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niJ pans of India, to see the said princes, nnd the ;••;•''• i"d Infida, ami discover the nature and iii*pu*i'ioH of them all, and, the means to be taken lor ¡he conversion of ihetn lo our holy faiih; and i ., 'i-j that 1 should not go by land to the East, t-y wliicn il is the custom go, but by a voyage to luí Wesi, by which course, unto the present time, we do not know for certain that any one halh |»Hed ; and for this purpose bestowed great favours upon inf.ennobling me, that thenceforward I might «iy'*mjeelt Don, appointing me high admiral of ihe Ocean Sea, and perpetual viceroy and governor of til the islands and continents I should discover and iron, ttid which henceforward may be dis.41.71.1 nnd gained, in the Ocean Sea; and thai my eUnl »on should succeed me, and so on, from Ifrvration tu generation, for ever. I departed, ibeMore, from the city of Granada on Saturday 'lie Uîh of May, of the same year, 1492, to Palos, « jça.port, where I armed three ships well calcuu'.-d tur such service, and sailed from thai port well furnished with provisions, and with many кэтгп. on Friday the 3d of August of the same fear, hilf an hour before sunrise, and look the гони for the Canary Islands of your highnesses, to neerroy course thence, and navigate until I should arme «t the Indies, and deliver the embassy of your highnesses 10 those princes, and accomplish thai which you had commanded. For this purpose, I intend to write during this voyage very punctually, from day to day, all that I may do, and see, and experience, as will hereafter be seen. Also, Biv «niereign princes, besides describing each night ai' Sit has occurred in the day, and in the day the n.-.\ galion of the night, I propose to make a chart, to which I will set down the waters and lands of the Ocean Sea, in their proper situalions, under their Bearings; and. further to compose a book, and ¡1lustrale the whole in picture by latitude from the equinoctial, and longitude from the West ; and upon the whole it will be essential that I should forget »•«p. and attend closely to the navigation, to accompliib these things, which will be a great labour."
As a guide by which to sail, Mr. Irving also luiorms us, he had prepared "a map, or chart, improved upon that sent him by Paolo Toscanelli. Neither of these now exist; but the globe, or planisphere, finished by Martin Behem in this year of the admiral's first Toyage, is still e.vtant, and furnishes an idea of what the chart of Columbus must have been. It exhibits the coasts of Europe and Africa, from the south of Ireland to the end of Guinea; and opposite to them, on the other «¡de of the Atlantic, the extremity of Asia, <>'. as it was termed, India. Between them is placed the island of Cipango, (or Japan,) "h;rh. according to Marco Pulo, lay fifteen hundred miles distant from the Asiatic coast. In his computations Columbus advanced this i-Sarid about a thousand leagues too much to the eart; supposing it to lie in the situation • ; Florida, and at this island he hoped first to arrive."
We рам over the known incidents of this celebrated voyage, which are here repeated '•4'h new interest and additional detail; but «•» rarmot refrain from extracting Mr. Irving's account of its fortunate conclusion. The growing panic and discontent of his mutinous crew, Md their resolution to turn back if land was not discovered in three days, are well known.
"And when on the evening of the third day they t*hf Id the eun go down upon a shoreless horizon, they broke iorth into clamorous turbulence. Fory, however, the manifestations of neighbour
ing land were such on the following day as no longer to admit a doubt. Besides a quantity of fresh weeds, such as grow in rivers, they saw a green fish of a kind which keeps about rocks; then a branch of thorn, with berries on it, and recently separated from the tree, floated by them ; then they picked up a reed, a small board, and, above all, a staff artificially carved. All gloom and mutiny now gave way lo sanguine expectation; and throughout the day each one was eagerly on the watch, in hopes of being the first to discover the long-soughifor land.
"In the evening, when, according to invariable custom on board ot the admiral's ship, the mariners had *ung tke salve regina, or vetver hymn to the Virgin, he made an impressive address to his crew. He pointed out the goodness of God in thus conducting them by such soft and favouring breezes across a tranquil ocean, cheering their hopes continually with fresh signs, increasing as their fears augmented, and thus leading and guiding them to л promised land.
