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God the shepherd]

[of Israel. 5 How long, Lord? wilt thou be 12 And render unto our neighbours angry for ever? shall thy jealousy sevenfold into their bosom, their reburn like fire ?

proach, wherewith they have re6 Pour out thy wrath upon the hea. proached thee, O LORD. then that have not known thee, and 13 So we thy people and sheep of upon the kingdoms that have not thy pasture will give thee thanks for called upon thy name.

ever: we will shew forth thy praise to 7 For they have devoured Jacob, and all generations. (F) laid waste his dwelling place.

PSALM LXXX. 8 O remember nut against us former iniquities: let thy tender mercies To the chief Musician upon Shoshanrimspeedily prevent us: for we are brought

Eduth. A Psalm of Asapk.

LIVE ear, O Shepherd of Israel, 9 Help us, O God of our salvation, thou that leadest Joseph like a for the glory of thy name: and deliver flock; thou that dwellest between the us, and purge away our sins, for thy cherubims, shine forth. name's sake.

2 Before Ephraim and Benjamin 10 Wherefore should the heathen and Manasseh stir up thy strength, say, Where is their God ? let him be and come and save us. known among

the heathen in our sight, 3 Turn us again, O God, and cause by the revenging of the blood of thy thy face to shine; and we shall be servants which is shed.

saved. 11 Let the sighing of the prisoner 4 O Lord God of hosts, how long come before thee; according to the wilt thou be angry against the prayer greatness of thy power preserve thou of thy people? those that are appointed to die;

5 Thou feedest them with the bread

very low.

dered innocents than from the revenge


the survivors; but others consider it sim(F) The temple defiled and destroyed by ply as a prediction of the judgments which the heathen. - This psalm strongly re- God had determined and denounced against seinbles another psalm of Asaph, namely, his enemies. (Rev. xviii. 6, 20; xix. 2, &c.) the seventy-fourth, both in its style and On the following prayer, “O revenge not subject, which was evidently the destruc- against us former iniquities!” &c. Bishop tion of the temple and of Jerusalem by Ne- Horne piously remarks : “ AMiction hath buchadnezzar and his army, when the bo- then wrought its intended effect, when it dies of the murdered inhabitants were left hath convinced us of sin, and led us to reto be food to the cagles and vultures-to pentance; when, brought back by it to the wolves and foxes. The cry for vengeance house and presence of our heavenly Fa. upon the heathen, (ver. 6 and 7,) is lite- ther, we acknowledge our guilt rally quoted by Jeremiah, (chap. x. 25.) cause of our misery, and intreat forgiveunless we suppose hiin to have written ness of the one, in order to obtain a release first, and then the citation is Asaph's. The of the other, not pleading our own merits, cry for vengeauce may rather be considered but the mercies of God our Saviour, and the as proceeding from the blood of the mur. glory of his pame."

as the

NOTES. PSALM LXXIX. Ver. 8. Former iniquities- Ver. 1. Between the cherubims-Or, " who inha: 'That is, the iniquities of former times, or personis.

bitest the cherubim," which were over the ark, and Ainsworth.

considered as the throne of Jehovah: or if the of Ver. 11. According to the greatness of thy power. lestial cherubim be here referred to, they constituted -Heb. " Of thy hand."- Preserve thou those, &c. (as it were) his state carriage. Ps. civ.3, 4. Heb.“ Preserve the children of death;" i. e. con- Ver. 2. Before Ephraim, &c.-These tribes, in demned to die.

procession, followed immediately the ark. Ver. 12. Serenfold-That is, abundantly.

uud sare us-Heb. “ Come for salvation for us Ver. 13. To ull generations-Heb. “ To genera- Ver. 3. Shine forth.-See Deut. xxx111. %. tion and generation."

Ver. 4. Wilt ihou be angry!-Heb. " Wilt thou

smoke (with wrath);"' i.e.' be very angry. See PSALM LXXX. Title-This title is nearly the Ps. Ixxiv. I. same as that of psalm 1x. which see.

Ver, 6. In great measure--i. e, in great abundanct.


The church]


[God's vineyard. of tears; and givest them tears to 13 The boar out of the wood doth drink in great measure.

waste it, and the wild beast of the 6 Thou makest us a strife unto our field doth devour it. neighbours: and our enemies laugh 14 Return, we beseech thee, O God among themselves.

of hosts : look down from heaven, 7 Turn us again, O God of hosts, and behold, and visit this vine; and cause thy face to shine; and we 15 And the vineyard which thy shall be saved.

right hand hath planted, and the 8 Thou hast brought a vine out of branch that thou madest strong for Egypt: thou hast cast out the heathen, thyself. and planted it.

16 It is burned with fire, it is cut 9 Thou preparedst room before it, down: they perish at the rebuke of and didst cause it to take deep root, thy countenance. and it filled the land.

