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as to our ré'ason, in the contemplation of me"tals, min"erals, plan"ts, and me'teors."
“ Proofs of the immortality of the soʻul/ may be justly drawn from the na'ture of the SUPR'EME BEING: concerned in this gresat-point/ are his jus“tice, good"ness, wis”dom, and vera" city."
An example exhibiting both the commencing and concluding series of four.
“He who resigns the woʻrld, has no temptation from en"vy, ha''tred, ma"lice, an"ger, but is in constant possession of a serene mi'nd; h'e/ who follows the ple'asures-of-it, (which are in their very nature disappo'inting) is in constant search of care", soli"citude, remorse", and confu"sion.”
Note.When a simple series extends to a considerable length, it may be divided into portions of three, counting from the last; if it be a commencing series, pronounce the two first with the falling, and the last with the rising inflexion ; and, if a concluding series, pronounce the first with the falling, the middle with the rising, and the last with the falling inflexion.
Commencing “ Love, joy, peace', long-suf'fering, gentleness, good’ness, faith', meek'ness, tem'perance, are the fruits of the spirit, and against such/ there is no law.”
“ Me'taphors, enig'mas, mot'toes, par’ables, fa'bles, dreams', vi'sions, dramatic writ'ings, burlesque, and all the methods of illussion, are comprehended in Mr. Locke's definition of wit, and Mr. Addison's short explan`ation-of-it.”
Concluding. “ But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy', peace, longsuf'fering, gen’tleness, good'ness, faith', meekʼness, tem'perance, -against such/ there is no law."
“ Mr. Locke's definition of wit (with this short explication) comprehends most of its species ; as metaphors, enig'mas, mot'toes, par`ables, fa'bles, dreams', vi'sions, dramatic writ'ings, burlesque', and all the methods of illu'sion.'
COMPOUND SERIES. When the members of a sentence consist of several words, the series is designated compound, and, like the simple series, is divided into commencing and concluding.
RULE. A commencing compound series requires every member except the last, to be pronounced with the falling inflexion.
EXAMPLES. “ Moderate ex"ercise, and habitual tem"perance, strengthen the constitu'tion.”
“ To adv'ise the ig'norant, reli’eve the need"y, comfort the afflict"ed, are dut'ies) that fall in our wa'y/ almost every da'y-of
“ Labour or exercise/ ferm'ents the hu'mours, casts them into their proper chan"nels, throws off redun"dancies, and helps nature in those secret distribu'tions, without which the bo`dy/ cannot subsist with vi'gour, nor the soʻull act with cheer'fulness.”
“ The descriptive part of this allegory/ is likewise very stro'ng, and full of sublim'e-ideas. The fi’gure of death", the regal crow'n/ on his head", his me’nace of Sa'tan, his adva'ncing to the com"bat, the outcry at his birth", are circumstances too no'ble to be passed over in silence, and extremely su'itable/ to this Ki'ng-of Terrors.'
“ Nature has laid out all her art in bea’utifying the face"; she has tou’ched-it/ with vermi'lion; plan'ted-in-it/ a double row of iv"ory ; made it the seat of smi'les and blush"es; lig'htedit up and enl’ivened-it/ with the brightness of the eyes"; hung it/ on each side/ with curious or'gans of sense"; given it air's and gra'ces/ that cannot be describ'ed ; and surroʻunded-it/ with such a flowing sha'de of hair", as sets all its beau'ties/ in the most agree able lig'ht."
RULE. Every member of a concluding compound series except the last but one, requires the falling iuflexion.
EXAMPLES. ** Nothing , te'nds/ more powerfully/ to strengthen the constitu'tion/ than mo'derate ex'ercise, and hab'itual tem"perance.”
“ It was necessary for the world, that arts should be inven'ted and improv'ed, books wri'tten and transmitted to poster”ity, na'tions con'quered and civ"ilized.”
“ Notwithstanding all the pains which Cicero took in the e'ducation of his so'n, young Ma'rcus/ ved re blo'ckhead; and na'ture (who it seems was even with the s'on/ for her prodiga'lity to the fa'ther), rendered him incapable of impro'ying/ by all the rules of e'loquence, the pr'ecepts of philo"sophy, his ow'n endeav"ours, and the most refined conver'sation in A"thens.”
Though we seem grieved at the shortness of li'fe in geʼneral, we are wishing every peʼriod-of-it/ at an end. The mi'nor/ longs to be at age", the’n to be a man of bus"iness, th’en/ to make up an estate", then/ to arrive at bon"ours, and th'en/ to retire"."