"The breeze had been fresh all day, with more sea than usual, and they had made great progress. At sunset they had stood again lo the west, and were ploughing the waves at a rapid rate, the Pinta, keeping the lead, from her superior sailing. The greatest animation prevailed throughout the ships; not an eye was closed that night. As the evening darkened, Columbus look his station on the top ot the castle or cabin on the high poop of his vessel. However he might carry a cheerful and confident countenance during the day, it was to him a time of the most painful anxiety; and now when he was wrapped from observation by the shades of nighl, he maintained an intense and unremitting watch, ranging his eye along the dusky horizon, in search, of die most vague indications of land. Suddenly, ahoul ten o'clock, he thought he beheld a light glimmering at a dislance! Fearing that his eager hopes might deceive him, he calledl to Pedro Gulicrrez, genlleman of the king's bed-chamber, and inquired whether he saw a light in thai direction; ihe latter replied in the affirmative. Columbus, yet doubtful whether it might not be some delusion of the fancy, called Rodrigo Sanchez of Segovia, and made the same inquiry. By the time the latter had ascended the round-house, the light had disappeared. They saw it once or twice afterwards m sudden and passing gleams; as it were a torch in the bark of a fisherman, rising and sinking with the waves: or in the hand of some person on shore, borne up and down as he walked trom house lu house. So transient and uncertain were these gleams, that few attached any importance to them; Columbus, however, considered them as certain signs of land, and moreover, lhal ihe land was inhabited.
"They continued their course until two in the morning, when a gun from the Pinta gave ihe joyful signal of land. It was first discovered by a mariner named Rodrigo de Triana; but the reward was afterwords adjudged to the admiral, for having previously perceived the lighl. The land was now clearly seen about two leagues distant ; whereupon they took in sail and lay-to, waiting impatiently for the dawn.
"The thoughts and feelings of Columbus in this little space of lime must have been tumultuous and intense. At length, in spile of every difficuliy and danger, he had accomplished his object. The great ¡mystery of the ocean was revealed; his theory, which find been the scoff of sages, was triumphantly established; he had secured lo himself a glory which must be as durable as the world itself.
"It is difficult even for the imagination to conceive the feelinsrs of such a man at ihe moment of so sublime a discovery. What a bewildering crowd of conjectures must have thronged upon his mind, as to the land which lay before him, covered with ! darkness. That it wns fruitful was evident, from i the vegetables which floated Irom its shores. He [ thought, too, that he perceived in the balmy air tl
fragrance of aromatic grove». The moving lighi which he had beheld, had proved that it was ihe residence of man. Bui what were its inhabitants? Were ihey like those of the other parts ot the glube; or were they some strange and monstrous race, auch as the imagination in those times was prom1 to give to all remote and unknown regions? Had he come upon some wild island fur in the Indian .Sea; or was ibis the famed Cipango itself, the object of his golden fancies? A thousand speculations of the kind must have swarmed upon him, as, with his anxious crews, he waited for the night to pass away : wondering whether the morning light would reveal a savage wilderness, or dawn upon spicy groves, and guttering fanes, and gilded cities, and all the splendour of oriental civilization.
The land to which he was thus triumphantly borne was the island of San Salvador, since called Cat Island, by the English: and at early dawn he landed with a great company, splendidly armed and attired, and bearing m his hand the royal standard of Castile.
"As they approached the shores, they were refreshed by the sight of the ample forests, which in those cliniee have extraordinary beauty and vegetation. They beheld Iruiis ol tempting hue, but unknown kind, growing among the trees which overhung the snores. The purity and suavity of the atmosphere, the crystal transparency of the seas which bathe these islands, give them a wonderful beauty, and must have haa their effect upon the (usceptible feelings of Columbus. No sooner did he land, than he threw himself upon his knees, kissed the earth, and returned thanks to God with tears of joy. His example was followed by the rest, whose hearts indeed overflowed with the same feelings of gratitude."
