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1665.-A company of settlers from Newbury, in Massa

chusetts, established themselves on the Raritan River, in New Jersey. These three last named migrations were the result of a systematic campaign made by agents of New Jersey in New England, where they were sent to

praise the country and get immigrants. 1671.-A group of Dutch from New York settled along

the Ashley River, in the Carolinas. 1682 to 1690.—Large parties from Virginia, Maryland,

New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut and other colonies travelled to the Delaware River region and settled in the new colony of Pennsylvania and the town of

Philadelphia. 1732.—People living on the Potomac River, in Virginia,

began to move over the mountains to the valley of the

Shenandoah. 1737.—A party of a hundred Potomac families journeyed

through this last named region and settled near the

present towns of Winchester and Strasburg. 1725-1740.-A steady stream of emigration travelled

from Virginia and Pennsylvania into North Carolina. 1735-1740.—Similar groups from Virginia and Pennsylvania moved into South Carolina.

These were not the trifling shifts for short distances, such as were also going on during the constant establishment of new farms and new settlements near older ones. They were long and pretentious travels, often for hundreds of miles, calling for careful and elaborate preparation, the breaking up of homes and the enduring of many trials. They were the first manifestations of the restless desire for movement and change, the somewhere-else feeling, that has ever since been a characteristic of the native born American. Through them and similar early migrations, accomplished on foot or by the aid of boats and a few horses, marked by hardships and sometimes ending in disaster or disappointment, a better knowledge of the condition and character of the country was gradually obtained by the population.

CHAPTER IV

POLE-BOATS AND THE MANNER OF THEIR NAVIGATION

INCREDIBLE LABOR PERFORMED IN USING THEM
THE INFLUENCE OF CONNECTICUT · BEGINNING THE
SYSTEMATIC TRANSFORMATION OF INDIAN TRAILS
INTO CRUDE ROADS EARLY FERRIES AROUND BOSTON
AND NEW YORK SEDAN CHAIRS - THE FIRST
HORSE VEHICLES AND THEIR TRIUMPH OVER PURI-
TAN PREJUDICE LAWS AGAINST TRAVEL THE
INTRODUCTION AND EQUIPMENT OF SLEDS — TRAVEL
IN WINTER RESULT OF THE FOUNDING OF PHILA-
DELPHIA THE EVOLUTION OF THE OLD INDIAN
TRAIL ACROSS NEW JERSEY

NEW JERSEY —— LONG HORSEBACK
JOURNEYS BECOME POSSIBLE — THE ADVENTURES OF
MISTRESS KNIGHT OF BOSTON

TW

WO of the earliest types of river boats that followed

the canoe, as the needs of the growing settlements became greater, were probably first used by the pioneers on the Connecticut River. Both sorts of craft with slight modifications were widely adopted in various regions, particularly where the streams were rapid or shallow, and were common throughout the country until after the year 1800.

One was called a pole-boat, from the means by which it was propelled up-stream. Usually made of planks hewed from the pine, it was from twenty to thirty feet long, three to five feet wide, some two or three feet deep, pointed at both ends, and had a flat bottom. Even when heavily laden it was serviceable in less than a foot of water. Such a boat was navigated down a stream by means of oars or poles with almost no effort, but going back upstream, especially against a rapid current, was a far different matter. The crew

exclusive of steersman consisted of four, six or eight men, according to the size of the craft, and each man was armed with a long, stout pole made of ash or hickory, with a heavy, wrought iron spike at one end. There were two methods of propulsion. With an equal number of men standing on each side of the boat, as near to the bow as possible and facing the stern, they would plant their spikes in the bottom of the stream at an angle, and with the upper end of each man's pole against his shoulder they would all walk as far

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11.—Early types of river boats used by families on long journeys. They probably

originated on the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers. The ark, or flatboat, varied somewhat in form, was built of heavy timbers, and was rarely navigated against the current. The barge, a lighter vessel with canoe-like lines, was pushed up-stream by poles. At first the barge was called a keelboat and had no covered shelter.

toward the stern as possible. By so doing they pushed the boat out from under their feet in an up-stream direction and propelled it, with each repetition of the process, nearly a boat's length. Two men would then hold the distance gained until the others hurried back to the bow and planted their poles in the bottom again. The second method of advancing consisted in facing the bow of the boat with the workers in two stationary groups, one near the bow and the other near the stern. The groups would push on their poles alternately, with a helmsman to correct the zigzag impulse. The labor necessary for ascending a rapid river in either of these ways was so great as to be beyond exaggeration, yet it was constantly accomplished over long distances, and the method remained in wide fashion for very many years. Men took it for granted there was nothing else to do, and that the same conditions would always prevail.

The other type of early river boat was substantially a duplicate, in form and material, of the one just described. It was, however, about twice as long and wide, and equipped with a mast and sails. When going against the wind the sails were dropped and poles were used, as in the case of the smaller vessel.

The obstruction in the river shown in the illustration, and through which the larger boat is being guided with care and difficulty, is not a natural formation. It is an ancient fish-dam, built by the Indians with boulders gathered from the bed and banks of the river. In the center of such a contrivance the Indians left an opening about six or eight feet wide, and below this gap they constructed, with woven roots, willow branches and such material, a

1 They moved back and forth on narrow wooden runways, about ten inches wide, that were built on each side of the boat for the purpose.

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