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An Evening]
PSALMS.

[Psalm. Lord: thy blessing is upon thy people. Lord will hear when I call unto him. Selah. (C)

4 Stand in awe, and sin not: comPSALM IV.

mune with your own heart upon your

bed, and be still. Selah. To the chief Musician on Neginoth. A 5 Offer the sacrifices of righteousPsalm of David.

ness, and put your trust in the LORD. HEAR me when I call, O God of 6 There be many that say, Who my righteousness: thou hast en- will shew us any good ?

LORD, lift larged me when I was in distress; have thou up the light of thy countenance mercy upon me, and hear my prayer.

2 ye sons of men, how long will 7 Thou hast put gladness in my ye turn my glory into shame? how heart, more than in the time that their long will ye love vanity, and seek after corn and their wine increased. leasing? Selah.

8 I will both lay me down in peace, 3 But know that the Lord hath set and sleep: for thou, LORD,only makest apart him that is godly for himself: the me dwell in safety. (D)

upon us.

EXPOSITION.
PSALM III.

ourselves, as both David and Messiah did, (C) A Psalm of David, for the morning. in the consideration that “ salvation be—This psalm is said to have been com- longeth unto God," and he is “a sbield unto posed by David, when he fled from his son all them that trust in him.” Under these Absalom. “ Thus circumstanced, (says considerations, we may at night “lie down Bishop Horne) he expresses himself in in peace,” and in confidence of diviue terms well adapted to the parallel case of protection ; and in the morning, arise and the Son of David, persecuted by rebellious praise our great Deliverer. Israel; as also to that of his church, suffer- “ My God sustain’d me all the night; ing tribulation in the world.” The psalmist Salvation doth to God belong : " complains, in inuch anguish, of the

He rais'd my head to see the light, multitude of his enemies, and of the re

And make his praise my morning song." Watts. proaches cast upon him, as one forsaken

PSALM IV. by God;" but declaring, notwithstanding, (1)) A Psalm of David, for the evening. his sure trust in the divine promises, he –This, like many other psalms, is in the derides the impotent malice of his ene · title directed to is the chief musician on mies, and ascribes his anticipated salvation Nezinoth," or, “ the overseer of the per to Jehovah. Thus is the same scripture formers on stringed instruments," includ. made “profitable" to a variety of useful ing the harp, psaltery, and other instripurposes. (2 Tim. iii. 16.) If we lonk meots played with the hand : so the followback to the original occasion of the psalm, ing psalm is dedicated “ to the chief mu. we cannot but grieve to hear the venerable sician on Nehiloth," or to the overseer of monarch say of his own rebellious son, the performers on wind instruments," as “ Arise and Aee, for we shall not else the organ, and other pipes. The trumpets escape from Absaloin : make speed to de- were performed on by the priests only; part, lest he overtake us, and smite the but these two classes of instruments, as city with the edge of the sword.". (2 Sam. already intimated, were properly used to xv. 14.) If we look forward to David's accompany two choirs of singers, which Son and successor, we may mark the performed alternately, and when they period when Jew and Gentile conspired united in general chorus, the trumpets, against him, as stated in the preceding horns, and cymbals, were probably joined psalm. If we look within, we shall always with them. This was an mening psalmı, find enemies ready to rise up against us: and probably used at the time of the evenwe may, however, here also encourage ing sacrifice. It is, bowever, equally

NOTES. PSALM IV. Titik,-- To the Chief. “The ori- if the leader were always placed, as with us, at the ginal word (menatseach) signifies one that migeth end of the row of musicians which he superiutended, the continuance of any thiny unto the end, 2 Chron. it will be easily accounted for. xxii, 18, and xxxiv, 12, 13..... There were Levites Ver. 2. Leasing - Horsley, " falsehood." appointed to sereral duties; and some (lenatsrach) Ver 4. Stand in arr-Bishop Hurur, “tremble." to set forward, and be over the rest, i Chron. xv.21. But the Greek translators renderit, - Be angry and and there were such as excelled in the art of singing sin not;”and so it is quoted by St. Paul, Ephes. iv.o. and playing upon instruments. . . . . Some Levites Ver. 7. More than' in the time-" Beyond," or had no other charge." Ainsworth. The LXX render " superior to,” Bishop Lonth. Lemnatseach, " to the end)," (ris telos) whiclı the Ver. 8. I will both, &c.- I will at once," Lond. critics bare been much puzzled to account for; but

will I pray.

