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and her] PSALMS.

[deliverer. the God of Jacob is our refuge. Selah. 11 The Lord of hosts is with us;

8 Come, behold the works of the the God of Jacob is our refuge. SeLORD, what desolations he hath made lah. (A). in the earth.

PSALM XLVII. 9 He maketh wars to cease unto the end of the earth; he breaketh the bow, To the chief Musician. A Psalm for the

Sons of Korah, and cutteth the spear in sunder; he burneth the chariot in the fire. O CLAP your hands, all ye people ;

10 Be still, and know that I am shout unto God with the voice of God: I will be exalted among the hea- triumph. then, I will be exalted in the earth. 2 For the Lord most high is terri

EXPOSITION. sovereign. The perfumed garments, here bamed, were typical both of the virtues of

PSALM XLVI. the Redeemer himself, and of the internal (A) A Psalm expressive of faith in God, comforts of the Holy Spirit. But the in- and gratitude for national deliverance. cense fumed upou the golden altar was Neither the author nor the occasion of this typical of a far inferior, though of a pre- psalın is on record : it is, bowever, a very cious and holy thing : namely, of what- sublime and animated composition. Bishops ever is pleasing to God, in the faith, the Patrick and Lowth suppose it to have been devotious, and the good works of the written by David, on occasion of his vicsaints. “Now, (says Bishop Horsley,) the tory over his enemies, as mentioned in the psalmist says that the fragrance breathing eighth chapter of the second book of Safrom the garments of the king, far excels, muel; but the learned Rosenmüller thinks not only the sweetest odours of any earthly it was written on occasion of the victory of monarch's palace, but that it surpasses Jehoshaphat, which was celebrated with those spiritual odours of sanctity in wbich great rejoicing, as we find in 2 Chron. xx. the king himself delights. The consola- 26–30. As, however, we have no data, tions ahich the faithful, under all their it would be presumptuous to decide. But sufferings, receive from him, in the exam the psalm appears to us rather to be the ple of bis holy life, the ministration of the language of faith under threatened diffiword and sacraments, and the succours of culties, than of triumph over vanquished the Spirit, are far beyond the proportion of foes. In that view Luther composed a faally thing they have to offer in return to mous version of it on his journey to the biin in their praises, their prayers, and Diet of Worms, where he went boldly to their good lives; notwithstanding, in these defend the Reformation, at the risk of his their services he condescends to take de- own life; and it was often his cry, when light. This is the doctrine of this highly threatened with any fresh trouble, “ Let mystic text, that the value of all our best us sing the forty-sixth Psalm !" Works of faith and obedience, even in our

So Bishop Horne explains it : « The onu eyes, must sink into nothing when Church, in time of trouble, declares her they are contrasted with the exuberant trust and confidence in God, and doubts Inercy of God extended to us through not of being preserved safe by this ancbur Christ." (Horsley's Ser. i. p. 124.)

in the most stormy seasons : even then The latter part of this most interesting enjoying the comforts of the Spirit, and the psalın seems particularly to indicate the presence of God in the midst of her, and calling of the Gentiles; for it is that bidding defiance to all her foes." Finally, church, and not the Jewish church, which God himself is introduced as speaking the is bere called upon to forget her “own stormy nations into obedience, and burupeople” and her father's house,

ing all the implements of war. "So shall the King the more rejoice

“ Silence, ( earth! thy Maker own: In thee, the favogrite of his choice :

Ye gentiles, he is God alone: Let hito be lov'd, and yet ador'd,

The Lord of hosts is in the field, Fer He's thy Maker, and thy Lord.”

The God of Jacob is our shield.”-Montgomery.


NOTES. PSALM XLVII. Ver. 2. Terrible - Ainsworth, Ver. 4. The excellency of Jacob.--The tabernacle, "fearful :" a God of awal majesty,

(or temple) and its sacred institutions,

A song of praise]


(for national mercies. ble; he is a great King over all the 2 Beautiful for situation, the joy of earth.

the whole earth, is mount Zion, on the 3 He shall subdue the people under sides of the north, the city of the date us, and the nations under our feet.

great King. 4 He shall choose our inheritance 3 God is known in her palaces for for us, the excellency of Jacob whom a refuge. he loved. Selah.

4 For, lo, the kings were assembled, 5 God is gone up with a shout, the they passed by together. Lord with the sound of a trumpet. 5 They saw it, and so they mar

6 Sing praises to God, sing praises: velled; they were troubled, and hasted sing praises unto our King, sing praises. away.

7 For God is the King of all the 6 Fcar took hold upon them there, earth: sing ye praises with under- and pain, as of a woman in travail. standing.

