prepared a net for my rightly, O ye sons of men? steps; my soul is bowed down: they 2 Yea, in heart ye work wickedness; bare digged a pit before me, into the ye weig) the violence of your hands in midst whereof they are fallen them- the earth.
3 The wicked are estranged from the 7 My heart is fixed, O God, my womb: they go astray as soon as they heart is fixed: I will sing and give be born, speaking lies. praise.
4 Their poison is like the poison of
The occasion of this psalm appears to 1) David again implores protection from have been David's conscientiously refrainkis enemies, under the shadow of the Al- ing from doing any injury to Saul, when he mighty's wings. This is a very ancient had bim wholly in his power : (1 Sam. xxiv.) image, as may be seen in the Egyptian hiero- An act of honour and generosity this, glyphics
, and in classic authors; but is by which, for the moment, appears to have afnote so beautifully employed as by the fected the obdurate heart of Saul; but not sacred writers. We meet with it first in the to lave broken the confederacy of his Barrative of the creation, when the Spirit of enemies against him. These enemies God "brooded” upon the chaos, as a dove were men of fierce and fiery dispositions, over her nest, (Gen. i. 2.) Again, Moses re- setting all on fire around them, and being presents the Almighty as bearing up his themselves set on fire of hell. (See James people as an eagle doth her young upon her iii. 6.) As to hinc.self, he declares his wings. (Deut. xxxii. 11, 12.) And the resolution fixed to glorify God, both with psalmist here, and elsewhere, speaks of heart and tongue, which he calls his glory. the divine Being under the same image, “ The tongue then becomes the glory of as spreading abroad his wings for the pro- man, (says Bishop Horne,) when it is emfretion of his children from their enemies. 'ployed in setting forth the glory of God.”
D'salm xci. 1-4.)
NOTES. Ver. 1. In the shadow of thy wings. The hiero- PSALM LVIII. Ver. 1. O congregation.—The Tirphic here referred to, is that of the winged globe term, according to Ainsnorth, signifies any company in the front of their temples. The classical writers bound together; a confederacy, or conspiracy. Exekulus and Euripides, have been referred to; but Ye weigh the riolence, &c. - That is, instead of l be inage is sa natural, that we believe it may be foand in the poets of almost all countries.
weighing out equal justice, as they ought to do,
they weighed out violence and vengeance. Ver. 3. And save me - Ainsworth and Horsley
Ver. 3. As soon as they be born-Heb. " From the place a sessicolon'at me: and render the next line, belly." See Ps. xxii. 10. * He hath (or shall) pnt to reproach them,” &c.
Ver. 4. Their paison is like-Heb. “ According Ver. 4. Are set on fire-with rage and malice.
to the likeness of the poison of a serpent." - The Ver. 7. Is feared. Ainsworti, * Firmly prepared."
deaf adat;-Mars. Or wasp."
(of David's enemies. a serpent: they are like the deaf adder 10 The righteous shall rejoice when that stoppeth her ear;
he seeth the vengeance ; he shall wash 5 Which will not hearken to the his feet in the blood of the wicked. voice of charmers, charming never so 11 So that a man shall wisely.
there is a reward for the righteous : 6 Break their teeth, O God, in their verily he is a God that judgeth in the mouth: break out the great teeth of earth. (K) the young lions, O Lord. 7 Let them melt away as waters
PSALM LIX. which run continually: when he bend
[Omit in Family Reading.) eth his bow to shoot his arrows, let To the chief Musician. Al-taschith ; Michthem be as cut in pieces.
tam of David; when Saul sent and they 8 As a snail which melteth, let
watched the house to kill him. every one of them pass away: like the DELIVER me from mine enemies, 0 untimely birth of a woman, that they rise up against me.
my God: defend me from them that
2 Deliver me from may not see the sun.
the workers of iniquity, and save me from 9 Before your pots can feel the bloody men. 3 For, lo, they lie in wait thorns, he shall take them away as