A Morning)
PSALMS.

[Psalm. PSALM V.

bloody and deceitful man. To the chief Musician upon Nehiloth. A 7 But as for me, I will come into Psalm of David.

thy house in the multitude of thy GIVE ear to my words, O Lord, mercy: and in thy fear will I worship

consider my meditation. toward thy holy temple. 2 Hearken unto the voice of my cry, 8 Lead me, O LORD, in thy rightemy king, and my God: for unto thee ousness because of mine enemies ;

make thy way straight before my face. 3 My voice shalt thou hear in the 9 For there is no faithfulness in morning, O Lord; in the morning will their mouth; their inward part is very I direct my prayer unto thee, and wickedness; their throat is an open

sepulchre; they flatter with their 4 For thou art not a God that hath tongue. pleasure in wickedness : neither shall 10 Destroy thou them, O God; let evil dwell with thee.

them fall by their own counsels; cast 5 The foolish shall not stand in thy them out in the multitude of their sight: thou hatest all workers of ini- transgressions, for they have rebelled quity.

against thee. 6 Thou shalt destroy them that 11 But let all those that put their speak leasing: the LORD will abhor the trust in thee rejoice: let them erer

will look up.

EXPOSITION. adapted to the use of Christians as of Jews. ther reference to the Messiah himself, as It is the language of one who, having re- King in Sion, and ver. 4. may be parallel ceived mercy in former time, now applies with Ps. ii. 11.“ Serve the Lord with fear, to the same source for assistance and de- and rejoice with trembling." liverance. But the psalm is not all devo- The coucluding verses of the psalm fortional; part of it is addressed to persons cibly represent the writer's faith and conof a different character : “ How long will fidence in God, in contradistinction from ve turn my glory into shame?" that is, those who seek their happiness in worldly how long will you despise and ridicule my objects. There be many that say, " Who trust in Jehovah, which is my glory? and will shew us any good.”—many who inat the same time delight in vanily and quire after honours, riches, and earthly falsebood; or, as those words mean in the pleasures; – but what are these to us? lips of a pious Israelite, How long will you 1. Lord! lift thou up ou us the light of thy put your trust in idols, which are but lying countenance !" This shall kindle a light vanities." (Acts xiv. 15.)

aini.lst the darkest adversity; this shall Such are exhorted to stand in awe-to create a joy beyond that of the harvest or reflect-to meditate by night upon their the vintage. (Isa. ix. 3.) With such antiheds, and submit to the divine decree, as cipations, the good man may lay down to having reference to his establishment on sleep with composure, and rest in the the thrope, from which he was probably assurance of perfect safety. bow driven; for Lightfoot, Calniet, and “ Thus with my thoughts composed to peace, others, think this psalm, as well as the pre- I lay nie uowu to sleep: ceiling, was written during Absalom's re- Thy hand in safety keeps my days,

And will my slumbers keep." Walls. bellion. Boib, however, may have a far

NOTES. PSALM V. Ver. 3. Will I direct-Rather, arrange. Ver. 7. Toward thy holy temple-Heb:“The temdiaszortk, “ orierly address thee;" the words "iny ple of thy holiness." See 1 Kings viii. 38, 44, 48. Pajer” being supplementary. Bishop Horsley Before the erection of Solomon's temple, this applied thinks it reiers to the orderly arrangement made hy to the tabernacle. 1 Sam. i.:).j.3. the priests previous to the morning sacrifice.-And Ver. 8. Mine eneinies-Heb.“ My spies;” those wili took up — Ainsworth, " louk out;" literally, thot watch me. * watch" for an answer to his prayer.

Ver. 9. Faithfulness- Ainsworth, “certainty;" 17.4. Wickedness .... coil.-Mr. Ainsworth i. e. their word cannot be depended on.—-Very Temarks, that these words may be understood of wickedness - Hei. “ wickednesses." Flatter: Vieked and evil persons, who ought not impenitently Horsiry. "smooth over." ta ruy into the divine presence; and who will not Ver. 10. Destroy thou them - Marg.“ Make them be admitted into the courts above.

guilty.” Bishop Horsley, Convict them," i.e. Ver. 5 The foolish, in Scripture, seldom or never propounce sentence against them as rebels; for those theens persons deficient in capacity. The word here ihat rebelled against the Lord's anointed, rebelled used is rendered by Ainsworth, “ vain-glorious against the Lord. fuols," i. c. singers vbo zlory in their sins,

A Psalm

PSALMS.