17 Let thy hand be upon the man 10 The hills were covered with the of thy right hand, upon the son of shadow of it, and the boughs thereof man whom thou madest strong for were like the goodly cedars.

thyself. 11 She sent out her boughs unto 18 So will not we go back from the s

sea, and her branches unto the thee: quicken us, and we will call river.

upon thy name. 12 Why hast thou then broken 19 Turn us again, O LORD God of down her hedges, so that all they which hosts, cause thy face to shine ; and we pass by the way do pluck her? shall be saved. (G)


ence to whom Hezekiah himself prays in the (G) God, the shepherd of Israel, planted very language of this psalm. (See 2 Kings the vineyard of his church, which was now xix. 15, 16.) attacked by the heathen.-There being In the opening of this psalm, JEHOVAH some doubt as to the person of Asaph, and is represented as a shepherd leading his the period in which he lived, (See Note on flock, as the eastern custom is; going bethe title of Psalm 1.) there is, conse- fore them with the ark, followed by the quently, a doubt as to what period of the several tribes, of which Ephraim, BenjaJewish history this refers; but we incline to min, and Manasseh, appear to have led the the opinion of Bishop Patrick, that it was van in their processions : but now the hea. written in the reign of Hezekiah, king of then had made such ravages among them, Judah. That it was before the loss of the that, instead of bread from heaven, and ark, with the cherubim, may be inferred water from the rock, tears and lamentafrom the first verse; yet it appears to refer tions had become both their meat and to a period of greater calamity from the drink. heathen, than is to be found in the reign of Ver. 3. commences another allegory, in David. The leamied prelate just referred which Israel is described as a vine brought to, therefore considers Senpacherib as the out of Egypt, and planted in Canaan, wild boar of the wood, (ver. 13.) in refer- where it so flourished as to fill the land;


NOTES. Ver. 10. The boughs thereof_"(Covered) the ce- day and night, in proper situations, to guard agairrst dars of God." Bp. Lonth. The cedars of God were them.- Ward's Hindoos, vol. ij. p. 327. the original tenants of the forest, planted by no hu- Ver. 15. The rineyard - Ainsworth," the stock;" Dan band, and these are represented in the alle- Secker, " the plant.”- The branch-Heb. " The ory, as covered with the branches of the vine of ;" for in that language, branches are considered brael; that is, the land of Israel, in its most pros- as the offspring of the trees. The LXX read," the peroux days, (the time of Solomon) extended as far son of man;" and the Chaldee and some Rabbins as Lebanon. To justify the allegory, it may be add- apply this to Messiah, as in the 17th verse, from He that in some eastern countries, the vines are which they appear to us to have borrowed the ex. trained up the standard trees, and sometimes spread pression, and where it properly belongs. themselves over the bighest branches.

Ver. 16. They perish. -- This should either be Ver. 13. The boar out of the wood doth waste it. rendered, as by our translators and Mr. Ainsworth, -Hemer makes the same complaint, (Iliad, ix. and then the words refer to the Vine of the Jewish 335.) and Mr. Ward remarks that the buffaloes and church; but if in the future, as luy Bp. Horsley, if wild bcgs make the like ravages in the orchards must refer to their heathen persecutors. Bp. Here of the Mindoos; to prevent which, men are placed mentions both, and the original will admit of either. TOL, IJ. 97


of me.

An ode for)

PSALMS. [the feast of trumpets

8 Hear, my people, and I will PSALM LXXXI.

testify unto thee: Israel, if thou wilt

hearken unto me; To the chief Musician upon Gittith. 9 There shall no strange god be in A Psalm of Asaph.

thee; neither shalt thou worship any PING aloud unto God our strength : strange god.

make a joyful noise unto the God 10 I am the LORD thy God, which of Jacob.

brought thee out of the land of Egypt: 2 Take a psalm, and bring hither open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it. the timbrel, the pleasant harp with the 11 But my people would not hearken psaltery.

to my voice; and Israel would none 3 Blow up the trumpet in the new moon, in the time appointed, on our 12 So I gave them up unto their own solemn feast day.

hearts' lust: and they walked in their 4 For this was a statute for Israel, own counsels. and a law of the God of Jacob.

13 Oh that my people had hearken5 This he ordained in Joseph for a ed unto me, and Israel had walked in testimony, when he went out through my ways! the land of Egypt: where I heard a 14 I should soon have subdued language that I understood not. their enemies, and turned my hand

6 I removed his shoulder from the against their adversaries. burden: his hands were delivered from 15 The haters of the Lord should

have submitted themselves unto him: 7 Thou calledst in trouble, and I but their time should have endured for delivered thee ; I answered thee in the secret place of thunder : I proved thee 16 He should have fed them also at the waters of Meribah. Selah. with the finest of the wheat: and with

the pots.


