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which were built in fields or villages, were, in regard to the principle of alienation, placed on the same footing as the lands themselves, being redeemable at all times, and destined to return to their original owners in the year of jubilee. But it is worthy of notice, that houses in cities and large towns, were, when sold, redeemable only during one year, after which, the sale was held binding for ever.
There was, indeed, an exception in this case, in favour of the Levites, who could, at any time, redeem “ the houses of the cities of their possession,” and who, moreover, enjoyed the full advantage of the
The Hebrews, like most other nations in a similar state of society, held their lands on the condition of military service. The grounds of exemption allowed by Moses, prove clearly, that every man of competent age was bound to bear arms in defence of his country-a conclusion which is at once strikingly illustrated and confirmed by the conduct of the senate or heads of the tribes, in the melancholy war undertaken by them against the children of Benjamin. Upon a muster of the confederated army at Mizpeh, it was discovered that no man had been sent from Jabesh-Gilead, to join the camp; whereupon it was immediately resolved, that twelve thousand soldiers should be despatched to put all the inhabitants of that town to military execution. " And the congregation commanded them, saying, Go and smite Jabesh-Gilead with the edge of the sword, with the women and children;" and the only reason assigned for this severe order, was, that “when the people were numbered there were none of the men of Jabesh-Gilead there."
XV.-SIEGE OF VIENNA BY THE TURKS IN 1683.
VIENNA resisted the Ottoman troops in 1529 and 1683. The recollection of the last siege has been handed down to the present inhabitants. No event was ever likely to be more fatal to Germany, and perhaps to Europe. Kara Mustapha, son-in-law and great vizier of Mahome: IV., excited by the ambition of adding the west to the humiliating yoke of his master, traversed Hungary, and entered the Austrian plains with an army of more than two hundred thousand men, and a train of artillery in which were three hundred cannon, very effective engines at that time. Charles the Fifth, Duke of Lorrain, compelled to give way to such an overwhelming force, retreated in haste to Vienna. Fear pervaded the inhabitants, and the Emperor Aled secretly and ingloriously from the Capital. It is in such moments that Kings feel the misfortune of not being beloved by their people. Leopold having suddenly taken the resolution of flying with his family, passed along the fugitive crowd that encumbered the road to Lintz. But it was soon discovered that he was only one among a multitude of sufferers ; he and his family were obliged to pass the night in a wood, and the darkness was dispelled by the flames which preceded the Ottoman hordes, and with which Hungary had already been desolated. Terror was at its height in Vienna ; all must have been lost but for one man, and that man was John Sobieski. Kara Mustapha had encompassed the town; the Count of Starenberg burned the suburbs, armed the students, and resisted with a feeble garrison of sixteen thousand men ; but after twenty-three days' siege, the garrison weakened, without provisions, obliged to fight and to extinguish the fires occasioned by the bombs, were reduced to despair. The
enemy had taken the counterscarp, when Sobieski appeared with seventy-four thousand men ; he examined the position and encampments of the vizier; gave the signal of battle, and the formidable army of Mustapha was cut to pieces. Never was so great an alarm followed by so brilliant a triumph ; the booty was immense, Vienna was saved, Christendom freed from the danger that menaced it, by the coolness and intrepidity of a hero.
A LAPLANDER might be known anywhere from the inhabitants of more temperate climates, by his short squat figure, large head, flat face, and small dark-grey eyes. 'Their summer dress is made of dark coarse cloth ; but in winter their breeches, coats, shoes, and gloves, are made of the skins of the rein-deer, with the hair outwards. What a droll sight must a Lapland woman be, equipped in this manner ? for they dress like the men, except a small apron of painted cloth, and a few more rings and trinkets. They are, notwithstanding, fond of finery, and contrive to embroider their awkward clothes with brass wire, silver, or coloured wool, which they are skilled in dyeing of various hues. In winter they are glad to eat dried fish, or the flesh of any animal they can catch ; but they never think of either roasting or boiling it—they devour it raw. The eggs of wild geese, and other water-fowl, which breed in prodigious numbers on the borders of the lakes, supply them with food in Spring ; and, when the breeding season is over, they live upon the birds. Some of the people are maintained wholly by fishing, whilst others are employed in tending their flocks of rein-deer, and wander about the mountains from place to place. They live in tents made of coarse cloth, which they carry about with them, and pitch for a short time wherever it suits their convenience. But the fishermen build villages, such as they are, near some lake. When they want to make a hut, they take large poles, or the bodies of trees, and place them slanting in the ground, in the form of a circle, so that they meet at top, except a small opening, which is left for the smoke to pass through. Instead of a carpet, they cover the ground with branches of trees; and the door is made of reindeer skins, like two curtains. During several montlrs in winter, these poor people never see the sun ; but tlie beautiful Aurora Borealis (or streamers, as it is sometimes called), and the reflection of the snow, to a certain degree, make them amends. If the Laplander has occasion to go to a distance, he harnesses his rein-deer to a sledge, made in the form of a boat; and, after whispering something to the animal, which he is so foolish as to suppose it understands, he seats himself on the sledge, and is carried away with surprising swiftness. In spite of the cold, the absence of the sun, and the barrenness of the soil, the Laplander loves his own country better than any other; and prefers his hut and his rein-deer to the conveniences of more civilized society.
XVII.-THE MORNING STAR.
EVERY one must have observed a beautiful star in the west, which sometimes shines with uncommon lustre in the evening, a little after sunset, and is called the Evening Star. This is Venus. By observing her for successive nights, we find that her distance from the sun remains not always the same.
After her first appearance, she is observed on the succeeding evenings to set later and later after the sun, and thus seems gradually receding from him towards the east, till she arrives at an angular distance, equal to about a quarter of the hemisphere. This happens about two months from her first appearance. She then begins to return towards the sun, to set each night sooner and sooner after him, and at last disappears in the splendour of his light.
But in a few days, a brilliant star makes its appearance in the east, a little before sun-rise, called the Morning Star. It is observed the succeeding mornings sooner and sooner before sun-rise, and seems therefore to be receding from the sun towards the west. This digression continues for a period of about two months, when the star has attained an angular distance from the sun, equal to about one-fourth of the hemisphere ; it then begins to return towards the sun, rises later and later every day, at last overtakes the sun, rises along with him, and we no more perceive it. It is a few days after, that we discover again in the west, the evening star disengaging itself from the sun's rays, and again gradually advancing towards the east; and the striking resemblance between the two objects which thus succeed each other in the sky, their never having been observed together, their proceeding in the same periods to the same angular distances from the sun, and the observation of all these phenomena for ages together, leave no room to doubt that it is the planet Venus which thus becomes alternately the morning and evening star, as she seems to oscillate on each side of the sun.