[in sickness. shout for joy, because thou defendest 2 Have mercy upon me, O Lord; them: let them also that love thy for I am weak : O LORD, heal me; name be joyful in thee.

for my bones are vexed, 12 For thou, LORD, wilt bless the 3 My soul is also sore vexed: but righteous; with favour wilt thou com- thou, O LORD, how long? pass him as with a shield. (E)

4 Return, O LORD, deliver my soul: PSALM VI.

Oh save me for thy mercies' sake.

5 For in death there is no rememTo the chief Musician on Neginoth upon brance of thee: in the grave who shall Sheminith. A Psalm of David.

give thee thanks ? O LORD, rebuke me not in thine 6 I am weary with my groaning;

anger, neither chasten me in thy all the night make I my bed to swim; hot displeasure.

I water my couch with my tears.

EXPOSITION,
PSALM V.

grace. It is plain, therefore, that the de(E) A Psalm of David, at morning scription was designed for others, besides prayer.-This psalın (as already mention- the enemies of the literal David ; and is of ed) is addressed to the chief inusician," inore general import, reaching to the or Levite who superintended Nehiloth, or world of the ungodly, and to the enemies “ the wind instruments." Musicians of all righteousuess, as manifested in the know that it requires a high state of im- person of the Messiah and his church. provemeat in wind instruments, (by means The charge brought against these is, that of keys, &c.) to make them perform in truth' and ' fidelity' were not to be fouod tunc with stringed instruments, which, in their dealings with God or each other; being played with the band, inay be runerl that thei: 'inward parts' were very wickedmore perfectly. Hence the bands of ness; their first thoughts and imaginastringed and wind instruments are gene- tions were detiled, and the stream was rally employed separately and alternately, poisoued at the fountain : that their throat even to our own time.

was an open sepulchre,' continually enitBishop Horsley applies this psalm per- ting, in obscene and impious language, sonally to Christ, in his priestly office, for the noisome and infectious exhalations of which we see no sufficient grounds. We a putrid heart, enturbed in a body of sin; should rather consider it as the language and that, if ever they put on the appearance of the psalmist, attending the early devo- of goodness, they 'fattered with their tions of the temple, preparing his heart t.) tongue,' in order the more effectually to seek God, looking upward towards his deceive and destroy." holy residence in heaven, and waiting like In calling for judgment against his enean anxious petitioner for his answer. mies, the psalınist must be considered as

The psalmist then, considering his own the Lord's avointed; those who rebelled situation as placed among wicked men, against him, rebelled against the Lord waiting for his halting, (as the prophet himself. This is particularly true, if, with Jeremiah expresses it, chap. xx. 10.) prays Bishops Horne and Horsley, we apply the to be directed in the straight path of duty, psalm to the Messiah, whose impenitent that his enemies may gain no advantage enemies are excluded from the hope of over him.

mercy. (Ps, ii, 9, 12.) Those, however, Bishop Horne remarks, that St. Paul who love and fear him, have every reason (Rom. iii. 13.) has cited a part of verse 9, to hope in him• together with other passages from the “ For thou, Jehovah, wilt be found Psalms and Prophets, to evince the de

To bless the just man still,

As writh a shielt thou will surround pravity of maukind, whether Jews or Gen

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Him with thy lasting favour and good will.", tiles, till justified by faith, and renewed by

Millen.

NOTES. Ver. 12. Compass himn - Heb. “ Crown him." sense leads to the former; for in accompanying This seems an allusion to the verse preceding, and airs of peculiar pathos, the soft notes in the upper means, in spread the divine protection all arouud scale of our harps vould surely be preferred, by : them, as if covered by a shield. Bishop Horsley skilful musician, to those of the deep, robotnus renders it, " As a shiell or good-will, (favour) thou chorals at the bottom of the seale. We therefore con wilt guard around him."

sider these as a sinoll species of harps tuned an oe

tave higher than others, and intended for this purpose, PSALM VI. Title-Neginoth upon Sheminith. over which particular ! eviles were appointed to Ir Sheminith means the 8th, or octave, as is generally preside. I Chron. xv. 21. agreed, the question vecurs whether we are to con Ver. 6. All the night-Marg. “ Every night." sider it in the ascending scale or descending. Some Ver. 7. Mine eile is consuuned – That is,

woru with learned meu lave suggested the latter, but common griet and werping,

An Elegaic]
PSALMS.