EXPOSITION-Psalm LXXX. Continued. and sent out branches as far as the Mediter- hand be upon the man of thy right hand;" ranean on the west, and to the Euphrates that is, upon the man whom thou has on the east. On the north, also, its shadow placed at thy right hand, “ whom thoa covered the bills of Lebanon, and crowned hast made strong for thyself;” or, as Davithe cedars with its fruit. But now the Al

expresses it, “the rod of thy strength, mighty had withdrawn bis protection, they or mighty sceptre. Upon him, “lay tlu were like a vineyard without a fence, ex- hand -on him, confer all authority, th= posed, not only to the attacks of strangers, he may establish thy church and subdu but to the ravages of wild beasts, to whom their enemies. (Compare Psalm cx.) their heathen conquerors might be well The last verse forms the chorus of 1 compared. (See Isa. v. 1–7; Jer. iv.7.) The prayer, (ver. 17.) 'Let thy hand psalm, which occurs also verses 3 and 7, a

is thus rendered by the prince of Engli be upon the man of thy right hand,” &c. sacred poesy, is supposed by many to have reference to the king, whether David or Hezekiah; “ Return us, and thy grace divine, but the most eminent commentators, Jew

Lord God of Hosts, vouchsate;

Cause thou thy face on us to shine, isb as well as Christian, refer it ultimately And then we shall be safe.'

Milto and chiefly to the Messiah.

“ Let thy

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NOTES. PSALM LXXXI. Title - Upon Gittith. See away) from the pots – Ainsworth, “ from Note on the title of Psalm viii.

baskets;" meaning, ** from the vessels in which Ver. 2. Take a psalm - Ainsworth, “ Take up a carried straw, mortar, bricks," &c. psalm." Bp: Horsley says, “ the word (psalm) Ver. 7. Meribah-hatis, strise. See Exod. x inist in this place denote some musical instrument." Ver. 12. Their onn hearis' lusts-Marg. “ 1 But with all due deference to wis Lordship, suppose

hardness of their hearts." a clergyman in the present day was to say to his Ver. 15. Submitted themselves-Marg. “YI clerk, " Strike up a psalm,” (quite a similar phrase) feigned obedience." See Ps, xviii. 45. —

Thei would the clerk understand him to mean a musical

- That is, the time of his people. Bp. Horne. instrument? Certainly not. Ver. 5. Went out through-Heb.“ against."

Ver. 16. With the finest of the wheat-Heb.

the fat of wheat." Ver. 6. His hands were delivered Heb. passeth

The magistrate's]

[psalm. honey out of the rock should I have 4 Deliver the poor and needy: satisked thee. (H)

rid them out of the hand of the


5 They know not, neither will they A Psalm of Asaph.

understand; they walk on in darkness :

all the foundations of the earth are out GOD OD. standeth in the congregation of course.

of the mighty; he judgeth among 6 I have said, ye are gods; and, the gods.

all of you are children of the most 2 How long will ye judge unjustly, high. and accept the persons of the wicked? 7 But ye shall die like men,

and Selah.

fall like one of the princes. 3 Defend the poor and fatherless : 8 Arise, O God, judge the earth : do justice to the afflicted and needy. for thou shalt inherit all nations. (1)


solely from our own ingratitude and dis(H) An Ode for the Feast of Trumpets. obedience. -"This psalm,” says Bishop Lowth," is


am the Lord thy God, which brought an odè coin posed for the feast of trumpets, Thee out of Egypt's land: in the first new moon of the civil year;' Ask large enough; and I, besought,

Milton. and is "pervaded by an exquisite union of Will grant thy full demand.” sublimity and sweetness. The exordium contains an exhortation to celebrate the

PSALM LXXXII. praises of the Almighty with music and (1) The Magistrate's Psalm.- This psalm song, and is replete with animation and joy, is addressed to magistrates and judges, and even to exultation. The commemoration reminds them, that though they were apof the giving of the law, associated with the pointed to judge the people, there was one sound of the trampet (which was the signal

to judge them : “God standeth in the conof liberty,) introduces in a manner spon- gregation of the mighty: He judgeth taneously, the miseries of the Egyptian bondage, the recovery of their freedom,

among the gods.” (See 2 Chron. xix. 6, 7.)

