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mysticism of Alcuin, and has also a fine enthusiasm for the cross, which, if he did not get it from Alcuin, he had probably caught in his own country or in England.

The latter, Otfrid, made a rimed paraphrase of the Gospel narrative in the German tongue. In the fifth book of his work, the first three chapters have to do with the cross. These are full of the mystical interpretations of Alcuin, the meaning of the ‘heighth and depth,' etc., and the significance of the parts of the cross embracing all the regions of the world. To trace the connection still more clearly to Alcuin, Otfrid was a pupil of Rabanus.

In Chapter 20 of the Evangelienbuch, Otfrid describes the Day of Judgment. It would be most interesting if we could discover in this any trace of the Christ. The speech of Christ in Otfrid reminds one of the speech of Christ in Cynewulf, but it must be admitted that they are no more similar than would be expected from the fact that both writers used the Gospel narrative. Further, Otfrid omits wholly the most striking feature of the description in the Christ, namely, the Apparition of the Rood, a fact that makes it seem clear that the Christ was not one of his sources.

We must conclude, then, that the ninth century crosspoetry of England and Germany was inspired largely by the reverence for the cross in Anglo-Saxon England, through the medium, not of the Old English poetry, but of the Latin scholasticism of Alcuin.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. GENERAL REFERENCES Anglo-Saxon Review, a Quarterly Miscellany. London and New

York, 1899-1901. Archæological Societies' Publications: British Archæological Institute Association Journal. London,

1845. Cambridge Camden Society. Ecclesiologist, The. London,

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Royal Archäological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland.

Archæological Journal. London, 1845.
Society of Antiquaries of London. Archæologia. London,

1770. Also, Vetusta Monumenta, 1747-1895.
Yorkshire Archeological and Topographical Association Journal.

London, 1870. Called since 1893 the Yorkshire Archæo

logical Society Journal. Ashton, John. The Legendary History of the Cross. New York,

1887.

Birch, W. De Gray. Early Drawings and Illuminations. London,

1879. Bugge, Sophus. Studien über die Entstehung der Nordischen Götter

und Heldensagen. A trans. into German by Oscar Brenner.

Munich, 1889. Calverley, W. S. Early Sculptured Crosses, Shrines, and Monuments

in the Diocese of Carlisle. Kendall, 1899. Cook, Albert S. 'Notes on the Ruthwell Cross.' Publications of the

Modern Language Association, Vol. 17, No. 3. Cutts, E. L. Parish Priests and their People in the Middle Ages in

England. London, 1898.
Didron, A. N. Manuel d'Iconographie Chrétienne. Paris, 1845.

Translated into English as Christian Iconography, or the
History of Christian Art in the Middle Ages. London,

Vol. I, 1856; Vol. II, 1886.
Ebert, Adolf. Ueber das Angelsächsische Gedicht Der Traum vom

Heiligen Kreuz. Leipzig, 1884. Facsimiles of Ancient Charters in the British Museum, 3 parts.

London, 1873-7. Ferguson, J. Rude Stone Monuments. London, 1872. Fosbroke, T. D. British Monachism. London, 1817. Encyclopedia of Antiquities and Elements of Ai shæology. 2

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ind No

Londo

Arche

Fulda, Hermann. Das Kreuz und die Kreuzigung. Breslau, 1878.
Grimm, J. L. C. Deutsche Mythologie. Translated into English

by J. S. Stallybrass as Teutonic Mythology. 4 vols. London,

1882-88. Kent, C. W. Teutonic Antiquities in Andreas' and ' Elene. Halle

1887. Kirchenlexikon oder Encyklopädie der Keiholischen Theologie und

ihrer Hülf swissenschaften. Ed. J. C. Hergenröther and

Franz Kaulen. Freiburg, 1886-99.
Lingard, John. The History and Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon

Church, etc. 2 vols. London, 1845.
Logeman, H. L'Inscription Anglo-Saxone au Reliquaire de La

Vraie Croix, etc. Leipzig, etc., 1891.
Martigny, J. A. Dictionaire des Antiquités Chrétiennes. Paris,

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Milman, H. H. History of Latin Christianity. 9 vols. 1883.
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M. Thompson, and G. F. Warner. London, 1889-94.
Pauly, Real- Encyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft.