for my soul : the mighty are gathered with a whirlwind, both living, and in
against me; not for my transgression, nor for my sin, o LORD,
4 They his wrath.
prepare themselves without my fault :
David then predicts their ruin in lan(K) The depravity of the wicked, and guage, which, though imprecatory in its especially of the men that had conspired form, should rather be considered as proagainst the psalmist's life. This and the phetic. To break the teeth of a lion, is tonext psalm, according to Bishop Patrick, deprive him of the power of destruction; precede the foregoing in date; and their and the melting of an army, is its deleat order appears to be retrograde; the next and being scattered. The metaphor of the being of earlier date than this, and this pot and the thorns is an evident allusion to of carlier date than the preceding. The the mauners of the Arabs, who, when they faction of Saul are here addressed as want to cook their food, collect bushes and confederated 10 take away David's life- brambles, living or dead, (that is, grecho “Do ye, indeed, speak righteousness (or dry,) to make a blaze; but, says he,“ be righteously,) O ye confederates?" and de- fore your pots can feel the thorns," (that i scribes them, from their natural depravity before they can be sensibly affected wit and depraved habits, as having their minds heat,) they shall be melted like the snow, O full of the poison of serpents, and the fero- swept away as with a whirlwind, in a mar city of lions; and not to be won upon by ner indicative of the power which does it any acts of generosity or kindness, as was so that men shall say, “ Verily, there is sufficiently evident, from the fact referred reward for the righteous." to in the preceding psalm, when the psalm- “ Thus shall the judgment of the Lord, ist not only refused to injure, but reso- Safety and joy to saints afford; lutely protected Saul's life. Saul, for the And all that bear shall join and say,
. Sure there's a God that reigns on high, inoment, appears to have been charmed by
A God that hears his children cry, it; but they were like deaf adders, who * And will their suflerings well repay."-Wa could not be charmed. (See I Sam. xxiv,
NOTES-Psalm LVIII. Con.
and dry, the charmer never so tunning.” The fact, that ser- Bishops Patrick and Lonth. pents may be so charmed by music as to render them Ver. 11. A renard of the righteous-Heb. * innosious, seeins indisputable ; and from this text it of the righteous." Reward is the fruit of obedie is equally certain that the charmer's art, in some cases, fails. See Calmel's Dict. by Taylor, in Asp. Comp. Ps. xci. 13.
PSALM LIX. Title-The title of this psalun Ver. 7. He bendeth .... his arrons-An clip- fciently explains the occasion of its being writ tical form of expression, not uncommon in Hebrew. which is recorded, 1 Sam. xix. 11. See Ps. Ixiv.3. Ver. 9. Both living and in his wrath-Fleb. “ As
Ver. 1. Defend' me--Heb. « From them that living as wrath;'' but some critics apply the phrase 'Ver. 1. They run and prepare that is, to al
[himself in God. awake to help me, and behold 5 Thou strove with Aram-naharaim, and with therefore, O LORD God of hosts, the God of Aram-zobah, when Joab returned, and Israel, awake to visit all the heathen : be smote of Edom in the valley of salt twelve not mereiful to any wicked transgressors.
thousand. Selah. 6 They return at evening: they make a noise like a dog, and go round
O GOD, thou hast cast us off, thou about the city 7 Behold, they belch
hast scattered us, thou hast been out with their mouth : swords are in their lips : for who, say they, doth hear? & But displeased ; 0 turn thyself to us again. thou, O LORD, shalt laugh at them; thou
2 Thou hast made the earth to shalt have all the heathen in derision, tremble ; thou hast broken it: heal the y Because of his strength will I wait upon breaches thereof; for it shaketh. thee: for God is my defence. 10 The God of my mercy shall prevent me : God
3 Thou hast shewed thy people hard shall let me see my desire upon mine ene- things: thou hast made us to drink the mies.
11 Slay them not, lest my people wine of astonishment. forget : scatter them by thy power; and bring them down, o Lord our shield. that feared thee, that it may be dis
4 Thou hast given a banner to them 12 For the sin of their mouth and the Words of their lips let them even be taken played because of the truth. Selah. in their pride: and for cursing and lying 5 That thy beloved may be deliverve kich they speak.
13 Consume them ed; save with thy right hand, and in wrath, consume them, that they may not be: and let them know that God ruleth in Jacob unto the ends of the earth. Selah.
6 God hath spoken in his holiness ; 14 And at evening let them return ; and let I will rejoice, I will divide Shechem, then make a noise like a dog, and go round and mete out the valley of Succoth. 15 Let them wander up
7 Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is and down for meat, and grudge if they be not satisfied.
16 But I will sing of thy mine ; Ephraim also is the strength of power; yea, I will sing aloud of thy mercy mine head ; Judah is my lawgiver ; in the morning : for thou hast been my de- 8 Moab is my washpot; over Edom fence and refuge in the day of my trouble. will I cast out my shoe: Philistia, tri? Unto thee, O my strength, will I sing : for God is my defence, and the God of my umph thou because of me.
9 Who will bring me into the
strong city? who will lead me into PSALM LX.
Edom? To the chief Musician upon Shushan-eduth.
10 Wilt not thou, O God, which Michtum of David, to teach ; when he hadst cast us off? and thou, O God,
about the city.
NOTES we (David) wilhout my fault ; i. e. without any And grudge, &c.-Marg, "If they be not satis
fied, they will stay all night.” So the elegant writer 1x7.5. To any wicked transgressors. These were
just cited. probably Canganitish slaves, who had been previotsly devoted to destruction ; but having been spared PSALM LX. Title Shushan-eduth. These
war, were incorporated into Saul's army against words literally mean, “ The lily of the testimony;" David, as more likely to find him out, and more but what that means, it seems in vain to conjecture : ready to destroy him, than his own countrymen. from the lily being a six-leaved flower, it has been Bishop Horne, however, renders this verse in the supposed that the word may also mean a six-stringed future tense, instead of the imperative: “Thou instrument. --- Aram-ngharaim; the Syrians of will not be merciful," &c.