"'1 he natives of the island, when, at the dawn of day, they had beheld the ships, with their sails eet, hovering on their coast, had supposed them some monsters which had issued from the deep during the night. They had crowded to the beach, and watched their movements with awful anxiety. Their veering about, apparently without effort; the shifting and furling of their sails, resembling huge wings, filled themwiih astonishment. When they beheld their boats approach the shore, and a number of strange beings, clad in glittering steel, or raiment of various colours, landing upon the beach, they fled in nffnght to their woods. Finding, however, that there was no attempt to pursue nor molest them, they gradually recovered from their terror, and approached the Spaniards with great awe; frequently prostrating themselves on the earth, and making signs of adoraiion. During the ceremonies of Inking possession, they remained gazing in timid admiration at the complexion, the beards, the sinning armour, and splendid dress of the Spaniards. The admiral particularly attracted their intention, from his commanding height, his air of authority, his dress of scarlet, and the deference which was paid him by his companions; all which pointed him out to be the commander. When they had siill further recovered from their fears, thev approached the Spaniards, touched their beards, and examined their hands and faces, admiring their whiteness. Columbus, pleased with their simplicity, their «eiitlenes.*, and the confidence they reposed in beings who must hnve appeared to them eo strange and formidable, suffered their scrutiny with perfect acquiescence. The wondering savac'1« were won by this benignity; they now supposed that the ships had sailed out oí the crystal firmament which hounded their horiion. or that they had descended from above on their ample wings, and that these marvellous beings were inhabitants of the •kin."
Nothing is more remarkable in the journal of the great discoverer, than hie extraordinary j
sensibility to the beauty of the ecenery, «J the charms of the climate, of this new woilu, and on his ai rival at Cuba, these raptures ait, if possible, redoubled.
"As he approached this noble island, be wai struck with its magnitude, and the grandeur <>? i • leaturcs; its high and airy mountains, w hieb rrminded him of those of Sicily ; ils tenue valley*, i..; long sweeping plains, watered by noble rivers: i stately forests; i's bold promontories, and stretching headlands, which melted away into the гешо'ел distance. He anchored in a beautiful птег, free from rocks or shoals, of transparent water, itsbinki overhung with trees. Here, landing, and takinc possession of the island, he gave it the nan» of Juana, in honour of Prince Juan, and to the lira the name of San Salvador.
"Returning to his boat, he proceeded for sotnr distance up the river, more and more enchant with the beauty of the conntry. The forests wl«b covered each bank were of high and wide-sprcadicg trees; some bearing fruits, others flowers, «hue ш some both fruits and flowers were mingled, bespeaking a perpetual round of fertility: among them were many palms, but differing from those ol Spain and Africa; with the great leaves of these the natives thatched their cabins.
"The continual eulogies made by Columbus It, the beauty of the scenery were warranted by tbe kind of scenery he was beholding. There a a wonderful splendour, variety, and luxuriance in the vegetation of those quick and ardent climate*. Tbe verdure of the groves, and the colours of the fio«er> and blossoms, derive a vividness to the eye from tbe transparent purity of the air, and the deep serenity of the azure heavens. The forests, too, are full o) life, swarming with birds of brilliant plumage. Painted varieties of parrots, and wood-pecken. create a glitter amidst the verdure of the grove ; and humming-birds rove from flower to flower, resembling, as has well been said, animated particles ol > rainbow. The scarlet flamingos, loo, seen wmetimes through an opening of a forest in s dam: savannah, have the appearance of soldiers dra«n'ip in battalion, with an advanced scout on the alert, ч give notice of approaching danger. Nor is the It« beautiful part of animated nature the varioa« tribe of insects that people every plant, displaying bruliant coats of mail, which sparkle to the eye ti« precious gems.
