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i. e. the post of Lieutenant-Field-Marshal-General of the Empire.
The ancients were usually desirous of giving theirchildren lucky names (bona nomina, fausta nomina), such as Victor, Faustus, Felix, Probus, Eutyches, Eunice, Agathias : while, on the other hand, Plautus thought it quite enough to damn a man, that he bore the name of Lyco; and Livy calls Atrius Umber, " abominandi ominis nomen,"—a name of terrible portent. Every one recollects how Trismegistus—the finest of all possible names—was frittered away into Tristram—one of the meanest of all possible names—by the negligence of Susannah, Mr. Shandy's messenger.
Persons above Titles.—Bayle got into a scrape with Christina, Queen of Sweden, for having called her simply Christina, without any adjunct, in his periodical work, the 'Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres.' But Bayle replied, that when a name had been rendered so illustrious, it was higher than any title ; that it was not customary to say King Francis I. or the Emperor Charles V., but simply Francis I. and Charles V.: and though the ordinals are here used, yet the name alone in many cases would be more dignified ; as we should say, Alexander was the pupil of Aristotle, without expressly calling him King of Macedon: that Constantine, Theodosius, and Justinian were instances to the same effect, as well as the father of the Queen herself, whom, since his heroic exploits in the field, it had been usual to call simply Gustavus Adolphus. Her Majesty was abundantly satisfied with the explanation, and thus modestly replied to him by her secretary: " Sa Majeste ne trouve pas que ce soit manquer au respect qu'on lui doit, que de ne l'appeler simplement que du nom de Christine; elle a rendu en effet ce nom si illustre qu'il n'a plus besoin d'aucune autre distinction; et tous les titres les plus nobles, et les plus augustes, dont on pourroit l'accompagner, ne sauroient rien ajouter a. l'eclat qu'il s'est deja. acquis dans le monde."
There is a similar story of a Gascon officer, who, being in the field, happened to say aloud to his comrades, as he w as leaving them, "I am going to dine with Villars." The Marshal de Villars overheard him, and said, " On account of my rank as general, and not on account of my merit, say Monsieur de Villars." The Gascon with great readiness replied, " Sir, we don't say Monsieur de Caesar."
On other occasions Bayle broke through the established etiquette with regard to Christina, but, as it would seem, with less felicity. In citing one of her letters to a Chevalier Terlon, he made it end with the common terms Je suis, &c.; upon which he received the following remonstrance: "Sa Majeste ne desavoue pas la lettre qu'on a imprime'e sous son nom, et que vous rapportez dans vos Nouvelles; il n'y a que le mot de ' Je suis' h. la fin, qui n'est pas d'elle; un homme d'esprit comme vous devoit bien avoir fait cette reflexion, et l'avoir corrige. Une Reine comme elle ne pent se servir de ce terme qu'avec tres-peu de personnes, et M. de Terlon n'est pas du nombre."
Indeed M. Bayle himself was not of the number, as may be seen by her Majesty's letters to him, which conclude with " Dieuvousprospere, Christine AlexanDre." Bayle erred again by calling her Majesty famous; an equivocal term in French, Latin, and Italian. He was therefore gravely admonished by the Queen's Advocate to avoid all ambiguous terms in addressing crowned heads. In speaking of such high personages, says his correspondent, you should select "des paroles d'or et de soie." This master of the ceremonies concludes by desiring Bayle to write to the Queen, but on no account to call her Serenissirna, as the word was too common for her.
Peers' Daughters.—The daughter of a Duke ranks as a Marchioness as long as she is unmarried, and, if her husband is a commoner, may retain her rank; thus, the younger daughter of a Duke, who married a footman, might take precedence of her elder sisters, whose husbands were Earls, Viscounts, or Barons ;—a strange heraldic anomaly! Again, if Lady Frances, the daughter of a Duke, marries Lord Francis, the younger son ot a Duke, she may either call herself Lady Frances, and retain her rank of Marchioness, or call herself Lady Francis, and take place below the Viscountesses. But if she chooses to retain her original rank, and her noble husband should be called up to the House of the Peers by the title of Baron so-and-so, his lordship would lose one step in the order of precedence, and her Ladyship three, by their elevation to the peerage.
Anagrams.—Some of the most applauded of these trifles are—
Henricus IV. Galliarum Rex.
In herum exurgis Ravillac.
Honor est a NUo.
G. R. in pretence.
Sir Francis Burdett.
To love ruin.
Rare mad frolic.
Bayle tells us that Peter le Loyer found a line in Homer, which being anagrammatized, contained his name and birth-place, with the province and kingdom in which it was situated.