(Psalm, 7 Mine eye is consumed because of 2 Lest he tear my soul like a lion, grief; it waxeth old because of all rending it in pieces, while there is wine enemies.

none to deliver. 8 Depart from me, all ye workers of 3 O LORD my God, if I have iniquity; for the Lord hath heard the done this; if there be iniquity in my voice of my weeping.

hands; 9 The Lord hath heard my supplica- 4 If I have rewarded evil unto him tion; the LORD will receive my prayer. that was at peace with me; (yea, I

10 Let all mine enemies be ashamed have delivered himn that without cause and sore vexed : let them return and is mine enemy :) be ashamed suddenly. (F)

5 Let the enemy persecute my soul,

and take it; yea, let him tread down PSALM VII.

my life upon the earth, and lay nine Shiggaion of David, which he sang unto honour in the dust. Selah. the LORD, concerning the words of Cush 6 Arise, O LORD, in thine anger, the Benjamite.

lift up thyself because of the rage of O LORD my God, in thee dos putmine enemies : and awake for me to

my trust : save me from all them the judgment that thou hast comthat persecute me, and deliver me: manded.

EXPOSITION,
PSALM VI.

is alone, without frievds, poor, and desti

tute of all support, but God's providential (F) 4 Psalm of David, in time of sick- protection. The supplicant, on the other ness and great affliction. This psalm is hand, often niraculously relieved, is yet addressed to the chief musiciun, on Nogi- never out of danger, though he looks for. matk upen Sheminiththat is, probably on ward with confidence to a period of final striuged instruments (tuned) an octave deliverance. If at any time he is under above the usual pitch, as more plaiurive, apprehension of death, it is by the visitaand therefore a more suitable accompani- tion of God in sickness. And at those seament to a penitential psalm like this. sons, the persecution of his enemies always Bishop Horsley here remarks, " The sup- makes a considerable part of the affliction. plicatory Psalms may be generally divided But why, (it may be asked,) is David so into two classes, according to the prayer; distressed at the thought of dying? Did which, in some, regards the public, and in he suppose that he should perish, or be anothers the individual. In those of the lat- pihilated ? or that the state on which he ter class, which is the most numerous, the was entering was one of total insensibisupplicant is always in distress. His dis- lity? This can refer oply to the state of tress arises chiefly from the persecution of the body. The grave is the land of forgethis enemies. His enemies are always the fuloess and of silence, where the voice of enemies of God and goodness. Their en: praise is never heard. (Pralın 1xxxviii. 12; mity to the supplicant is unprov,ked. If cxv. 17; Isa. xxxviii. 18, 19.) Recorery it has any cause, it is only i hat he is the froin sickness is the restoration of joy and faithful servant of JEHOVAH, whose wor- gladness, and while our joy arises from a ship they oppose. They are numerous and principle of gratitude, our gladness will be powerful, and use all mcans, both of force expressed in praise; and that praise will and stratagem, for the supplicant's destruc- not rest privately in our own hosoms, but tion; an object, in the pursuit

of which they we shall be glad to unite with the congreare incessantly employed. The supplicant gation of all those who fear God.

Geaiks,

NOTES. PSALM VII. Title--Shiggaion.-This is a very the father, for Saul his son. Others think Cush difficult ward, and of doubtlul derivation. Ains- may here be used in a moral sense for Shimei, (who Ford calls it" an artificial song " (or wandering); also was a Benjumite) as in such sense a black man;

* a lamentation;" and Boothroyd, (still that is, a man of black, malignant character. Sech letter) an elegy See Hab. iii. l. fusk, the was Shimei, as we find in his history (2 Sam. xvi. Henjargite. The late Mr. C. Taylor has taken 5, &c.) Tive Cushites, if not absolutely bluck, were see prins to show that the Hebrews (like other of very dark complexious. Orientalisis) indulged sometimes in a play of words. Ver. 2. None to drliver- lleb. “ Not a deliverer." (Praguents, No. 187, 188.) Something of the kind Ver.3. If I have done this-Namely, what he was may be observed bere. Some suppose the name aceosed of, 2 Sam. xvi. 7,8.-If there be (such) C'esh 1or Kesh) used for kisk, and the name Kish, iniquily, &c,

sin sickness.

