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be remembered by his countrymen-freedom in government, freedom in creed, freedom in intellect. And so he wrote the epitaph which is inscribed upon the shaft that stands above his grave:

HERE WAS BURIED

THOMAS JEFFERSON

AUTHOR
OF THE DECLARATION OF
AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE

THE STATUTE OF VIRGINIA

FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND
FATHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA

Thomas Jefferson was not perfect. Who of mortals is? We can find flaws in his nature and faults in his character, errors of judgment and inconsistencies of behavior. He was not endowed with a sense of humor, which would have saved him in many a humiliating situation. His passion for humanitarian philosophy and radical democracy blinded him sometimes to the honesty of purpose and character of excellent men who differed from him. He had a congenital and unconquerable aversion to combativeness which his unfavorable critics have usually called “weakness” or “cowardice." At the same time his conviction of the necessity of having the political battles fought kept him urging others to the fray-a policy of indirection which has brought on him the charge of hypocrisy and finesse, of shielding himself behind his agents, and employing his friends as catspaws to pull his hot political chestnuts from the fire. The man of speech who stands up in the battle of debate, giving and taking hard blows, looks a little askance on the man of the pen who carries on his campaign by private letters and quiet interviews, as if he must be engaged in "shady” dealings. And yet a private letter may be as honest as a harangue on the floor of Congress, and an after-dinner conversation as guileless as a campaign speech. The voluminous correspondence of Jefferson is naturally not free from the regrettable expressions in which a man, whose political creed is as sacred to him as a religious faith, pours out his soul to a friend against the wickedness of his adversaries. The Mazzei letter and the Anas would better not have been written. And yet these instances are few. The sixteen thousand letters of Jefferson that have been preserved to us are a precious heritage. They give us the portrait of a man of just mind and spotless honor, a kindly, generous, sagacious, patient man, marvellously gifted, tirelessly active, holding the faith in democracy through good and evil days, persevering and noble in his aims, and all his ends his country's and mankind's.

Shortly after noon on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson died peacefully at Monticello, surrounded by an adoring family. Far away to the north, in the little town of Quincy, Massachusetts, another great American patriot and signer of the Declaration of Independence lay on his death-bed that same day. John Adams lingered till sunset. The last whispered words of his failing breath were: "Thomas Jefferson still lives." Thomas Jefferson had already passed away from earth, but John Adams's words were true, and will be true so long as men shall strive for peace, fraternity, and freedom.

INDEX

20 f...

Adams, Henry, 214, 218, 224, 260, Carr, Dabney, 17
272

Carrington, Edward, 129
Adams, Herbert B., 307, 309

Channing, Edward, 181, 231, 241 n.,
Adams, John, 30 f., 41, 44, 54, 99, 277 n.

101, 111, 112, 113, 115, 126, 138 f., Charles II, 1, 55
158, 165 n., 172, 182, 188, 195 f., Charles III, of Spain, 235, 237
200, 204 f., 208 f., 215 f., 245, 249, Chase, Samuel, 201, 250 f., 261
257, 297, 314

Chastellux, Marquis of, 102
Adams, Samuel, 13, 44

Chesapeake Affair, 263 f., 268 f.
Albemarle County, 3, 10, 13, 24, Cicero, 4, 174
27, 95

Clay, Henry, 7, 34, 259, 289
Alexander I, 269

Clay, John, 34
Alien Acts, 200 f., 214, 218, 250 Clinton, General, 76 f., 88
Ames, Fisher, 175, 203

Clinton, George, 165 n., 243, 280
Amiens, Treaty of, 229, 263, 272 Coles, Edward, 92, 292
Anas, The, 154, 159, 211, 290, 313 Columbia University, 308 n.
Arnold, Benedict, 66, 82, 86, 94, Committees of Correspondence,

95, 98
Articles of Confederation, 98

Committees of Public Safety, 27 n.
Astor, J. J., 281

Common Sense, 38

Concord Bridge. 11. 31
Bainbridge, Captain, 220

Congress, of the Confederation, 103,
Bank, National, 161 f.

104, 147, 157
Barbary States, 118 f., 273

Constitution, of the United States,
Barbé-Marbois, 122, 230

126 f., 149 f., 161 f., 184, 201 f.,
Bayard, James A., 210 n., 219

218, 252 f., 283
Berkeley, Admiral, 268

Continental Congress, 22, 26 f., 36 f.
Berlin Decree, 267, 271

Convention Parliament, 26
Bernard, Governor of Massachu Cornwallis, General, 66, 79, 80, 87 f.,
sets, 13

90, 92, 94, 101
Blennerhassett, 259

Craig, Governor of Canada, 277
Bonaparte (see Napoleon)