The line is :—
'Xov 5* oimw Tis exei KaKov yepas' aKKa eitriKos:
Which may be transformed into :—
ITeTpoy Aaepios, Aj/ScpKaos, TaAAos, Tacjt;
That is to say, Peter le Loyer, of the Province of Anjou, a Gaul, born at Huille. After anagrammatizing, three letters are left, a, x, "; they are to be considered as numerals, and point out the time (says Peter le Loyer) when the name hid in the line was to be revealed, namely, 1620.
Punning texts.—James the first of England, and sixth of Scotland, was, as every one knows, deficient in vigour and steadiness. Having heard of a famous preacher who was very witty in his sermons, and peculiarly so in his choice of texts, he ordered this clergyman to preach before him. With all suitable gravity, the learned divine gave out his text in the following words: "James, first and sixth, in the latter part of the verse, 'He that wavereth is like a wave of the sea, driven by the winds and tossed.'" "He is at me already," said the King, much amused.
We will add a couple of other instances not adduced by the author. The Rev. Sidney Smith is said to have preached before a corps of sharpshooters, from the words, "I see men as trees, walking."
The best of all, perhaps, is a graver example. When John Sobieski, King of Poland, had delivered Vienna from the Turks, who were besieging it, the Archbishop of Vienna preached from the text, "There was a man sent from God, whose name was John."
Old Names with new Faces.—Those who have duly meditated on the Horatian axiom, Multa renascentur, &c., will not be surprised to find the blind Lear an optician in Fetter-lane, while Edgar sells ale in Fenchurch-street; Macbeth and his wife are set up in a fruit-stall in Vinegar-yard, Drury-lane; the melancholy Jacques is established as an apothecary and accoucheur in Warwickstreet, Golden-square; Angelo is celebrated as a fencing* master in the Albany; Romeo, having been promoted to a captaincy, is beating up for volunteers in the cause of liberty; Paris is in full practice as a popular physician; and Hamlet himself keeps a silversmith's shop at the corner of Sidney's-alley j Otway is a major-general in the Army; Milton breaks in horses in Piccadilly; Rowe and Waller are in partnership as stationers in Fleetstreet, and Isaac Newton flourishing as a linen-draper in Leicester-square. Alexander Pope, made straight and fattened up, acts tragedy at Drury-lane; Addison sells globes in Regent-street; Richardson and Swift keep lottery-offices in the City; Congreve's pieces (which continue to go off remarkably well) are cannon, not comedies; and Farquhar, instead of a poor author, is a rich banker in St. James's-street. Gay, "in wit a man, simplicity a child," makes dolls in Goswell-street; Cowley is a blacksmith; Phillips is poetical only in his prose; Prior, till very lately, was an ensign in the 12th regiment of foot: Collins, instead of odes, makes glass chandeliers; Butler grinds Greek at Harrow; and Cowper may be seen writing his " task" at the table of the House of Lords any day during the sitting of Parliament.
Marquess.—The author of Heraldic Anomalies prefers Marquess to Marquis, as being the more ancient way of writing the word. It corresponds in meaning with the Prases limitancus of the Romans, and in etymology with Markgraf, Marquis, Marquez, Marchese, and the modern Greek, Mop/tttrioj. Among the French, it would seem, from the phrase se marquiser, to have been assumed, like Captain formerly in England, as a travellingname; though the following story shows that this title was not always favourable to travelling, and that a Pra:ses limitum might be cribbed and cabined within the barriers of Paris.
At the beginning of the French Revolution, a Marquis being about to quit Paris for a tour, was required at the barriers to give his name. "I am Monsieur le Marquis de Saint Cyr."
"Oh, oh, we have no Monsieurs now."
"Put me down as the Marquis de Saint Cyr, then."
"All titles of nobility are abolished."
"Call me De Saint Cyr only."
"No person is allowed to have De before his name in these days of equality."
"Write Saint Cyr."
"That won't do either, all the Saints are struck out of the calendar."
"Then let my name be Cyr."
"Sire!! (Cyr is thus pronounced)—that is worse than all; Sires, thank God, are quite done away with."
And thus was each glittering particle taken from his title (like the embroidery from Peter's coat, in the Tale of a Tub), and the worthy Marquis detained in Paris for want of a good, homespun, travelling-name.
Bishops' signatures.—In several instances the bishops, when signing their names, use the old Latin appellations, or abbreviations of them, for their sees instead of the English ones. Thus, Ebor. stands for York, Cantuar. for Can