"From his continual remarks on the beauty ot the scenery, and from the pleasure which he evident Iv derived from rural sounds and object», he appears to have been extremely open to thoee delicious influences, exercised over some spirits by ib; graces and wonders of nature. He gives «nenrf to these feelings with characteristic enthusiasm. »rd at the same time with the artlessnes* and simplify of diction of a child. When speaking of somelotely scene among the groves, or along the flowery «h -r*. of this favoured island, he says, 'one coulJ I'" there for ever.'—Cuba broke upon him like an elysium. 'It is the most beautiful island.' be sari. 'lhat eyes ever beheld, full of excellent port.« >'•' profound rivers.' The climate was more temperate here tha^ in the other islands, the nigh'« bein| neither hot nor cold, while the birds and gnnhoppers sang all night long. Indeed there is a btai} in a tropical night, in the depih of the dark-^* sky, the lambient purity of the stars, and the resplendent clearness of the moon, lhat spreads ovtr the rich landscape and the balmy grove« * cbano more touching than the splendour of the dav,
"In the sweet smell of the woods, andthf^odour of the flowers, which loaded every breeze, dlunibus fancied he perceived the fragrance of on<T':Sl spices; and along ihe shores he found shells oí tt* kind of oyster which produces pearls. Fron, ib* grues growing to the very edge of the wa'or. he interred the peacefulness of the ocean which bathes these islands, never lashing the shore wuh angry mrçes. Ever since his arrival among these An tilles, he had experienced nothing but soft and gentle weather, and he concluded that a perpétuai ttrenity reigned over these happy seas. He was little suspicious of the occasional bursts of fury to which the; are liable."
Hiepaniola was still more enchanting.
"In the transparent atmosphere of the tropics, object« ire descried at a great distance, and the purity of the air and serenity of the deep blue sky gm • magical effect to the scenery. Under these advantage!, the beautiful island of Hayti revealed itself to the eye as they approached. Its mountains were higher and more rocky than those of the other island«; but the rocks reared themselves from »mon? rich forests. The mountains swept down into luxuriant plains and green savannahs; while the appearance of cultivated fields, with the numerous 5res at night, and the columns'of smoke which row in various parts by day, all showed it to be populous. It rose before them in all the splendour of tropical vegetation, one of the most beautiful bland« in the world, and doomed to be one of the most unfortunate."
The first interview with the friendly cacique Guacanajrari, as well as his generous attention! on the wreck of one of their vessels, are described with great beauty. But we can only find room for the concluding part of it.
"The extreme kindness of the cacique, the gen'.laiiess of his people, the quantities of gold which »eredaily brought to be exchanged for the veriest trifles, and the information continually received of KOiett of wealth in the bosom of this beautiful island, all contributed to console the admiral for the tnislnrtune he had suffered.
"The shipwrecked crew also, living on shore, ara mingling freely with the natives, became fas-' cvia'ed wnh their easy and idle mode of life. Exempted by their simplicity from the painful cares I'd toile which civilized man inflicts upon himself bv h,s many artificial wants, the existence of these ¡-anders seemed to the Spaniards like a pleasant dream. They disquieted themselves about nothing. A few fields, cultivated almost without labour, furi-Md ihe roots and vegetables which formed a mat part of their diet. Their rivers and coasts »aoandid with fish; their trees were laden with ";us of eoldiTi or blushing hue, and heightened 'y a tropical sun to delicious flavour and fragrance. Sofiened by the indulgence of nature, a great part : i.'.eir day was passed in indolent repose—in that luxury of sensation inspired by a serene sky and a v" iipr'irms climate ; and in the evenings they danced 1 tlifir fragrant groves, to their national songs, or toe rude suunds of their sylvan drums.
"Such was ihe indolent and holiday life of these smple profile; which, if it had not the great scope '• ч myment. nor the high-seasoned poignancy of ?*aAire, which attend civilization, was certainly dettitute of most of its artificial miseries."
It was from this scene of enchantment and promise, unclouded as yet by any shadow of »nimosity or distrust, that Colum'bus, without one drop of blood on his hands, or one stain of cruelty or oppression on his conscience, set «il on his return to Europe, with the proud tidings of his discovery. In the early part of л « voyage he fell in with the Carribee Islands,
J had some striking encounters with the brave but ferocious tribes who possessed them. The d istresses which beset him on his home passage are well known; but we willingly pase these over, to treat our readers with Mr. Irving'» splendid description of his magnificent reception by the court at Barcelona.