7 Thou breakest the ships of Tar8 God reigneth over the heathen: shish with an east wind. God sitteth upon the throne of his ho- 8 As we have heard, so have we liness.

seen in the city of the Lord of hosts, 9 The princes of the people are ga- in'the city of our God: God will estathered together, even the people of the blish it for ever. Selah. God of Abraham : for the shields of 9 We have thought of thy lovingthe earth belong unto God : he is kindness, O God, in the midst of thy greatly exalted. (B)


10 According to thy name, O God, PSALM XLVIII.

so is thy praise unto the ends of the A Song and Psalm, for the Sons of Korah, earth: thy right hand is full of righteGI REAT is the Lorn, and greatly 11 Let mount Zion rejoice, let the

to be praised in the city of our daughters of Judah be glad, because God, in the mountain of his holiness. of thy judgments.



debased (so far as we know,) by either in(B), A Psalm of Joy and Praise.-- This temperance or profaneness.

The conis generally considered tu have been com- stant, though distant expectation of the posed by David (though his name is not Messiah, seems to have sanctified their prefixed,) on occasion of removing the ark joy, and turned their songs of triumpha to Mount Zion, and probably repeated on its removal to the temple of Soloinon. occasion, all who were Israelites indeed,

into hymns of praise; and in every great (See 2 Sam. vi. and 2 Chron v.) But it bas were led to look forward to the great beam bastantly applied by the Christian

events of the expected “world to coine: church to the triumphant ascension of our as the Jews designated the days of their Saviour into heaven. (Compare Ps. Ixviii. Messiah. I'npardonable, then, is it in 16–18.) It appears by this and o: her psalms, that lemn festivals by an'admixture of vulgar

professing Christians, to 'debase their suthe public processions of the Hebrews themes and carnal joys, especially when were no less animated and noisy than those surrounded hy so many circumstances that of the ancient heathens and modern Chris. call for gratitude and praise. tians : but in one important respect they

“ In Israel stood his ancient throne, differed; their rejoicings-their shouting, -were the voice of solemn praise, and not And gentiles taste is grace. -**Walls.

He lov'd that chosen race;

NOTES-Psalın XLVII. Con. Ver. j. God is gone np--That is, the ark, the sym. bol of the divine presence, unto the hill or Zion.

inasters, or delenders, its rulers and its warrior

, Ver. 9. The princes--Marg. " The voluntary of the people;" i. p. the noble volunteers, who fougit

with the same ease that a soldier wields his shield not as mercenaries, but for the freedom of their country; these " are gathered (unto) the people.”

PSALM XLVIII. Ver. 2. Beautiful for situatie &c. The shields of the earth - That is, its

Ibid, on the sides of the world (is) the city

The misery]


[of the wicked. 12 Walk about Zion, and go round ble: I will open my dark saying upon about her: tell the towers thereof.

the harp 13 Mark ye well her bulwarks, con- 5 Wherefore should I fear in the sider her palaces; that ye may tell it days of evil, when the iniquity of my to the generation following.

heels shall compass me about? 14 For this God is our God for ever 6 They that trust in their wealth, and ever: he will be our guide even and boast themselves in the multitude unto death. (C)

of their riches;

7 None of them can by any means PSALM XLIX.

redeem his brother, nor give to God a To the chief Musician, A Psalm for the sons

ransom for him: of Korah.

8 (For the redemption of their soul HEAR thuis, all ye people; give is precious, and it ceaseth for ever :)

inhabitants of the 9 That he should still live for ever,

and not see corruption. 2 Both low and high, rich and poor,

10 For he seeth that wise men die, together.

likewise the fool and the brutish per3 My mouth shall speak of wisdom; son perish, and leave their wealth to and the meditation of my heart shall others. de of understanding

11 Their inward thought is, that 4 I will incline mine ear to a para- their houses shall continue for ever,

ear, all



meaning the largest ships then known, (C) A Song of Praise for a great na- may not, perhaps, imply the occurrence of tional delwerance.-The date of this psalm an actual storm; but only the total defeat can only be conjectured from internal evi- of these confederate powers, as vessels at dence. Bishop Patrick supposes it to have sea, by the fury of an east wind. been composed on the great victory of On whatever occasion, however, this Jehoshaphat, (2 Chron. xx.) Others con- psalm was written, the first and more imjecture it might be composed for the dedi- inediate object of the writer was to lead his cation of the second temple : but we con. countrymen to look to the God of Israel as fess we are disposed to refer it to the age their only sure protection and defence · of David: it was probably written by him on

whether it were from storms at sea, or his victory over the Syrians and their con- enemies on land. Zion, indeed, was an federates. (2 Sam. x. 15–19.) Nor is the elevated situation and well fortitied: but mention of God's temple an objection, her true strength lay, not in her bulwarks, since we have met with several iüstances or her towers, but in that God who resided of the tabernacle itself being called by that in them. So it is in the Christian church name. It even appears to us, that so much Messiah, who resides therein, is butla her would not have been said of Mount Zion if strength and glory. the temple on Mount Moriah had been

"This God is the God we adore, Dow erected.