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A Psalm]

PSALMS. shout for joy, because thou defendest 2 Have mercy upon me, O Lord; them: let them also that love thy for I am weak: O Lord, heal me; name be joyful in thee.

for my bones are vexed. 12 For thou, Lord, wilt bless the 3 My soul is also sore vexed : but righteous; with favour wilt thou com- thou, O Lord, how long ? pass him as with a shield. (E)

4 Return, O LORD, deliver my soul: PSALM VI.

Oh save me for thy mercies' sake.

5 For in death there is no rememTo the chief Musician on Neginoth upon brance of thee: in the grave who shall Sheminith. A Psalm of David.

give thee thanks ? O LORD, rebuke me not in thine 6 I am weary with my groaning ;

anger, neither chasten me in thy all the night make I my bed to swim; hot displeasure.

I water my couch with my tears.

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EXPOSITION.
PSALM V.

grace. It is plain, therefore, that the de(E) A Psalm of David, at morning scription was designed for others, besides prayer. This psalı (as alrearly inention the enemies of the literal David; and is of the ed) is addressed to“ the chief inusician," more general import, reaching to the or Levite who superintended Nehiloth, or world of the ungodly, and to the enemies “ the wind instruments," Musicians of all righteousness, as manifested in the know that it requires a high state of im- person of the Messiah and his church. provement in wind instruments, (by means The charge brought against these is, that of keys, &c.) to make them perform in truth' and ' fidelity' were not to be found tune with stringed instruments, which, iu their dealiugs with God or each other; being played with the band, inay he tuned that thei: 'inward parts' were very wicked. RL more perfectly. Hence the bands of ness; their first thoughts and imaginastringed and wind instruments are gene- tions were detiled, and the stream was rally employed separately and alternately, poisoned at the fountain : that their throat even to our owo time.

was an open sepulchre,' continually emitBishop Horsley applies this psalm per- ting, in obscene and impious language, sonally to Christ, in his priestly office, for the noisome and infectious exhalations of which we see no sufficient grounds. We a putrid heart, entombed in a body of sin; should rather consider it as the language and that, if ever they put on the appearance of the psalmist, attending the early devo- of goodness, they flattered with their tions of the temple, preparing his heart to tongue,' in order the more effectually to seek God, looking upward towards his deceive and destroy." holy residence in heaven, and waiting like Tu calling for judgment against his enean anxious petitioner for his answer. mies, the psalmist must be considered as

The psalmist then, considering his own the Lord's auointed; those wbo rebelled situation as placed among wicked men, against him, rebelled against the Lord waiting for his balting, (as the prophet himself. This is particularly true, if, with Jeremiah expresses it, chap. xx. 10.) prays Bishops Horne and Horsley, we apply the to be directed in the straight path of duty, psalm to the Messiah, whose impenitent that his enemies may gain no advantage enemies are excluded from the hope of over him.

mercy. (Ps. ii. 9, 12.) Those, bowever, Bishop. Horne remarks, that St. Paul who love and fear him, have every reason (Rom. iii. 13.) has cited a part of verse 9, to hope in himrs together with other passages from the " For thou, Jehovah, wilt be found Psalıns and Prophets, to evince the de- To bless the juist man still, pravity of maukind, whether Jews or Gen

As with a sbield thou will surround

Him with thy lasting favour and good will.” tiles, till justified by faith, and renewed by

Minor

NOTES. Ver. 12. Compass him Heb. “ Crown him." sense leads to the former; for in accompanvir This seems an allusion to the verse preceding, and airs of peculiar pathos, the soft notes in the upp means, to spread the divine protection all arouud scale of our harps would surely be preferred, by them, as is covered by a shielt. Bishop Horstry skiltid ruusician, to those of the deep, souutor remlers it, " As a shield of good-will, (favour) thou chords at the bottom of the seale. We therefore cu will guard around him."

sider these as a small species of harps toned an o

tave higher than others, and intended for this purpos PSALM VI. Title,-Neginoth upon Sheminith. over which particular Teviles were appointed Ir Sheminith means the 8th, or octave, as is generally preside. I Chron. xv. 21. agreed, the question occurs whether we are to con- Ver. 6. All the night--Marg. " Every night.” sider it in the ascending scale or descending. Some Ver. 7. Mine er is consumed-That is, worn w learned men have suggested the latter, but cominen grief and weeping,

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