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beauty of the abbe's person. The ill-bred courtiers of that base-minded vulgar King burst out into loud laughter at his appearance; but Galiani, without being at all disturbed by this, said to Louis, "Sire, vous voyez a present l'echantillon du secretaire, le secretaire vient apres."

The readiness of his repartees, his searching sarcasms, the originality and comprehensiveness of his mind, soon made the abbd one of the lions of Parisian society, and brought him acquainted with all the most celebrated French philosophers, economists, and wits of that period; among whom it was found that, though speaking a foreign language, he could beat most of the beaux esprits who used their own.

Not long after he showed that he could write French even better than he spoke it, and that he could be as witty with his pen as with his tongue. The French economists having got up a furious contest on the question of the liberty or restriction of the corn-trade, Galiani entered the arena incognito; and, in a little work in the form of a dialogue, contrived not only to treat the solemn subject in a more correct and convincing manner than any of his contemporaries, but to render it amusing and attractive to all the world by the gaiety and wit with which, to the surprise of every body, he invested its usually repulsive dryness. For several weeks all Paris could talk of nothing else, but it was never suspected at the time that so much wit and such French could proceed from any one but a Frenchman. Voltaire, who was certainly a great judge of wit, says of these Corn Dialogues, in a letter to Diderot, " Dans ce livre il me scmble que Platon et Moliere se soient reurris pour composer l' Out. rage . . . On n'a jamais raisonne ni mieux, ni plus plaisamment . . . Oh le plaisant livre, le charmant livre, que Les Dialogues sur le Commerce des Bles!"

Frederic the Great, of Prussia, was equally enchanted with the wisdom and spirit of the Dialogues: but Galiani, who had thrown them off, currente calamo, almost without an effort, used to wonder that people should find them so extraordinary. The little hump-backed abbe became a star of the first magnitude even in the eyes of the ladies of beauty, rank, and fashion; and it was in speaking of him that the Duchess of Choiseul used to say, " En France il y a de l'esprit en petite monnoie, et en Italic en lingots."

When interrogated by a great talker, who wanted to know how it was that he had so much wit constantly at command, the abbe lifted his shoulders, and said: "I don't now that I have what you give me credit for; but, if I have any wit, it is because I don't seek for it."

In the correspondence of Grimm, the quondam friend of Rosseau, frequent mention is made of Galiani, who was held in singular estimation by the society of the Baron d'Holbach, and the other scientific and literary coteries which Grimm most frequented.

On returning to his native country, in 1770, the witty abbe was made counsellor of the Chamber of Commerce; and he was afterwards promoted to a high post in the finance department. He had a good hearty relish for life, and lived prosperously and happily; but this did not hinder him from dying cheerfully. When his last moment was approaching, he took leave of his friends with these words: "You must excuse me, gentlemen, but the dead have sent me a card of invitation for their conversazione."

He died on the 31st of October 1787, in the 59th year of his age.— Ugoni, tom. ii. art. 7. Ugo Foscolo, Orig. e Uffic. delta Letter. Corniani, Sfc

XXIV. EPITAPH IN THE CHURCHYARD OF
MORETON-IN-MARSH.

Here lie the bones of Richard Lawton,
Whose death, alas 1 was strangely brought on.
Trying one day his corns to mow off,
The razor slipped and cut his toe off;
His toe, or rather what it grew to,
An inflammation quickly flew to,
Which took, alas ! to mortifying,
And was the cause of Richard's dying.

the town in those cleanly times) ran between his horse's legs, and made him stumble; on which Philip, falling forward, received so much injury that he died the next morning, on the third day of October, in the year of Grace 1131. His grieved and irritated father forthwith issued a proclamation that in future no swine should be allowed to run about in the streets of cities and towns, and to this order the people were fain to submit; hut the monks of the order of St. Anthony entered an energetic and successful protest, stating to his Majesty that it was contrary to the respect and reverence due to their patron saint (who may certainly be called the patron saint of pigs) to prevent the swine of their houses, which were the swine of St. Anthony, from enjoying the liberty of going where they (the swine) thought fit.