Our faithful unchangeable friend;

His love is not less than his power, What is said of the ships of Tarshish, And neither knows measure nor end."

NOTES. the great king—That is, Jerusalem and the temple particle signifies beyond, in respect of time, Profeswere on the north of Zion.

sor Gesenius refers to Lev. xv. 25. The LXX renVer. 7. The ships of Tarshish.-By these may be der it like the preceding phrase, “ for ever.” saderstood, large ships; and the sense may be, that God visited their enemies with a tempest, enough to PSALM XLIX. Ver. 4. Dark saying-(Chidah) break the strongest ships, even those built for foreign An enigina, riddle, or pointed saying. Bp. Lowth. service. Sep Taylor's Calmet.

Ver. 5. The iniquity of my heels-Rather, “ of Ver. 10. So is (or be) thy praise--That is, cor- those that lie in wait for me." Bp. Lonth. Tepending to the glory thou hast already

acquired. Ver. 7. Rederm his brother-That is, from death, Fer. 13. Merk ye well her bulwarks-Heb. “ Set or the grave, as in ver. 9. Her heart to;" i. e, contemplate. Consider- Ver. 8. It ceaseth for ever-That is, after death Warz " raise up; " rather, as Parkhurst, " distin- there is no more redemption. Comp. Heb. x. 18, 26. xush, count. Compare ver. preceding.

Ver. 11. To all generations - Hei).“ To generaVer

. 14. Even unto death – Berond death,” tion and generation," i. e. "one generativn aster Mr. Vasittert (Sermon before the University of apother." Oxford, 1870. As an instance that the Hebrew


The frailty]

[of man. and their dwelling places to all gene- made rich, when the glory of his rations; they call their lands after house is increased ; their own names.

17 For when he dieth he shall carry 12 Nevertheless man being in ho- nothing away: bis glory shall not denour abideth not: he is like the beasts scend after him. that perish.

18 Though while he lived he blessed 13 This their way is their folly: yet his soul: and men will praise thee, ir their posterity approve their sayings. when thou doest well to thyself

. Selah.

19 He shall go to the generation of 14 Like sheep they are laid in the his fathers; they shall never see light. grave; death shall feed on them; and 20 Man that is in honour, and unthe upright shall have dominion over derstandeth not, is like the beasts that them in the morning; and their beauty perish. (D) shall consume in the grave from their dwelling.

PSALM L. '15 But God will redeem my soul

A Psalm of Asaph. from the power of the grave: for he shall receive me. Selah.

THE mighty God, even the Lord, 16 Be not thou afraid when one is hath spoken, and called the earth

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nor is there any redemption in the grave (D) The misery of being rich and great The rich vainly please themselves in perwithout religion. The author and occasion petuating their names in their possessions of this psalm are alike unknown, nor are

and their posterity, and forget that they there any internal circumstances that can themselves must die. Yet their carcases decide. It is, however, generally supposed are laid in the grave, like slaughtered to have been written durin; the captivity, sheep; and death, like a voracious wöll, and to have been intended to counteract feeds thereon. Verily,' says the psalm. the Epicurean notions of the heathen. The ist, “God shall redeem my soul; from the style is enigmatical (ver. 4.); we may hand of the grave he shall rescue me;" therefore be prepared for difficulties, of which is to me, far greater consolation, which there are indeed many, as may be than to die possessed of riches or of hoseen in our Notes : yet some critics, by nours, which would then be perfectly useseeking for more mysteries than the psalın less.'-— The last verse so much reseinbles the contains, have much increased them. The twelfth, that some critics have supposed general desigu and purport of the psalm they must have been originally the same; we conceive to be as follows:

but this is by no means certain. The writer, it should seem, was of the sense of both is comprised in the following poorer class, and his enemies great and

" Men void of wisdom and of grace, wealthy; yet, says he, “Why should I fear

If honour raise them high, them? They are inortal as well as me.

Live like the beast, a thoughtless race, None can ransom ihe life of his brother, And like the beast they die."- Walls.



