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Farther miscellaneous PROVERBS.

(proverbs. striketh hands, and becometh surety good, nor to strike princes for equity. in the presence of his friend.

27 He that hath knowledge spareth 19 He loveth transgression that his words : and a man of understandloveth strife : and he that exalteth his ing is of an excellent spirit. gate seeketh destruction.

28 Even a fool, when he holdeth 20 He that hath a froward heart his peace, is counted wise: and he findeth no good : and he that hath a that shutteth his lips is esteemed a perverse tongue falleth into mischief. man of understanding. (R)

21 He that begetteth a fool doeth it to his sorrow : and the father of a fool

CHAP. XVIII. hath no joy.

22 A merry heart doeth good like a THROUGH desire, a man having medicine : but a broken spirit drieth separated himself, seeketh and the bones.

intermeddleth with all wisdom. 23 A wicked man taketh a gift out 2 A fool hath no delight in underof the bosom to pervert the ways of standing, but that his heart may disjudgment.

cover itself. 24 Wisdom is before him that hath 3 When the wicked cometh, then understanding ; but the eyes of a fool cometh also contempt, and with ignoare in the ends of the earth.

miny reproach. 25 A foolish son is a grief to his 4 The words of a man's mouth are father, and bitterness to her that bare as deep waters, and the wellspring of him.

wisdom as a flowing brook. 26 Also to punish the just is not

5 It is not good to accept the per

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EXPOSITION.
CHAP. XVII.

petuosity as to flood the country, and carry (R) Farther miscellaneous proverbs. - away the cottages. Such is the case with Having, in our Notes, explained the more contentions and litigations; the wise man, difficult passages, we shall here notice only therefore, advises to pause beforehand, two or three striking figures.-Ver. 8. A and, as Mr. Holden well expresses it, “Begift is a precious stone, it is (or ought) fore contention be meddled with, dismiss always to be viewed with a degree of satis- it.” When Solomon asks, ver. 16, “Wherefaction; so the possessor of a well-cut fore is there a price in the hand of a fool diamond views it, and admires its bril- to get wisdom, seeing he hath no heart to liancy on every side, as it reflects the light. it?" he strongly expresses the folly of rich But it is generally supposed that the wise men, who, instead of seeking wisdom, man bad reference to the bribes frequently spend all their energies in folly and extrapresented to judges, and to which, often, vagance. Lastly, he gives the true characmore attention was paid than to the justice ter of friendship, in its perpetuity; “ A of the cause. The admonition to avoid friend loveth at all times :"and the proper strife and contention, ver. 14. is beauti. characteristic of a brother is, that he was fully explained, in allusion to the cutting born a friend, and born for seasons of open a dyke for the purpose of watering adversity. “A friend in need (says the land, when it often rushes with such im- English proverb) is a friend indeed.”

NOTESẠChap. XVII. Con. Ver. 19. Eralteth his gate. - He that makes A CHAP. XVIII. Ver. 1. Through desire, a man, splendid entrance to his house, is likely to excite &c.--Marg." He that separateth himself, seeketh envy.

according to (bis) desire; (and) intermeddleth in Ver. 20. He that hath a fronard heart - Heb. every business.” But this version, though better « Tbe froward of heart."

than the common text, is too wordy. Mr. Holden's is : Ver. 22. A merry heart.-See ch. xv. 13, and Note.

“ He that separate th himself, seeketh (bis) desire;

He dealeth in all sound wisdom."
Ver. 23. Out of the bosom-that is, his bosom.
Ver. 24. Wisdom is before him

n - Holden, “Is

So the word here used is rendered, chap. ii. 7. See

the Note there. present to him." Ver. 26. Nor to strike (or smite) princes (nobles,

Ver. 2. But that his heart may discover itself.or judges) for equity-For acting uprightly and in

Here we prefer the version of Dr. Boothroyd: In

discovering (the thoughts of') his own heart." This dependently.

may be explained by an allusion to chap. xiii. 16. Ver. 27. An excellent spirit — Marg. "A cool See Exposition. spirit.” Compare with the verse prece ling.