The subject of the remonstrance, and the rights of the saint and pigs, were solemnly deliberated in council, where it was finally decided to grant the monks of that order an exclusive privilege to be nasty, and to allow their swine to wallow in the streets without molestation, provided only that they had bells tied round their necks. —Histoire de la Vide de Paris, par Sauval.

In old pictures Saint Anthony is almost invariably painted with a sow at his feet.

An old English adage says, " Every man to his taste, as the Welshman said when he kissed his cow." The Italians say, " There is no accounting for taste; St. Anthony loved a sow." This arose out of a queer story in the legendary life of that saint.

XXVII. ETIQUETTE ON THE SCAFFOLD.

On the 9th of March 1648, in pursuance of a sentence passed by Cromwell and the Commonwealth, the Royalist leaders, the Duke of Hamilton, the Earl of Holland, and the Lord Capel, were executed in front of Westminster-Hall. They were brought to the block

MISCEIXANKODS POINTS IN THE SCIJXCKS. 151

and beheaded one at a time, each of them addressing the people; and the Lord Capel being the last of the three, of whom he was undoubtedly the most honourable and the best.

"As soon as his lordship had ascended the scaffold, he looked very vigorously about, and asked 'whether the other lords had spoken to the people with their hats on?' and being told that 'they were bare,' he gave his hat to his servant, and then with a clear and strong voice he spoke."—Clarendon Hist. Heb.

XXVIII. MISCELLANEOUS POINTS * IN THE HISTORY OP THE SCIENCES.

I.—Persecution for matters of opinion. We are accustomed to believe, that the spirit of persecution which prevailed during the "dark" ages was a consequence of ignorance, which was confined only to the ignorant; and that men of information, even in those days, were guiltless of desiring to enforce their opinions literally. We imagine, for example, that the wrongs of Galileo would arouse the indignation of all contemporary men of learning at least. What we here do, is to give instances to the contrary by producing the printed opinions of two men of education, one a Frenchman, the other an Italian, both written within the half century preceding the forced recantation of Galileo.

Vieta, the first who so materially extended algebra as to entitle Europe to claim the honour of having introduced new principles into the science received from Asia, was a man remarkable for every kind of knowledge. He was,

* In preserving such circumstances as we have thought remarkable, we have attended to no rule but this: never to say of any work more than we have actually seen in the work itself. Of all the things which can lead to inaccuracy, thai of citing citations is the most dangerous ; and we shall take care, if obliged to do so, to name the citer as well as the author. ,

by the confession of an opponent, as well as from what is otherwise known of him, statesman, diplomatist, lawyer, theologian, mathematician, orator, and poet. (Born in 1540, died in 1603). He lived during the reformation of the calendar, which was completed by Pope Gregory the Thirteenth in 1582; the plan of Lilius, then dead, having been committed to the execution of the Jesuit Clavius, celebrated as the commentator upon so many of the Greek geometers: This subject then exercised much of the attention of the learned, not only because the correct time of keeping Easter was a point of faith, but because it had divided the Eastern and Western churches for centuries, and had been written upon, and considered a principal application of astronomy, by many authors on that scienoe ; Roger Bacon, for instance. Among others, Vieta wrote in opposition to the scheme patronised by Clavius, who answered very mildly, and referred all his critics to his forthcoming work. Vieta became furious, and published, in 1602, his " Adversus Christ. Claviuin Expostulate;" in which he says that Clavius, "in his contempt of religion, would rather fall into crime, and overturn all things by any hazard, rather than appear ignorant of the matter;" '' that he was a false mathematician and theologian, if indeed he had any title to either appellation;" that the protestants, if he did not take warning, would get the true calendar from their own reason, and not from the papal authority; "that Augustus Caesar, one Pontifex maximus, had altered the calendar arranged by Julius Caesar, another Pontifex maximus" which, curiously enough, he cites as a precedent for his own Pontifex. He calls upon the society of Jesuits to take up the matter, and ends by assuring them that all religious men look for nothing less at their hands than that all who obstruct a work of so much benefit to the Christian republic (as his own reformation of the calendar, of course,) should be " driven out as exiles from the happy congregation of the pious." So much for the toleration of Vieta: it only remains to add, that he was wrong in most of his notions on the subject. In the mean while, (in 1603,) an advocate for Clavius rose up in the person

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