"It was about the middle of April that Columbus arrived at Barcelona, where every preparation had been made to give him a solemn and magnificent reception. The beauty and serenity of the weather in that genial season and favoured climate, contributed to give splendour to this memorable ceremony. As he drew near the place, many of the more youthful courtiers, and hidalgos of gallant bearing, together with a vast concourse of the popu. lace, came forth to meet and welcome him. His entrance into this noble city has been compared to one of those triumphs which the Romans were accustomed to decree to conquerors. First, were paraded the Indians, painted according to their savage fashion, and decorated with their national ornaments of gold. After these were borne various kinds of live parrots, together with stuffed birds and animals of unknown species, and rare plants, supposed to be of precious qualities; while great care was taken to make a conspicuous display of Indian coronets, bracelets, and other decorations of gold, which might give an idea of the wealth of the newlydiscovered regions. After this, followed Columbus on horseback, surrounded by a brilliant cavalcade ol Spanish chivalry. The ttrocts were almost impassable from the countless multitude; the windows and balconies were crowded with the fair; the very roofs were covered with spectators. It seemed as if the public eye could not be sated with gazing on these trophies of an unknown world ¡ or on the remarkable man by whom it had been discovered. There was a sublimity in this event that mingled a solemn feeling with the public joy. It was looked upon as a vast and signal dispensation of Providence, in reward for the piety of the monarchs ; and the majestic and venerable appearance of the dis coverer, so different from the youth and buoyancy that are generally expected from го/mg enterprise, seemed in harmony with the grandeur and dignity of his achievement.
"To receive him with suitable pomp and distinction, the sovereigns had ordered their throne to be placed in public, under a rich canopy of brocade of gold, in a vast and splendid saloon. Here the king and queen awaited his arrival, seated in state, with the prince Juan beside them, and attended by the dignitaries of their court, and the principal nobility of Castile. Valentía, Catalonia, and Arragon. all impatient to behold the man who had conferred so incalculable a benefit upon the nation. At length Columbus entered the hall, surrounded by a brilliant crowd of cavaliers, among whom, says Las Casas, he was conspicuous for his stately and commanding person, which, with his countenance, rendered venerable by his grey hairs, gave him the august appearance of a senator of Rome ; a modest smile lighted up his features, showing that he enjoyed the slate and glory in which he come; and certainly nothing could be more deeply moving to a mind inflamed by noble ambition, and conscious of having greatly deserved, than these testimonials of the admiration and gratitude of a nation, or rather of a world. As Columbus approached, the sovereigns rose, as if receiving a person of the highest rank. Bending his knees, he requested to kiss heir hands; but there was some hesitation on the :iurt of 'heir majesties to permit this act of vassaligc. Raising him in the most gracious manner, hey ordered him to seat himself in their presence: a rare honour in this proud and punctilious court."
In his second voyage he falls in again with the Caribs, of whose courage and cannibal propensities he had now sufficient assurance. Mr. Irving's remarks upon this energetic but untameable race are striking, and we think original.
'The warlike and unyielding character of these people, so different from that of the pusillanimous Talions around them, and the wide scope of their enterprises and wanderings, like those of the Nomade tribes of the Old World, entitle them todistinguished attention. They were trained to war from their infancy. As soon as they could walk, their intrepid moihers put in their hands the bow and arrow, and prepared them to take an early part in the hardy enterprises of their fathers. Their distant roamings by sea made them observant and intelligent. T he natives of the other islands only knew how to divide time by day and night, by the sun and moon; whereas these had acquired some knowledge of the stars, by which to calculate the times and seasons.