Mesopotamia. Aram-zobal; the Syrians of Ver. 6 and 14. Go'round about the city. It should Zobah. be recollected, that in the East, dogs are not domes. Ver. 3. Hard things—That is, severe trials. --ticated, as with us, but surround the walls of a lown, The wine of astonishment.---By this we understand where they bowl, and watch for prey.
that they were stupitied with these afflictions, like Ver, 7, They belch out
Ainsworth, “utter;" persons stupified with wine; perhaps wine whose poer out, like a fountain. See Jer. vi. 7.
etfects had been increased with deleterious drugs. Ver. 13. Consume them - The Hebrew literally (See Isa. li. 17-23.) Titans, to finish, bring to an end; namely, the ban- Ver. 4. Given a banner,--A pledge of safety and duti. The psalmist, rer. 11. prays, * Slay them protection. Se Orient. Lit. No. 772. not; " i.e. take not away their lives as individuals; Ver. 6. Goil hoth spoken in nis holiness-Or, by bet put an end to the conspiracy. Bishops Horne his holy one (as Bp. Horne); i. c. by his holy oraele. and Herzley, who suppose the psalmist to speak in This seems to refer to the promise of dividing the the person of the Messiah, apply this to the disper- whole land of Canaan to Israel, Josh, i. 6; Psal. sion of the Jews, and the overthrow of their esta- lxxxix. 35.-----Because of me-Marg.“ Over me." bliskaert, not observing that they are twice said Ver.9. The strong city --Heb.“ City of defepce," vezes 3 and 8) to be heathen. See on ver. 5. i.e. the fortified city : probably referring either to Yes, 18. Let there wander....
for meat --Marg. Rabbah, 2 Sam. xi, 26, &c. or to Bosrah, Isa. Ixiii. " To eat" Mr. Hervey, (still better) * to devour."
David again implores]
[divine protection. which didst not go out with our HEAR my cry, O God; attend armies?
unto my prayer. 11 Give us help from trouble: for 2 From the end of the earth will I vain is the help of man.
cry unto thee, when my heart is over12 Through God we shall do vali- whelmed : lead me to the rock that is antly: for he it is that shall tread higher than I. down our enemies. (L)
3 For thou hast been a shelter for PSALM LXI.
me, and a strong tower from the To the chief Musician upon Neginah.
enemy. A Psalm of David.
4 I will abide in thy tabernacle for
for the convulsions into which the country PSALM LX.
had been thrown by the threats and inva(L) David rejoices the prospect of sions of the enemy. victory over all his enemies.—The history Of the places bere mentioned, Shechein here referred to has been already consi- was near Samaria; the valley of Succoth, dered on 2 Sam. chap. viii. to which we the land of Gileari, &c. were on the east must refer our readers. The enemies here side of Jordan. These places had probably named, are the Syrians of Mesopotamia been invaded by their enemies, lying in the and of Zubah, and the Edomites in the
most exposed parts of the country; of them valley of salt, so called probably from its he not only anticipates the recovery, but salt-pits. The victory here ascribe, to also the subjugation (in part at least) of Joab, is, in the passage above referred to, Moab, Edom, and Philistia, as in the seascribed to David, and in 1 Chron. xviii. 12. quel came to pass : but the epithets here to Abisbai, Joab's brother. The fact, as
made use of may require some explauaMr. Ainsworth remarks, appears to have tion. The mention of Gilead and Manasbeen, that Abishai began the attack and seh intiniates that all Israel had now subslew 6000, Joab followed and slew 12,000; mitted to David's government. Ephraim, and both being David's generals, of course
as a powerful and warlike tribe, maiuly they contributed to the increase of David's
contributed to the strength of his king: fame, especially as he was himself a mili
dom; it was his strength or horn. Judah tary prince, and the subdued powers would being the tribe of David, who was now naturally refer their defeat to him.
