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his own eyes the respect for property as well as for personal liberty, had become imbued with a taste for a republican form of government. His lordship accordingly fathers upon him the “Letter to the Mayor of Marlborough,” against a "benevolence" then in collection, which was made the subject of prosecution in the Star-chamber in April of that very year. To have formed such decided opinions, with reasons so clearly stated, and statutes and authorities so precisely quoted, as are found in the letter in question, would be an instance of most remarkable precocity in any youth who had not even commenced his college studies. But the statement will not bear the slightest investigation. There is absolutely nothing in the whole proceeding to lead to a suspicion that the writer of the letter could have been “a mere stripling;" but on the contrary it is manifest from the letter itself and from Lord Bacon's speech, who would scarcely have wasted his eloquence on a boy, that he was “a principal person and a dweller in that town,” and “a man likely to give both money and good example.” Instead of the youth who was quietly preparing for his academical course, the person so described was Oliver St. John of Lediard Tregoze a seat not far distant from Marlborough, who afterwards became Viscount Grandison and Lieutenant of Ireland. Foss's Judges, vi. 476.

A “MASKE” ON RoundwAY. In June 1613, Anne the Queen of James I. having been to the waters of The Bath for the benefit of her health, was on her way back, and crossing the Wandsdyke by the old Roundway hill track which was then the high road from Bath to Marlborough, when a scene occurred, which Anthony à Wood thus chronicles. “The vicar of Bishops Cannings, George Ferraby, (otherwise spelt Ferebe,] M.A. of Magdalen College, Oxford, was a Gloucestershire man born, and being well skilled in music, did instruct divers young men in his parish in that faculty till they could either play or sing their

parts. On the 11th of June, the Queen on her return from the Bath did intend to pass over the downs at Wansdyke within the parish of Bishops Cannings; of which, Ferraby having timely notice, he composed a song of four parts and instructed his scholars to sing it very perfectly, as also to play a lesson or two which he had composed, on their windinstruments. He dressed himself in the habit of an old bard, and caused his scholars whom he had instructed, to be clothed in shepherds weeds. The Queen having received notice of these people, she with her retinue made a stand at Wansdyke. Whereupon these musicians drawing up to her, played a most admirable lesson of four parts with double voices, the beginning of which was

"Shine oh thou sacred shepherds star

On silly shepherd swains.' Which being well performed, the band concluded with an epilogue, to the great liking and content of the Queen and her company.” This lesson, as it was called, was published soon after. It is described in the books of the Stationers' Company as “A thing called the Shepherds' song before Queen Anne, in four parts complete, musical, upon the plains of Salisbury." These sort of pageants appear to have been anything but disagreeable to the persons for whom they were got up. “The Queen,” writes Mr. Chamberlain from London, 10th of June, “is not yet returned from Bath and thereabouts. having been at Bristol and received great entertainment at divers places; with which, and the country sports they made her, she is so well pleased that it is thought she will make more such progresses.” Winwood's Memorials. Neither was her Majesty destitute of the aid of such pastimes in her own train, the Chamberlain's accounts of the Borough of Devizes affording repeated evidence that players accompanied the movements of the Court.

His Majesty also, King James, who was probably very fond of "lying at Bromham hall” the seat of Sir Edward Baynton, was on one of these occasions similarly entertained. Mr. Ferraby met him at the bush on Coate-field and there "entertained him with bucolics of his own making and composing, of four parts; which were sung by his parishioners wearing frocks and carrying whips like carters. Whilst his Majesty was thus diverted, the eight bells, (of which he was the cause) did ring, and the organ was played on for state. And after this musical entertainment Mr. Ferraby entertained his Majesty with a football match of his own parishioners." “This parish in those days,” adds Aubrey, “would have challenged all England for music, football, and ringing." For this entertainment, King James made Mr. Ferraby one of his chaplains in ordinary. Nat. Hist. of Wilts, 109.

The King at this moment was evidently moving between Devizes and Bishops Cannings; the term Coate-field apparently designating a large tract of unenclosed country lying between Coate and Roundway villages. The neighbourhood of what is now called Horton Bridge may hypothetically be assumed as the scene of the performance.