Ver. 4. As derp waters.-See chap. x3.5.

men.

Miscellaneous proverbs) CHAP. XVIII.

[continued. son of the wicked, 'to overthrow the teth knowledge; and the ear of the righteous in judgment.

wise seeketh knowledge. 6 A fool's lips enter into contention, 16 A man's gift maketh room for and his mouth calleth for strokes, him, and bringeth him before great

7 A fool's mouth is his destruction, and his lips are the share of his 17 He that is first in his own soul.

cause seemeth just ; but his neighbour 8 The words of a talebearer are cometh and searcheth him. as wounds, and they go down into the 18 The lot causeth contentions to innermost parts of the belly.

cease, and parteth between the mighty. 9 He also, that is slothful in his 19 A brother offended is harder to work, is brother to him that is a great be won than a strong city: and their waster.

contentions are like the bars of a castle. 10 The name of the Lord is a 20 A man's belly shall be satisfied strong tower: the righteous runneth with the fruit of his mouth; and with into it, and is safe.

the increase of his lips shall he be 11 The rich man's wealth is his filled. strong city, and as an high wall in his 21 Death and life are in the power own conceit.

of the tongue: and they that love it 12 Before destruction the heart of shall eat the fruit thereof. man is haughty, and before honour is 22 Whoso findeth a wife findeth a humility.

good thing, and obtaineth favour of 13 He that answereth a matter be- the Lord. fore be heareth it, it is folly and 23 The poor useth intreaties; but shame unto him.

the rich answereth roughly. 14 The spirit of a man will sustain 24 A man that hath friends must his infirmity: but a wounded spirit shew himself friendly: and there is a who can bear?

friend that sticketh closer than a bro15 The heart of the prudent get ther. (S)

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. XVIII.

of either party, the blessing may be turned (S) Miscellaneous proverbs continued. into a curse, and so may all the blessings Having explained, in the Notes below, the of the present life. chief difficulties in the early part of this In our last chapter we noticed Solomon's chapter, we shall here confine our remarks description of a friend and a brother, and to some of the concluding verses, upon two here it is added, that friendship sometimes of the chief blessings of human life exceeds the love of kindred; and though matrimony and friendship:

the wise man might not at the time have Ver. 22. “ Whoso findeth a wife, findeth any farther reference, it seems impossible a good thing :” that is, matrimony is in for a true Christian to read this remark

“ honourable in all, with the without recollecting Him who “ loved and bed undefiled.” (Heb. xiii. 4.)

16 And he died for"-not his friends, but his ene. that obtaineth a wife, obtaineth favour;" inics; for“ Christ died for the ungodly." or rather, “ a favour from the Lord,” who Rom. v. 8–10. said at the first ins:itution of marriage, ti A Friend and Brother he appears, "It is not good for man to be alone.” And well fulfils the names he wears,"

Watts. Gen. ii. 18.) It is true, that by the fault

itself good;

NOTES. Yer. 6. His moulk calleth for strokes-Holden, Ver. 1: Answereth a matter-Heb. “Retorneth " Bis month provoketh blows."

a word.” Ver. A. The words of a talebearer (Marg," whisp- Ver. 20, 21, A man's belly shall be satisfied, &c.erer ") are as rounds, and they go donn--" They The subject here considered, is the power of the descend" to the icpermost parts, &c. See Judg.iii. tongne, which may not only, by its eloquence, till 21.2.

the bells, but save the life. — They that love it Ver. 10. And is safe-Heb." Is set aloft;" i, e. (that love to talk) will eat the fruit of their own out of the reach of enemies.

words, whether wise or foolish, good or evil.

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Farther miscellaneous) PROVERBS

(apothegms.

ing of a lion ; but his favour is as dew CHAP. XIX.

upon

the grass.