king, may be said to have given law to the It should be recollected, that Israel had whole country, and therefore is called the been in a low state during the reign of lawgiver. Moab having fallen into a state Saul (1 Sam. xiii. 19–22.) to which they of degrading idolatry, is compared to a were probably again reduced, by his defeat vessel for washing the feet-a“ wash-pot." and death, about sixteen or seventeen - Casting the shoe over Edom was an ancient years before these victories; and that
form of taking possession. (See Ruth iv.7.) David bad not been more than ten years But the apostrophe to Philistia is the lan. upon the throne of all Israel. Even more
guage of irony, and of defiance : “ Philis. recently, as Michaelis (in Lowth,) observes, tia, triumph thou over me!" as if he had soine unfortunate circumstances must have said, “ Thou hast been used to insult and occurred that are not recorded, from the triumph over me; but circumstances are Idumeans having penetrated so far as the now reversed, and it is my turn to shout aud valley of salt, which he considers not more triumph over thee." (See Psalm cviii. 9.). than a day's journey from Jerusalem. These Such seems the literal import of this victories, however, completely changed the interesting psalm; but we must not conaspect of affairs ; but this animated song of clude here. "As David was a type of Christ, triumph seems to have been written prior so was the Jewish of the Christian churcb; to the victories, and to have been rather and this psalm has evidently a prospective the language of faith in their anticipation, view to the future triumphs of Messiah, than of thanksgiving afterwards. What when Jews and Gentiles shall be united is said of the earth,
or the land of Israel under his goveryment, and there shall be (as the Chaldee explains it,) being made but “ one Lord, and his name one, in all to tremble, must be takeu metaphorically, the earth.” (Zech, xiv. 9.)
NOTES. PSALM LXI. Title-l'pon Neginah, or Negi. See Note on Ps. Ivii, 1. nath; the singular of Neginoth, title of P's.ir. vi. kc. Ver. 6. Thou will prolong, &c.-Heb. * Thou
Ver. 2. Higher than 1. That is, than I can climb shalt add days to the king's days: his years (shall to. Ainsworih.
bH) us generatiou and generation. Ver. 4. I will trust-- Marg, "Make my refuge."
The vanity of ]
[trusting in man. erer: I will trust in the covert of thy down from his excellency: they delight wings. Selah.
in lies: they bless with their mouth, 5 For thou, O God, hast heard my but they curse inwardly. Selah. vows: thou has given me the heritage 5 My soul, wait thou only upon of those that fear thy name.
God; for my expectation is from him, 6 Thou wilt prolong the king's life: 6 He only is my rock and my saland his years as many generations,
vation: he is my defence ; I shall not 7 He shall abide before God for be moved. ever: O prepare mercy and truth, 7 In God is my salvation and my which may preserve him.
glory: the rock of my strength, and my 8 So will I sing praise unto thy refuge, is in God. name for ever, that I may daily per
8 Trust in him at all times : ye peoform my vows. (M)
ple, pour out your heart before him :
9 Surely men of low degree are To the chief Musician, to Jeduthun, vanity, and men of high degree are a A Psalm of David.
lie: to be laid in the balance, they are TRULY my soul waiteth upon God: altogether lighter than vanity.
from him cometh my salvation. 10 Trust not in oppression, and be2 He only is my rock and my sal- come not vain in robbery: if riches inration; he is my defence; I shall not crease, set not your heart upon them. be greatly moved.
11 God hath spoken once; twice 3 How long will ye imagine mis- have I heard this ; that
power belongchief against a man? 'Ye shall be slain eth unto God. all of rou: as a bowing wall shull ye 12 Also unto thee, O Lord, belongbe, and as a tottering fence.
eth mercy : for thou renderest to every 4 They only consult to cast him, man according to his work. (N)
should be no end. So the Chaldee applies (M) The psalmist triumphs in the divine it to the king Messiah. protection. This psalm is generally, and
« O lead me to the rock naturally supposed to have beeu written by
That's high above my head; David, wbile excluded from the metropolis
And make the covert of thy wings, hy Absalon. When driven from place to
My shelter and
shade." - Watts. place, and from rock to rock for shelter,
PSALM LXII. he prays to be directed to a rock higher (N) David encourages himself in the tban be could reach; that is, that the Lord divine power and mercy.--The occasion of himself would be his rock, his shelter, and this psalm is unknown; but it was evidently his tower. “ Such, (says he,) thou hast written when he was in a happy frame of been, therefore will I return to thy taber- mind, trusting in God, and encouraging nacle, to pay the vows offered in my dis- others to trust in him also ;-to wait in tress, and there abide for ever.” Such ex- silence, and with patience, the fulfilment pressions can scarcely be restrained to a of his promises, and to pour out their frail and mortal life, which seldom exceeds hearts in prayer before him. The doctrines the bounds of seventy years, but must of the latter part of the psalm are chiefly necessarily include a reference to another two: 1. The folly and danger of putting lise, another tabernacle, another king, of our trust in man. • Men of low degree whom he considered himself a type only: are vanity !” they have no stability.“ Men a king, whose life should endure to many of high degree are a lie," which is still generations, and of whose dominion there worse: they have no regard to truth; no
Ver. 3. A tottering fence–That is, a fence shored Ver. I. Truly - Marg. " Only."
My soul against. See Ainsworth. Faiteth-That is, in patient silence. So the Hebrew Ver. 4. Curse inwardly-Heb. In their inward implies, as marked in the margin.
parts;" i. e. from their hearts,