Another of Master George Ferraby's minor performances was a small publication issued in 1615 entitled Life's farewell,being a sermon preached in St. John's Church Devizes, at the funeral of John Drew, Esq., [dedicated to Mr. Robert Drew and Jane his wife?] a copy of which is still preserved in the library of Magdalen College, Oxford. The friendly understanding existing between the families of Ferraby and Drew may be further illustrated by the following instrument.

i Drew of Southbroom. Of the of whom, Elizabeth, married in 1750 very populous house of Drew, whose to Thomas Marsh, became the moalliances pervade much of the fa- ther of Elizabeth Marsh the wife of mily history of Wilts, Gloucester, Solomon Hughes of St. Clement and the West generally, the Devizes Danes and of Devizes, attorney, son branch first becomes visible in the of Solomon Hughes of Clement person of John Drew of South- Danes. The issue of this marriage broom, who in 23rd Henry VII were William Hughes of Devizes married Matilda daughter and heir and Poulshot, attorney, Thomas of Nicholas Cuffe of Devizes; and Charles, and Robert. William here the family continued to reside, Ilughes married Sarah daughter of lineally represented, till the estate – Bevan Esq. and had four daughpassed to the Eyles's. Robert Drew, ters, the eldest of whom, Elizabeth, styled "of Lacock” who died in married to Robert Herbert Brabant 1734 left three daughters, the eldest of Devizes M.D. is the mother of the present representative of the Drews Mackensie of Royston; and has issue. and Hughes's viz. William Hughes Although “Solomon Hughes" is said Brabant, Esq.of the firm of Brabant, above to be of Clement Danes, there Capron and Dalton, solicitors, Lon- seems reason to conclude that it is don. Robert the youngest son of primarily a Wiltshire name. “SoloSolomon Hughes aforesaid married mon Hues” occurs at Warminster Elizabeth daughter of John Gent of in a list of dissenting petitioners from Devizes, and was father to Robert that town in 1719. See Gunn's Hughes Licut. -Colonel in the E. I. History of Nonconformity in WarCo's service; and to the Rev. Jas. minster. p. 31. Solomon Hughes, Hen. Hughes, Fel. of Magdalen Col. apparently in the capacity of an Oxf. now [1858] chaplain at Surat, attorney, gives evidence in the disBombay, who in 1835 married Mar- puted election for Westbury in 1747. garet Sutherland d. of Colonel Robt. See the Commons Journals,' xxy. Mackensie and sister to the baronets 573.

LICENSE TO EAT FLESH IN LENT. “Forasmuch as Mrs. Sarah Drewe of Southbroom in the parish of Bishops Cannings [has been sick] very dangerously since the beginning of August last, and being not as yet recovered of the same sickness but continuing weak and ill, is hereby enforced to crave my license for the eating of flesh for the recovery of her health. Therefore Thomas Ferraby, vicar of the parish of Bishops Cannings aforesaid do hereby license and authorise the said Sarah Drewe for the recovery of her health to eat flesh during the time of her sickness. In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands, 18 March 1633-4. Signed by Richard Hughes, minister and Thomas Ruddle, church warden. St James' parish register Southbroom.

The Corporation books record in 1615 the payment of 3s.4d. for publishing the Proclamation forbidding the use of flesh in Lent. But if the butchers were in less demand for a short season, the fish market well supplied the void. Another form of alleviation to the severities of Lent existed in a very indigestible cake still known as “simnel.” It is said that there are three English towns which claim the honour of its principal manufacture, Devizes, Shrewsbury, and Bury in Lincolnshire. The Shrewsbury simnel is made in the form of a

warden pie, the crust being of saffron and very thick. That of Devizes has no crust, is star-shaped, and the saffron is mixed with a mass of currants, spice, and candied lemon. Natives of Devizes are very fond of their own simnel; people in the East of England abhor it. Barclay derives the word from simbel, Anglo-Saxon for feast. See Notes and Queries xxvii. 234. But as Lent is not the time for feasting, seminale, Latin or Italian for seedy may hypothetically be substituted; though if such be its origin, the simplicity of a seed-cake, it must be confessed, has long been lost in the fragrant accessories which in this as in some other dishes were allowed to the faithful to supply the lack of flesh-meats. Another element constituting its fitness for fast-day food is said to be the absence of eggs in the composition: though on this point we profess no absolute certainty, having already invaded, perhaps too far, the professional secrecy which imparts an additional relish to this “piece de resistance.

But Lent-licences were not the only relics of a former age which the civil wars were about to sweep away. Positive superstition and many dark practices still lingered in the provinces. Servitude also approached in many cases so near to the character of slavery, that Aubrey hesitates not to say that “bond-servants were numerous.” It was a common practice for people to appeal to the tutelar saints of their respective parish churches, in cases of emergency and even in the ordinary events of life, such as going to bed, undertaking a journey, or bringing sheep to the fold. Aubrey instances “Old Simon Brnnsden” who was parish clerk of Winterbourn Bassett from the time of Mary I. to James I., and who, when the gad-fly drove his oxen or cows over that “champagne country” would pursue after them, crying out “Good St. Katherine of Winterbourn, stay my oxen.” Faries, of course, held an undisputed reign; and it was an article of faith that mortals who had once been led astray by them “never afterwards enjoyed themselves.” A bootless chase

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