13 A foolish son is the calamity of BETTER is the poor that walketh his father : and the contentions of a

in his integrity, than he that is wife are a continual dropping. perverse in his lips, and is a fool. 14 House and riches are the inhe

2 Also, that the soul be without ritance of fathers : and a prudent wife knowledge, it is not good; and he that is from the Lord. hasteth with his feet sinneth.

- 15 Slothfulness casteth into a deep 3 The foolishness of man perverteth sleep; and an idle soul shall suffer his way: and his heart fretteth against hunger. the LORD.

16 He that keepeth the command-, 4 Wealth maketh many friends; but ment keepeth his own soul; but be that a the poor is separated from his neigh- despiseth his ways shall die. bour.

17 He that hath pity upon the poor! 5 A false witness shall not be un- lendeth unto the LORD; and that which punished, and he that speaketh lies he hath given will he pay him again. shall not escape.

18 Chasten thy son while there is 6 Many will intreat the favour of hope, and let not thy soul spare for the prince: and every man is a friend his crying. to him that giveth gifts.

19 A man of great wrath shall suf7 All the brethren of the poor do fer punishment: for if thou deliver hate him: how much more do his him, yet thou must do it again. friends go far from him? he pursueth 20 Hear counsel, and receive inthem with words, yet they are wanting struction, that thou mayest be wise in to him.

the latter end. 8 He that getteth wisdom loveth his 21 There are many derices in a own soul: he that keepeth understand- man's heart; nevertheless the counsel ing shall find good.

of the Lord, that shall stand. 9 A false witness shall not be un- 22 The desire of a man is his kind. punished, and he that speaketh lies ness; and a poor man is better than a shall perish.

liar. 10 Delight is not seemly for a fool; 23 The fear of the Lord tendeth to much less for a servant to have rule life: and he that hath it shall abide over princes.

satisfied ; he shall not be visited with 11' The discretion of a man defer- evil. reth his anger; and it is his glory to 24 A slothful man hideth his hand pass over a transgression.

in his bosom, and will not so much as 12 The king's wrath is as the roar- bring it to his mouth again.

NOTES. CHAP. XIX. Ver. 1. Betler is the poor, &c.- Ver. 16. He that keepeth the commandment, (ri This apothegm evidently wants point, which Mr. of God) keepeth, &c. Holden and others give it, by adding, from the Ver. 17. That which he hath giren-Bootkroz. parallel passage chap. xxviii.6. the words, “ though “ His recompence will be rendered onto him." he be ricb," which make the sense complete.

Ver. 18. Let not thy soul spare for his crying Ver. 2. He that hasteth with his feet --Compare Marg.“ Spare to his destruction." Holden, ** Å Isa, xxviii, 16.

thy soul will not desire (Boothroyd, not lint Ver. 3. His heart frelleth-Holden," Murmureth.” wish for) his death."

Ver. 5 and 9. Be unpunished-Heb. “ Held inno- Ver. 19. A man of great nrath ..:: thoud cent."

lirer . . . . thou must do it again. That is, a vi Ver. 6. To him that giveth gifts-Heb.“ To a leut and passionate man is always getting into broi man of gifts.

and incurring panishment. Ver. 8. Gelleth wisdom--Heb.“ Getteth an heart."

Ver. 21. There are many devices, &c. -See cas Ver. 10. Delight-Rather“ delicacy." See Deut. xvi. 1, 9. xxviii. 54, 56.

Ver 2. The desire - Rather," the desirable Ver. 13. A continnal dropping.--" The waters,"

Holden, "A desirable thing in man is his kindnes by a continual dropping, “ wear away the stones;'

“but”) a poor man who can do notlui so the perpetual contentions of a brawling woman

is better than a liar, who promises and will wear away the peace and patience of her husband.

nothing

and (or

Various moral]

CHAP. XX.