In all arbitrary countries, it is well known and the communication with God upon that justice is bought and sold ; and, of mount Sinai, (the awfulness of which is

course, “the poor and fatherless” seldom espressed in a very few words—the se

can obtain it. Nothing tends so much as eret place of thunder ;') and, finally, the this to shake the foundation of a governcontention with their Creator at the waters

ment, or renders it so obnoxious to the of Meribah..... The remaioder of the ode contains an affectionate expostulation

Supreme Governor of the world. Magis

trates and judges should, therefore, always of God with bis people, a confirmation of remember that they are mortal, and that his former promises, and a tender com- there is a bar before which themselves plaint, that his favourable intentions to

must stand, and be judged according to wards them have been so long prevented “ the things done in the body, whether by their disobedience. Thus the object they be good or evil.” (2 Cor. v. 10.) and end of this poem appears to be an ex- This psalm (as several others) concludes hortation to obedience, from a considera

with a prayer for the universality of his tion of the paternal love, the beneficence, reign, who alone doth reign in righteousand the promises of the Deity," the God of Israel.

ness. (See Psalm ii. 8.) The doctrine of the psalm is, that God “ Arise, O Lord, and let thy Son delights in the exercise and display of

Possess his universal throne;

And rule the nations with his rod; mercy and goodness; and that all our de

He is our judge, and he our God.” Watts. ficiencies in comfort aud blessedness, arise:

NOTES. PSALM LXXXII. Ver. 5. They walk on in dark. Ver. 7. Like one of the other) prin ees.-No rank tas - That is, in ignorance --Out of cours or office among inortals can confer immortalit Aiasa ortk, “ Mored," shaken.

Princes die like other men.

A prayer against]


[the church's enemies. they have holpen the children of Lot.


9 Do unto them as unto the MidiaA Song or Psalm of Asaph.

nites; as to Sisera, as to Jabin, at the

brook of Kison: KEEP not thou silence, O God: 10 Which perished at En-dor: they

hold not thy peace, and be not became as dung for the earth. still, O God.

11 Make their nobles like Oreb, 2 For, lo, thine enemies make a and like Zeeb: yea, all their princes as tumult : and they that hate thee have Zebah, and as Zalmunna : lifted up the head.

12 Who said, Let us take to our3 They have taken crafty counsel selves the houses of God in possession. against thy people, and consulted 13 O my God, make them like a against thy hidden ones.

wheel ; as the stubble before the wind. 4 They have said, Come, and let 14 As the fire burneth a wood, us cut them off from being a nation; and as the fame setteth the mountains that the name of Israel may be no

on fire ; more in remembrance.

15 So persecute them with thy 5 For they have consulted together tempest, and make them afraid with with one consent: they are confederate thy storm. against thee:

16 Fill their faces with shame; 6 The tabernacles of Edom, and that they may seek thy name, O LORD. the Ishmaelites; of Moab, and the 17 Let them be confounded and trouHagarenes;

bled for ever; yea, let them be put to 7 Gebal, and Ammon, and Ama. shame, and perish : lek; the Philistines with the inhabi

18 That men may know that thou, tants of Tyre ;

whose name alone is JEHOVAH, art 8 Assur also is joined with them : the most high over all the earth. (K)


observes generally - "The punishments

inflicted by heaven upon wicked men, are (K) A Prayer against those enemies who primarily intended to humble and convert hid plotted against the church." It is the them. If they continue incorrigible under common opinion (says Bishop Patrick,) every dispensation of merciful severity, that the combination of powerful enemies, they are at last cut off, and finally deagainst whom they (the Jews) here im- stroyed, that others, admonished by their plore the divine assistance, was that men- example, may repent and return, and give tioned in the days of Jehoshaphat. (2 Chron. glory to God. Salutary are the afflictions chap. xx.) The reason of which is, be- which bring men, and happy the men who cause the children of Lot (the Moabites are brought by them, to an acknowledgand Ammonites, ver. 8.) seem to have been ment of Jehovah our Righteousness,' the principals in this confederacy, and the our exalted and glorified Redeemer, the other but assistants, as it is plain they Most High over all the earth ;' whom all were in that invasion." (2 Chron. xx. 2.) must acknowledge, and before whom all

The prayer against these combined niust appear to be judged in the great and powers is founded upon their avowed de- terrible day." sign of extirpating Israel as a nation; and

“ Then shall the nations krow, Bishop Horne compares their confederacy That glorious dreadful word: to that of the Jews and Romans against JEHOVAH is thy name alone, vur Saviour. And the same pious prelate

And thou the sovereigu Lord."


PSALM LXXXIII. Ver. 6. The tabernacles form of a wheel.
Ainsnorth, " Tents;" which is here much more

Ver. 14. As fire burnelk the wood–That is, the correct.

forest. Lonth. Ver. 13. Like a wheel-Bp. Lonth renders it," As Ver. 16. So persecute - Lonth, pursue.”

so the chaff whirled about;" i.e. like chaff in the Ainsitorth. whirlwind. So Ainsworth. But Bp. Horne ren- Ver. 17. Let them, &c.-Bp. Horne renders the ders it, “ Like the thistle-down,' wbich is in the verbs in the future, as part of them are in the original


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