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times used for purposes of concealment, and very effectively done by leaving out or adding letters. Thus Messalinus would hardly be guessed to have come from Salmasius, or Cesare Leone Fruscadino from Francesco Maria de Luco Sereni. But Gustavus for Augustus, Lucianus and Alcuinus for Calvinus, Volcmarus Kirstenius for Macer Jurisconsultus, are good enough.
Some authors called their several chapters by the letters of their names; but Fordun placed at the head of his Scottish Chronicle three verses as follows, in which the first letters of each word together make up Johannes de Fordun:—
Incipies opus hoc Adonai: nomine nostri
Jean de Vauzelles announced his work by the motto Crainte de Di El vaut zele; and Pierre de Mesmes by the Italian Per me stesso son sasso, which literally in French is de moi-memeje suis Pierre, which he intended should be transposed as follows—Moi, je suis Pierre de Mesmes.
The substitution of initial letters instead of names and titles was common enough, and was borrowed from the practice of the Jews, but stripped of all point by the absence of the vowel, which is assumed or understood between the consonants of the Hebrew. Thus J. C. A. A. P. E. I. stood for Jean Cusson, Avocat au Parlement et Imprimeur, and F. J. F. C. R. S. T. P. A. P. C. for Frater Johannes Fronto, Canonicus Regularis, Sacra? Theologiae Professor, Academiae Parisiensis Cancellarius.
The lengthening of names in the following manner frequently took place: Guillet became Guillet de la Guilletiere, Thaumas became Thaumas de la Thaumassiere,* &c.
In closing this article, we observe that we can by no
* We may sometimes catch the incidents of modern novels in such apparently dry disquisitions as those of Baillet.
II. NAMES OF AUTHORS IN THE MIDDLE
M. Baillet, in his 'Jugemens des Savans' (reprint of 1723), has given a curious list of disguises of every class under which the names of authors have appeared. We shall make a few extracts, which will amuse some readers and perhaps be useful to others. In addition to M. Baillet, we have looked into some other old French writers. The oldest author who has gone under different names, according to Baillet, is Moses, whom he follows Huetin asserting to be at once Thoth, Adonis, Thammuz, Osiris, Serapis, Apis, Orus, Anubis, Typhon, Zoroaster, Pan, Apollo, Bacchus, Vulcan, Priapus, Prometheus, Minos, Orpheus, .flisculapius, Proteus, Tiresias, Janus, Evander, and several more. We were somewhat surprised at this list, till we saw Proteus among the number. However, the author gets on firmer ground as he comes nearer his own time.
The practice of changing the name was forbidden in France by Henry II. in 1555, except by letters patent. The Council of Trent, in 1546, required, under pain of excommunication, that the real name of the author should appear in every work on religious subjects, and the edicts of various kings appeared in France in support of the order of the Council, but without much success; indeed, only six years after the decree of the Council, a controversial work was printed at Paris by the English Bishop Gardiner, under the title of Constantius. Bellarmin wtotf under the name of Matthew Tortus and several others.
At the revival of letters in Europe, the prevailing fancy was for ancient Latin and Greek names, and neither Christian name nor surname (when there was
NAMES OF AUTHORS ITS THE MIDDLE AGES. 67
one) was exempt from invasion. Peter of Calabria wrote under the title of Julius Pomponius Lastus; Marco Antonio Coccio under that of Marcus Antonius Curtius Sabellicus; Cristoval de Escobar under that of Lucius Christophorus Escobarius. Florent Chreiien, the tutor of Henry IV., took the name of Quintus Septimius Flcrens Christianus; the first because he was a fifth son, the second because he was a seven months' child. Many who were named John preferred Janus to Johannes, as being more pagan. John Paul of Paris, who ought to have been Johannes Paulus Parisius, preferred Aulus Janus Parrhasius.
Among the disguises of names is that of the scurrilous Pietro Aretino; the booksellers, after his death, fearing that his religious writings would hardly sell under that name, transposed it into Partenio Etiro.
Among those who have changed their names to conceal the lowness of their origin is the celebrated mathematician Gilles Personne, whom nobody knows under that name, but who is a great lord or squire, to all appearance, as well as a philosopher, under the title of M. de Roberval. He took the name of a small village, with the consent of the proprietor.
Aldo of Bassano, a peasant, began by styling himself Aldus de Bassano. After some residence at Rome, he preferred Aldus Romanus, and then adopted the Manucci, a distinguished family at Rome, calling himself Aldus Manutius Romanus. Afterwards, becoming acquainted with Alberto Pio, Prince of Carpi, he engrafted, by consent, another name upon his previous ones, and was Aldus Pius Manutius Romanus, the well-known printer.
There is a reverse sort of instance in Barthelemi, secretary of the Duke of Ferrara (died 1545), who took the surname of Ferrinus on marrying the daughter of a rich iron-merchant.
A French author could not bear his own name of Disne-Maudi (Dine in the Morning), but changed it to Dorat: but he gave his daughter to a M. Goulu (Mr. Guttle) without any stipulation as to change of name.
were Latinized; but the exceptions were many and capricious, and some terminations have no rule:—
Latinized. Gambarus. Septalius. Luscarius. Passarius. Colasius. Salmasius. Cujacius. Petavius. Sarravius. Beroaldus. Bressaldus. Uifaeus. Budaeus. Cantarellus. Raguellus. Brimaeus. Nantolius. Forgeolius. Cavallerius. Poterius. Rossi us. Richelius. Sanprius. Bellomanerius. Blosius. Gallesius. Bignonius. Borbonius. Bar on i us, Priolius. Thuanus. Pithoeus. Loeus. Longojolius. Solturius. Morocurtius.
Le Goux, Legulphus.
De Joigny, Juniacus.
The transformations of many Dutch and German names are very amusing: Vander-Doez was turned into Douza, Moltzer into Mycillus, Schuler into Sabinus, Gastebled, or Outdebled, into Vatablus, and so on, with hundreds of others.
The confusion which arose from the Latinization of names, and from translating names into Latin and Greek —for many family denominations were turned into Greek equivalents—was beyond all description, and presented enigmas that required an CEdipus to solve them, as was remarked by Noel d'Argonne, who wrote a very amusing essay on the subject under the title of 'The Revolt of Latinized Names.' The common French names of La Porte and La Forest were rendered Janua or Januensis, and Sylvius; Da Bois was Nehemius; Pratus was equally the translation of Du Prat and DesPrez; Angelus was the conversion both of L'Ange and Langel; Castellanus of Du Chastel, Di Castello, Castellano, and several others. The name of Ricci, which is almost as common in Italy as that of Smith or Brown in England, was turned into Crinitus. By this transformation and falsification of patronymics, many a deserving man and many an honest family were deprived of their fame; for people in general were not able to trace any connexion between their friends and neighbours Monsieur Du Bois and Signor Ricci, and such name as Nehemius and Crinitus. When the change was voluntary and made by the authors themselves, it was not so bad, or at least those authors had only to blame their own folly; but it was a real hardship when, as it frequently happened, the names— the real family denominations under which they had gained distinction—were so travestied after their deaths by other writers, that there was no knowing them, and