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Ramsay, J. H. The Foundations of England, or Twelve Centuries

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Albert Hauck. Leipzig. 1877-88.
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London, 1849-53.
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Professor S. Bugge's Studies on Northern Mythology

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Alcuin. Alcuini Opera in Migne's Patrologia, 100, 101. Paris, 1851.

Monumenta Germania Historica, Vol. 1. Poete Latini Ævi

Carolini, ed. Louis Traube. Berlin, 1886. Aldhelm. Sancti Aldhelmi Opera, in Migne's Patrologia, 89. Paris

1850. Bede. Complete Works of Bede, etc. Ed. J. A. Giles. 12 vols.

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Birch, W. de Gray. Cartularium Saxonicum, etc. 3 vols. London,

1885-93. Boniface. Sancti Bonifacii Opera Omnia, ed. J. A. Giles. 2 vols.

London, 1844. Columba. Life of St. Columba, Written by Adamnan, etc., ed. Wm.

Reeves, in Historians of Scotland, 7. Edinburgh, 1874. Dugdale, William. Monasticon Anglicanum, ed. John Caley, Henry

Ellis, and Buekley Bandinel. 8 vols. London, 1817-30. Dunstan. Memorials of St. Dunstan, ed. Wm. Stubbs. Rolls Series.

London, 1874. Earle, John. A Handbook to the Land-Charters and Other Saxonic

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Rolls Series. 3 vols. London, 1890-96. Edward. Lives of Edward the Confessor, ed. H. R. Luard. Rolls

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766, ed. Wm. Greenwell. Surtees Soc. Durham, 1853. Ethelwold. Vita S. Æthelwaldi Episcopi Wintoniensis Auctore

Ælfrico, ed. Joseph Stevenson, in Chronicon Monasterii de

Abingdon. 2. 253-66. Rolls Series. London, 1858. Fortunatus. Venantii Fortunati, etc., Opera Omnia, in Migne's

Patrologia 88. Paris, 1850. Historia Monasterii S. Augustini Canstuariensis, etc., ed. Charles

Hardwick. Rolls Series. London, 1858.

Dewald. Vita Oswa Raine. Histolon, 1879

Historians of the Church of York, ed. James Raine. Rolls Series.

3 vols. London, 1879-94. Kemble, J. M. Codex Diplomaticus Ævi Saxonici. Eng. Hist.

Soc. 6 vols. London, 1839-48. Latin Hymns of the Anglo-Saxon Church. Surtees Soc. Vol. 23.

Durham, 1851. Le Livere de Reis de Brittanie e Le Livre de Reis de Engelterre,

ed. John Glover. Rolls Series. London, 1865. Liber Monasterii de Hyda, ed. Edward Edwards. Rolls Series.

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39 vols. Oxford, 1845-57. Oswald. Vita Oswaldi Archiepiscopi Eboracensis Auctore Anony

mo., ed. J. Raine. Historians of Church of York 1. 399

475. Rolls Series. London, 1879. Patrick. The Tripartite Life of Patrick, ed., with translations,

by Whitley Stokes. Rolls Series. 2 vols. London, 1887. Rabanus. R. Rabani Mauri, etc., Opera Omnia, in Migne's Patro

logia 107-117. Paris, 1851-2. Rituale Ecclesiæ Dunelmensis (Durham Ritual). Surtees Soc. Vol.

10. London, 1840. Schmid, Reinhold. Die Gesetze der Angelsachen. Leipzig, 1838. Scotus, Erigena. Joannis Scoti Opera, in Migne's Patrologia 122. Scotus, Josephus. Monumenta Germaniæ Historica, Vol. I. Poete

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London, 1889. Wilfrid. Vita Wilfridi Episcopi Eboracensis. Auctore Eddio

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III. OLD ENGLISH TEXTS Alfred. Blooms of King Alfred, from the Flores Soliliquorum of

S. Augustinus. Text of W. H. Hulme. Eng. Stud. 18. 331-356. i

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