[precepts continued, 25 Smite a scorner, and the simple cease from strife: but every fool will will beware: and reprove one that hath be meddling. understanding, and he will under- 4 The sluggard will not plow by stand knowledge.

reason of the cold; therefore shall he 26 He that wasteth his father, and beg in harvest, and have nothing. chaseth away his mother, is a son 5 Counsel in the heart of man is like that causeth shame, and bringeth re- deep water; but a man of understands, proach.

ing will draw it out. 27 Cease, my son, to hear the in- 6 Most men will proclaim every one struction that causeth to err from the his own goodness ? but a faithful man words of knowledge.

who can find ? 28 An ungodly witness scorneth 7 The just man walketh in his injudgment; and the mouth of the tegrity: his children are blessed after wicked devoureth iniquity.

him. 29 Judgments are prepared for 8 A king that sitteth in the throne scorners, and stripes for the back of of judgment scattereth away all evil fools. (T)

9 Who can say, I have made my CHAP. XX.

heart clean, I am pure from my sin ? WINE is a mocker, strong drink is 10 Divers weights, and divers mea

raging: and whosoever is de- sures, both of them are alike abomiceived thereby is not wise.

nation to the Lord. 2 The fear of a king is as the roar- 11 Even a child is known by his ing of a lion : whoso provoketh him to doings, whether his work be pure,

and anger sindeth against his own soul. whether it be right.

3 It is an honour for a man to 12 The hearing ear, and the seeing

with his eyes.

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. XIX.

especially the latter, of which he appears (T) Farther miscellaneous apothegms.- to have seen and felt the great importance, In several of the proverbs in the early part and probably regretted his own neglect in of this chapter, integrity, knowledge, and the case of his son Rehoboam, who, in truth, are contrasted with riches and folly: many respects, answered to the character and the poor man who is honest, intelli- of the fool which he so well describes. gent, and pious, is preferred before the « Chasten," or correct thy son while rieb man who is ignorant, perverse, and there is hope," implies that parental disfretful. Yet, such is the state of the world, cipline should begin early, to have its prothat Wealth maketh many friends, while per effect; for when habits of insubordiPoverty scatters them: still, in the sight nation are formed, the task is almost of Gud and good men, wisdom is better lopeless. Of the latter elause, the margin than folly; and “ he that retteth and seems to direct to the preferable interprekeepeth understanding," shall find good tation : “Let not thy soul spare him to in the issue.

his own ruin," when perhaps even a pa-' Industry, charity, and parental dis- rent's heart might rather wish to see him cipline, are favourite topics with Solomon, dead, than alive and criminal. (See Notes.)

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NOTES. Ver. 41. Hideth his hand in his bosoni--T'sala. CHAP. XX. Ver. 2. The fear-that is, his wrath, chet is never the bosoia, but a pan, dish, or bowl, which excites fear. Comp. chap. xvi, 14.-xis. 12. och as the poor eat out if with their hands. 2 Kings

Ver. 3, it is un honour for a man-Heb. Ish, a IX. 13; 2 Chron. xxxv. 13. See Oriental Customs,

mau of rank or eininence, as opposed to a fool. 40. D. The idle man dippeth his hand into the dish for soap, and will not so much ay bring it to his

Ver. 4. Cold-Marg.“ Winter," which is more ac- : houth again.

curate, Ver.23, He That wastelh his father-Hodgson, Ver. 6. Most (or many) men : : : : his own good. "He that plundereth lis father, or driveth away his ness, (Marg." brunty.) hut a faithful man--a man Sother.is," &e.

who is all that he pretends to be-ho, &c. Ver, n. The instruction : ..

to err--that is, to

Ver. 10. Divers weights, &c.--Heb. “A stone and bear erronrons teachers. The supplemeotary words Hem unnecessary.

A stone."Measures--- An ephab and an ephah,"

i. e. stones of different weight, and measures of dir., Ver. 28. An ungodly witness-Heb. * A witness of Belial." See l Kings xxi. 10.

ferent capacity.

Various moral]

PROVERBS.