„ "The traditional accounts of their origin, though of course extremely vague, are yet capable of being verified to a great degree by geographical tacts, ana open one of the rich veins of curious inquiry and speculation which abound in the New World. They ore said to have migrated from the remote valleys embosomed in the Apalachian mountains. The earliest accounts we have of them represent them with their weapons in their hands, continually engaged in wars, winning their way and shifting their abode, until, in the course of time, they found them'selves at the extremity of Florida. Here, abandoning the northern continent, they passed over to the Lucayos, and from thence gradually, in the process uf years, from island to island of that vast and verdant chain, which links, as it were, the end of Florida to the coast of Paria, on the southern continent. The Archipelago, extending from Porto Rico to Tobago, was their strong Hold, and the island of Guadeloupe in a manner their citadel. Hence they made their expeditions, and spread the terror of their name through all the surrounding countries. Swarmsofthem landed upon the southern continent, and overran some parts of Terra Firma. Traces of ihem have been discovered far in the interior of the country through which flows the Oroonoko. The Dutch found colonies of them on the banks of the Ikouteka, which empties into the Surinam, along the Esquibi, the Maroni, and other rivers of Guayana, and in the country watered by the windings of the Cayenne ; and it would appear that they have extended their wanderings to the shores of the southern ocean, where, among the aboriginals of Brazil, were some who called themselves Caribe, distinguished from the surrounding Indians by their superior hardihood subtlety, and enterprise.
"To trace the footsteps of this roving tribe throughout its wide migrations from the Apalachian mountains of the nonhern continent, along the clusters of islands which stud the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean sea to the shores of Paria, and so across the vast regions of Guayana and Amaxonia to the remote coast of Brazil, would be one of the most curious researches in aboriginal history, and might throw much light upon the mysterious question of the population of the New World."
We pass over the melancholy story of the ruined fort; and murdered eamson, to which our adventurer relumed on his second voyage; and of the first dissensions that broke out in his now increasing colony; but must pause for a moment to accompany him on his first march, at the head of four hundred armed follower?, into the interior of the country, and to the mountain region of expected gold. For two days the party proceeded up the banks of a stream, which seemed at last to lose itself in a narrow and rocky recess.
"On the following day, ihe army foiled up ihis steep defile, and arrived «litre the gor^e of the mountain opened into the inierior. Hi-re a land of promise suddenly burst upon their view. It was the same glorious prospect which had delighted Ojeda and his companion«. Below lav a vast and delicious plain, [minted and enamelled, as it were, withal1 the i ich variety of tropical vegetation. The
! magnificent forest« presented that mingled beactj ! and majesty of vegetable forms known only tu '.ht-e \ generous climates. Palms of prodigious helmet, and spreading mahogany trees, towered from anvil a wilderness of variegated foliage. Universal frei!.ness and verdure were maintained by numeruu streams, which meandered gleaming through iiu deep bosom of the woodland ; v\ hile various viliaz?: and hamlets, peeping from among the trees, arc the smoke of others rising out of the midst of the forests, gave signs of a numerous population. 'Ih* luxuriant landscape extended as far as the ere «mid reach, until it appeared to melt away and mingle with the horizon. The Spaniards gazed with npture upon this soft voluptuous country, which seemed to realise their ideas of a lerrestial paradi*: and Columbus, struck with its vast extent, gare it the name of the Vega Real, or Royal Plain.
"Having descended the rugged pass, the army issued upon the plain, in military array, with grts: clangour of warlike instruments. When the Indians beheld this shining band of warrior«, guttering in steel, emerging from the mountain! wü prancing steeds ana flaunting banners, and hear¿. for the first time, their rocks and forests echoing to the din of drum and trumpet, they might well ha« taken such a wonderful pageant for a supemarori vision.
"On the next morning they resumed their march up a narrow and steep glen, winding among craggy rocks, where they were obliged to lead the hone*. Arrived at the summit, they once more enjoyed i prospect of ihe delicious Vega, which here preaented a «till grander appearance, stretching far and vide on either hand, like a vast verdant lake. Tbs noble plain, according to Las Casas, a eighty leagues in length, and from twenty to thirty ш breadth, and ofincomparable beauty."