“If we interpret the Spectator's words in their literal m'eaning, we must suppose that women of the first quality/ used to pass away whole mor’nings/ at a pup“pet-show; that they attested their pri’nciples/ by patch'es; that an audience/ would sit out an evening/ to hear a dramatic performance, written in a lanʼguage/ which they did not understand"; that chairs and flower-pots/ were introduced as a'ctors/ on the British stage"; that a promiscuous assembly of men and women/ were allowed to meet at mi'dnight/ in maʼsks/ within the verge of the court" ; with ma'ny improbab'ilities of the like"-nature.'
Note-When a conditional or suppositive conjunction commences the series, if there is nothing particularly emphatical in it, the rising inflection on each particular is preferable to the falling, especially if the language be plaintive and tender.
EXAMPLE. “When the gay and smiling aspect of thi’ngs/ has begun to leave the passage to a man's heart thus thoughtlessly ungua”rded ; when kind and caressing looks of every object withoʻut, that can flatter his sen’ses, has conspired with the enemy within', to betray him and put him off his defence" ; when music/ likewise/ hath lent her' aid, and tried her po'wer upon the pas“sions ; when the voice of singing m'en and the voice of singing w'omen (with the sound of the vi'ol and the l'ute) have broke in upon his so'ul, an'd/ in some tender no'tes) have
touched the secret spri'ngs of rap'ture, that moment let us disse'ct and lo'ok into his heart"; see how vain", how weak", how empty-a-thing, it is"."
INTERROGATION. All questions may be divided into two classes ; namely, into such as are formed by interrogative pronouns or adverbs ; and into such as are formed only by an inversion of the common arrangement of the sentence. The former has been denominated “ the question with the interrogative word,” or “ the indefinite question,” and requires the falling inflexion; the latter is termed “the question without the interrogative word,” or “ the definite question,” and almost always demands the rising inflexion.*
EXAMPLES OF THE INDEFINITE QUESTION. “ How can h'e exalt his thoʻughts/ to any thing gre'at and noʻble, who on'ly believes th’at (after a short turn on the stage of this woʻrld) he is to sink into obl'ivion, and to lose his con'sciousness for ev'er ?”
“ Whe’re (amid the dark clouds of pagan philosophy) can we find such a clear prospect of a future state", the immort'ality of the soul", the resurre'ction of the dead", and the general judg“ment, as in St. Paul's first epi'stle) to the Corin"thians ?”
Observation. In this sentence, as in one purely declarative, each member, except the last but one, requires the falling inflexion ; the word finishing the last member, requiring only a little additional force : and it may be observed, that all interrogative sentences similarly constructed, must be pronounced according to the rule which relates to the series of which they are composed.
EXAMPLES OF THE DEFINITE QUESTION. “ Would it not employ a bea'u/ prettily enou'gh, i'f (instead of eternally playing with his sn'uff-box,) he spent some part of his time inak"ing one ?”
* When the definite question is protracted to a considerable length, and concludes a paragraph, the falling inflexion must be used instead of the rising.
“ Do we not sometimes feel the most at our ea'se, when we may be treading the confines of some im'minent dan",
?” “ Are we not often the least thou'ghtful, when our situation demands the ut'most se'riousness ?”.
RULE. When interrogative sentences connected by the conjunction or, either expressed or understood, succeed each other, the first ends with the rising, and the rest with the falling inflexion.
EXAMPLES Shall/ we in your person/ crown" the author of the public calamities, or shall we destroy" him ?”+
“ See ! Falkland di’es ! the vi’rtuous and the jus't ;
See ! god-like Tu'renne prostrate on the dus't !
Was this their vir'tue or contem"pt-of-life ?" “Do the perfections of the Almighty lie dor’mant? Does he possess them as if he possessed them not? Are they not " (or understood) “ rather in continual ex"ercise ?"
Note. When or is used conjunctively, the inflexions are not influenced by it; and the usual termination of the definite question is adopted.
EXAMPLE. “Should these credulous i'nfidels (after all,) be in the rig'ht,
* An easy and familiar way of determining whether the interrogation be definite or indefinite, and consequently whether it require the rising or the falling inflexion, is, to observe whether it can, or cannot, be answered by a simple negative or affirmative :-if “yes” or “no will answer it, and make sense, the question is “ definite," and demands the rising in. flexion ; if it require more than a monosyllabic answer, it is “ indefinite,' and demands the falling. It must be observed, however, that the immediate repetition of the sume question, requires a different inflexion of voice according to its form: Thus we say, when simply putting the definite question, “ Are you going to College ?”—but, repeating it, we say with emphasis, “ Are you going to College ?” and putting the indefinite question in its simple form, we say, “ When do you go to College ?"_but, emphatically, " When do you go to College ?” Thus we perceive the power
of emphasis. It ought to be remarked, however, that such a forcible expression of it but seldom occurs.
The rising circumflex (“) applied to “crown,” and the falling (“) to destroy," appear more suitable than the simple inflexions.