[precepts continued eye, the LORD hath made even both hastily at the beginning; but the end of them.

thereof shall not be blessed. 13 Love not sleep, lest thou come 22 Say not thou, I will recompense to poverty; open thine eyes, and thou evil; but wait on the Lord, and he shalt be satisfied with bread.

shall save thee. 14 It is naught, it is naught, saith 23 Divers weights are an abominathe buyer: but when he is gone his tion unto the LORD; and a false balway, then he boasteth.

ance is not good. 15 There is gold, and a multitude 24 Man's goings are of the LORD; of rubies: but the lips of knowledge how can a man then understand his are a precious jewel.

own way? 16 Take his garment that is surety 25 It is a snare to the man who for a stranger: and take a pledge of devoureth that which is holy, and him for a strange woman.

after vows to make enquiry. 17 Bread of deceit is sweet to a 26 A wise king scattereth the wickman; but afterwards his mouth shall ed, and bringeth the wheel over them. be filled with gravel.

27 The spirit of man is the candle 18 Every purpose is established by of the Lord, searching all the inward counsel: and with good advice make parts of the belly.

28 Mercy and truth preserve the 19 He that goeth about as a tale- king: and his throne is upholden by bearer revealeth secrets :

therefore mercy, meddle not with him that flattereth 29 The glory of young men is their with his lips.

strength : and the beauty of old men 20 Whoso curseth his father or his is the grey head. inother, his lamp shall be put out in 30 The blueness of a wound cleansobscure darkness.

eth away evil : so do stripes the inward 21 An inheritance may be gotten parts of the belly. (U)

war.

EXPOSITION.
CHAP. XX.

cites when the brain is disturbed with it, (U) Various-moral precepts continued.- is known to all, and need not be here re. « The first precept in this chapter is cited. The word (Homeh) which Solomou against drunkenness, as an enemy to wis- here uses, and which we render raging, dom, even in cominon things, much more or outrageous, includes them all ; siguiin those of everlasting consequence : for fying that discomposed, unquiet, aod rest. that it commonly expels out of men's minds less state of mind, which expresses itself all reverence, both to God and to others, in some wild motions or other, according juclining them to take the licence to say or as men are naturally iuclined. But nodo anything, without restraint or dis- thing worse can be said of it than this, cretion; and what unruly passions it ex- that it makes men stupid suts, or profane

NOTES. Ver. 13. Open thine eyes-that is, early in the to inqnire whether they have done so, when it is too morning, as the context shows,

late. But the old divines apply it to sacrilege, thus : Ver. 15. Rubies-"Gems." See Note on ch. iii. 15. A man robs God of his due, and then vows to make Ver. 16. Take his garment, &c.-This is better amends. See Bp. Palrick. rendered by Dr. Durell, Mr. Holden, and others; Ver. 26. And bringeth the wheel over them--that " " Take his garment, when a stranger is surety:" but is, crushes them by the weight of his authority, as in the latter clause we prefer Dr. Boothroyd's ver- corn was threshed with the cart wheels. See Isa. sion; " And his pledge for (the debts of' ) strangers." xxviii, 27, 28. Ver. 17. Bread of deceit.-Marg. “Lying."- Ver. 27. The spirit of man

Heb. Niskenetk, Filled with grarel--that is, bread procured by fraud, the breath, Gen. fi.7. will eat as if there were sand or gravel in it; which Ver. 30. The blueness of a wound. - This is very is said to be one way in which criminals were some- difficult to translate. Dr. Boothroyd's version seems times puuished.

most intelligible: “As the sappuration of a wound Ver. 19. He that, &c. See ch. xi. 13.

cleanseth the evil, so (do) stripes," &e. The phrase Ver. 20. His lamp shall be put out-that is, his " the inward parts of the belly," among the Hebrews, posterity shall be cut off. See 1 Kings xv. 4. and N. answers to our phrase "the insidle," which is often

Ver. 35. And after rows beginneth, &c. - The used for the inner man- the mind. See ch. xviii. general sense is, that men do wrong first, and begin --xxvi. 22.

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