"The natives appeared to them a singularly icl*and improvident race, indifferent to most of the objects of human anxiety and toil. They were impatient of all kinds of labour, scarcely giriaj themselves the trouble to cultivate ihe yuca root, the maize, and the potatoe, which formed the mam articles of subsistence. For the rest, their »tret»» abounded with fish; they caught the utia or cow; the guana, and various birds; and they had a perpetual banquet from the fruits spontaneously produced by their groves. Though the air wee sometimes cold among the mountains, yet they preferred submitting to a little temporary suffering, rvrtr than take the trouble to weave garments Iron the gossampine cotton which abounded in their tores» Thus they loitered away existence in vacant inactivity, under the shade of their trees, or amaró themselves occasionally with various game* Idq dances."
"Having accomplished the purposes of his re«:dencc in the Vega, Columbus, at the end of a ft* days, look leave of its hospitable inhabitant«, ard resumed his march for the harbour, returning wvh his little army through ihe lotty and ni^ced г r:* of the mountains called the Pass of the Hidalgos. As we accompany him in imagination over the rocky height, Irom whence lite Vega firpt Ьтс*? upon the eye of the Europeans, we canm.t -•: pausing to cast back a look ol mingled pity and admiration over this beautiful but devoted rfgwnThe dream of natural liberty, of ignorant content, and loitering idleness, was as yet unbroken, bet the fiat had gone forth ; the white man had petit-'rrt:: into the land; avarice, and pritle. and ambit:- п з: . pining cnre. and sordid labour, were goon tn 1 > . •' and the indolent paradise of the Indian to disappeir for ever!"
There is something to us inexpressibly
pleasing in these passages; but we are ava:^ that there are readers to whom the) rr\v seem tedious—and believe, at all events, that we have now given a large enough specimen of the kind of beauty they present. For ¡ft *ons of a different taste we ought to have extracted some account of the incredible darings, and romantic adventures, of Alonzo de Ojeda; or of the ruder prowess and wild magnanimity oí the cacique Caonabo, who alone of the island chieftains dared to offer any resistance to the invaders. When made prisoner, and carried olT from the centre of his dominions, by one of the unimaginable feats of Ojeda, Air. Irving has reported that
"He always maintained a haughty deporiment towards Columbus, while he never evinced the least animosity against Ojeda for the anificc to whirh be had fallen a victim. It rather increased his admiration of him, as a consummate warrior, looking •poo il as the exploit of a master-spirit to have pounced upon him, and borne him ofl', in this hawklike manner, from the very midst of his fightingmen. There is nothing that an Indian more admires iii warfare, than a deep, well-executed stratagem. "Columbus was accustomed to bear himself with an air of dignity and auihority as admiral and viceroy, and exacted great personal respect. When be entered the apartment therefore where Caonabo win confined, all present rose, according to custom, and paid him reverence. The cacique alone neither moved, nor took any notice of him. On the con'.rary. when Ojeda entered, though small in person and without external stale, Caonabo immediately rose and saluted him with profound respect. On ;.t:ng asked the reason of this, Columbus being Guamiquina, or great chief over all, and Ojeda but one of his subjects, the proud Carib replied, that the admiral bad never dared to come personally to his bouse and seize him, it was only through the »ilour of Ojeda he was his prisoner; to Ojeda, therefore, he owed reverence, not the admiral."
The insolent licence of the Spaniards, and ihe laborious searches for gold which they imposed on the natives, had at last overcome their original feelings of veneration; and, •muting to their vast superiority in numbers, they ventured to make war on their heavendescended visitants. The result was uiirejisted carnage and hopeless submission! A tax of a certain quantity of gold dust was imposed on all the districts that afforded that «balance, and of certain quantities of cotton and of grain on all the others—and various fortresses were erected, and garrisons stationed, to assist the collection of the tribute.