Curtis, W. E., 132, 171 n.
Botetourt, Governor of Virginia,
14, 17

Danton, 178
Braddock's Defeat, 3

Dayton, Jonathan, 188
Brissot de Warville, 139

Deane, Silas, 48, 57
Bryant, Wm. C., 278

Dearborn, General, 295
Bryce, James, 70

Declaration of Independence, 41 J.,
Bunker Hill, 31, 263

72, 141, 166, 211, 235, 250, 291,
Burgesses, House of, 2 f., 12, 20, 313 f.
28 f., 33, 56, 67, 291

Declaration on Colonies Taking up
Burgoyne, General, 76

Arms, 32 f.
Burke, Edmund, 18, 22, 187, 251 De Mousnior, 110, 123
Burr, Aaron, 195, 206, 208 f., 219 f., Democratic-Republicans (see Re-
243, 247, 252, 258 f.

publicans)
Burr, Theodosia, 259

Desmoulins, Camille, 132

Dickinson, John, 21 n., 31 f., 37,
Cabell, J. C., 305 f.

40, 42 f.
Canning, George, 269 f., 275, 288 Dickinson, Lowes, 173

Dorchester, Lord, 188
Dunmore, Governor of Virginia, 17,

28 f., 35
Dupont de Nemours, 217, 228

East India Company, 18
Eaton, General, 259
Embargo Act, 275 f., 282, 300
Eppes, Francis, 36, 134, 156
Eppes, John, 287
Eppes, Maria, 16
Essez Case, 265 f.
Essex Junto, 215, 217

151 f., 169, 173, 175, 181, 189,
191, 195 f., 202 f., 208 f., 211, 215,

217, 219, 232, 243, 258, 289
Hammond, John, 143
Hancock, John, 43
Harrison, Benjamin, 34, 43
Hartford Convention, 289
Harvard College, 309
Harvey, John, 4
Hastings, Warren, 6, 251
Hay, George, 262
Heath. General. 246
Henry, John, 277
Henry, Patrick, 8, 12 f., 15, 17, 21 f.,

27, 34, 62 n., 75, 91, 133
Hillsborough, Lord, 13
"Holy Alliance." 288
Hopkinson, Francis, 127, 151
Howe, General, 76

“Family Compact," 146
Farewell Address, 195, 222
Fauquier, Governor of Virginia, 5
Federalists, 165, 175, 178, 185,

192 f., 198 f., 206, 210, 215 f.,

219, 234, 242, 244, 249, 277 f., 295
Fenno, John, 162
Florida (see West Florida)
Florida Blanca. 146
Fox, C. J., 266 f.
France, aids America, 48 f., 77, 97;
our commerce with, 112 f., 116,
165, 187; our diplomacy with,
197 f. (see also French Revolu-
tion and Napoleon); our treaties

with (see Treaties); war with, 204
Franklin, Benjamin, 37 n., 41, 43,

45, 48, 57, 99, 101, 112f., 115, 121,

136, 138, 147, 297
Frederick the Great. 131
French Revolution, 47, 117, 123 f.,

132 f., 135, 139, 164 f., 183, 186 f.,

193, 215, 295 f.
Freneau, Philip, 162 f., 211

Gage, Governor of Massachusetts,

22
Gallatin, Albert, 218, 221, 258, 273,

279
Gaspée, 16
Gates, General, 80 f., 87, 217
Genôt, Edmond, 166 f., 184, 187,

189
George III, 11, 18, 22 f., 29, 31, 41 f.,

47, 67, 133, 139, 271, 291
Gerry, Elbridge, 106, 197 f., 202
Goethe, 4
Greene, General, 87 f., 94
Grenville, George, 10
Grey, Captain, 223

Jackson, Andrew, 214, 239, 259,

279
Jay, John, 30, 37, 40, 99, 101, 104,

117, 126, 136, 138, 180, 187 f.,

199, 208, 211
Jefferson, Martha Skelton, 16, 100
Jefferson, Peter, 2 f.
Jefferson, Thomas, birth, 2; odu-

cation, 5 f.; as lawyer, 8; as
squire, 9 f.; elected to burgess-
es, 13 f.; resists governor, 17;
on power of Parliament, 21; the
Summary View, 22 f.; on Com-
mittee of Public Safety, 27; an-
swer to Lord North, 29 f.; in
Congress, 30 f.; and religious
liberty, 34, 61 f., 295 f.; house-
hold at Monticello, 36, 300 f.;
Declaration of Independence, 41 f.;
declines mission to Paris, 48, 57;
political theories, 49 f.; reforms
Virginia laws, 56 f.; and emanci-
pation, 67 f., 290 f.; and educa-
tion, 68 f., 304 f.; Governor of
Virginia, 75 f.; Western land
sessions, 97 f.; retirement, 99;
accepts mission to France, 102;
delayed, 103; in Congress again,
103 f.; plan for territorial govern-
ment 107 f.; French mission,
112 f.; minister to France, 115 f.;
Mediterranean policy, 118 f.,
220 f., 242; and French Revolu-
tion, 123 f.; views on Constitution
of U. s., 126 f., 150 f.; on repub-
licanism, 130, 139, 169; secretary
of State, 135 f.; negotiations
with England, 143 f.; interest in

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