NOTES–Psalm XLIX. Con. Ver. 12. Nevertheless, man, &c.-- More literally, supposed that Cerberus feasted on the bodies in the “ Man in honour resteth not." The original term,

grave. (Orient. Lit. No. 767.) But the LXX read according to Ainsworth, means, to take a night's * Death shall seed (or rule) 'them," as a shepber lodging. " he sense seems to us, " Man is perpetu- does his sheep. So Kennicolt and Horsley, " Dent ally restless, never satisfied with his present situa- is their shepherd :" but query? tion. Most of the ancient versions read, as in the 1bid. Their beauty – Marg. " Strength;" Ains last verse, " understandeth not." So Kennicott and

worth, "image, forin," &c. --Shall consume-0 Horsley; but they are not supported by NSS. “Be consumed” in the grave; or rather, as we be

Ibid." He is like the beasts that perish-- Ainsworth, leave to suggest, “ Their form shall be consumec "Are silenced;" Bennicot!," Godown into silence; the grave (being) their dwelling place.' Horsley, " Sink into nothing.” Comp. Eccl. iii. 21. Ver. 13. Aprove their savings-Marg. “Delight (or bell) shall he rescue me. -The word sheol bei

Ver. 15. From the power (or band) of the gras in their month ;" i. c. in their words.

equivocal, bas been variously translated.

See No Ver. 14. like sheep they are laid in the grave- on Ps. xvi. 30. We have followed boothroyd a Vansittart, “They are laid in the grave like sheep others, in rejecting the Masoretic pointing of u (in a fold).” The sense appears to us, they die and are buried, without being able to resist. See Ver. 1R, While he lived-Heb.“ In his life." Ps. xliv. 11, 22.

Ver. 19. He shall go - Heb. “ 11 (i, e. the so Ibid. Death shall fred on them.--So the heathen shall go,' &c.


God will)


(judge hypocrites. from the rising of the sun unto the

13 Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or going down thereof.

drink the blood of goats ? 2 Out of Zion, the perfection of 14 Offer unto God thanksgiving; beauty, God hath shined.

and pay thy vows unto the most high: 3 Our God shall come, and shall 15 And call upon me in the day of not keep silence: a fire shall devour trouble: I will deliver thee, and thou before him, and it shall be

very tem

shalt glorify me. pestuous round about him.

16 But unto the wicked God saith, 4 He shall call to the heavens from What hast thou to do to declare my abore, and to the earth, that he may statutes, or that thou shouldest take judge his people.

my covenant in thy mouth? 5 Gather my saints together unto 17 Seeing thou hatest instruction, me; those that have made a covenant and castest my words behind thee. with me by sacrifice.

18 When thou sawest a thief, then 6 And the heavens shall declare thou consentedst with him, and hast his righteousness: for God is judge been partaker with adulterers. himself. Selah.

19 Thou givest thy mouth to evil, 7 Hear, O my people, and I will and thy tongue frameth deceit. speak; O Israel, and I will testify 20 Thou sittest and speakest against against thee: I am God, even thy God. thy brother; thou slanderest thine own 8 I will not reprove thee for thy sa•

mother's son. critices or thy burnt offerings, to have 21 These things hast thou done, been continually before me.

and I kept silence; thou thoughtest 9 I will take no bullock out of thy that I was altogether such an one as house, nor he-goats out of thy folds. thyself: but I will reprove thee, and

10 For every beast of the forest is set them in order before thine eyes. mine, and the cattle upon a thousand 22 Now consider this, ye that for: hills.

get God, lest I tear you in pieces, and 11 I know all the fowls of the there be none to deliver. mountains: and the wild beasts of the 23 Whoso offereth praise glorifieth field are mine.

me: and to him that ordereth his con12 If I were hungry, I would not versation aright will I shew the salvatell thee: for the world is mine, and tion of God. (E) the fulness thereof.


displayed from Zion. The scene is that of (E) God's judgment against hypocrisy. supreme judgment; but it extends bot to This is the first of twelve psalms attributed the world at large, but Israel only, the to Asaph, the contemporary of king David, professed people of JEHOVAH, who are and whose compositions rank next to those summoned froin east to west to appear beof the royal psalmist. (1 Chron. xvi. 7.) fore him, and answer to his charge. This The introduction has much sublimity and is not the neglect of external sacrifices, for grandeur, the imagery being borrowed they, alone considered, are of little estifrom the giving of the law at mount Sinai, mation in the sight of God; but the want (Deut. xxxii. 2.); only instead of shining of devotion of heart, and purity of life. forth from the wilderness, God's glory is He who owns all the beasts, both of the

NOTES. PSALM L Ver. 5. Gather my saints — Ains. Ver. 18. Hast been partaker-Heb. " Thy portion worth, " My gracious ones;” those who, professing (

(was) with adulterers." to have received grace and mercy, are bound to dis- Ver. 22. Lest I tear you in pieces.-The Almighty, play it to all around them.--Those who have made thus provoked by their hypocrisy, compares himself -trieter, or cut a covenant with me by sacritice; to an incensed lion. See Hos, v. 14. Exit was by the death of the sacrifice the covenant Ver 23. That orderet he his conversation-Heb. wa tenirmed. Heb. ix. 22.

“ That disposeth his way;") i.e, that regulates his Tere, I will not reprove, &c. See Isa. i. 11-15 conduct by God's word. Vet. Il. Art mine Aeb. * With me."

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