"In this way," says Mr. Irving, "was the yoke of servitude fixed upon the island, and its thraldom tíF-etually ensured. Deep despair now fell upon the natives, when they found в perpetual task mfi.iU'd upon them, enforced at stated and frequently recurring periods. Weak and indolent by nature, uaueed to labour of any kind, and brought up in the UDlasked idleness of their soft climate and their fruitful trroves, death iiself seemed preferable to a life of toil and anxiety. They saw no end to this Inrassing evil, which had so suddenly fallen upon :n<m; no escape from its all-pervading influence; no prospect of return to that roving independence and ample leisure, so dear to the wild inhabitants • •I ihe forests. The pleasant life of the island was n an end; the dream in the shade by day ; the •lamber dating the sultry noon-tide heat by the fountain or the stream, or under the spreading pilm-tree; and the song, the dance, and the game in the mellow evening, when summoned to their s.mple amusements by the rude Indian drum. They were now obliged to,grope day by day. with bendinz body and anxious eye, along the borders of '.Mir rivers, sifiing the Sunde for me grains of gold
»liich every day grew more scanty; or to labour
in their fields beneath the fervour of a tropical тмп, to raise food tor their task-masteis, or to produce the vegetable tribute imposed upon them. They sunk to sleep weary and exhausted at night, with the certainly that the next day was but to be a repetition ot the same toil and suffering. Or if they occasionally indulged in their national dances, the ballads to which they kept time were of a melancholy and plaintive character. They spoke of the times that were past before the white men had introduced sorrow and slavery, and weary labour among them ; and they rehearsed pretended pr,ophecies. handed down from their ancestors, foretelling the invasion of the Spaniards; that strangers should come into their island, clothed in apparel, with swords capable of cleaving a man asunder at a blow, under whose yoke their posterity should be subdued. These ballads, or areytos, they sang with mournful tunes and doleful voices, bewailing the loss of their liberty and their painful servitude."
There is an interest of another kind in following the daring route of Columbus along the shores of Cuba and Jamaica, and through the turbulent seas that boil among the kevs in the gulf of Paria. The shores still afforded the same beauty of aspect—the people the same marks of submission and delighted wonder.
"It is impossible to resist noticing the striking contrasts which are sometimes forced upon the mind. The coast here described as so populous ar.d animated, rejoicing in the visit of the discoverers, is the same that extends westward of the city of Trinidad, along the gulf of Xagua. All is now silent and deserted. Civilization, which has covered some parts of Cuba with glittering cities, has rendered this a solitude. The whole race of Indians has long since passed away, pining and perishing beneath the domination of the strangers whom they welcomed so joyfully to their shores. Before me lies the account of a night recently passed on this very coast, by a celebrated traveller, (Humboldt,) hut with what different feelings from those of Columbus !' I passed,' says he, ' a great part of the night upon the deck. What deserted coasts! not a light to announce the cabin of a fisherman. From Batabano to Trinidad, a distance of fifty leagues, there does not exist a village. Yet in the time of Columbus this land was inhabited even along the margin of the sea. When pits are digged in the soil, or the torrents plough open thr surface of the eanh, there are often found hatchets of stone and vessels of copper, relics of the ancient inhabitants of the island.'"
We cannot resist the temptation of adding the following full-length picture; which has all the splendour of a romance, with the additional charm of being true.
14 One morning, as the ships were standing along the coast, with a light wind and easy sail, they beheld three canoes issuing from among the islands of the bay. They approached in regular order; one, which was very large and handsomely carved and painted, was in the centre, a little in advance of the two others, which appeared lo attend and guard it. In this were seated the cacique and his family, consisting of his wife, two daughters, two sons, and five brothers. One of the daughters was eighteen years of age, beautiful in form and countenance; her sister was somewhat younger; both were naked, according to the custom of these islands, hut were of modest demeanour. In the prow of the canoe stood the standard-bearer of the cacique, clad in a kind of mantle of variegated feathers, with a tuft of gay plumes on his heai, and bearing in his hand a fluttering while banner. Two Indians, with caps or helmets of feathers ot uniform shape and colour, and their faces painted in a similar manner, beat upon tabors; two others, with