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Ibid] The old word is certainly right. My sense breeds with ber fenfi, that is, new thoughts are stirring in my mind, new conceptions are katched in my imagination. So we say to brood over thought.
Johns. - tejied gold) i. e. attested, or marked with the standard stam. Ibid] Rather ccpelled, brought to the test, refined.
Johns. L. 18. preserved souls] i. e. preserved from the corruption of the world. The metaphor is taken from fruits preserved in sugar.
Ibid] In order to continue Dr. W's metaphor, we should alter fasting maids, to pickled maids.
CANONS. * L. 25. I am that way going to temptation
Where prayers cross) which way Angelo is going to temptation, we begin to perceive, but how prayers cross that way, or cross each other, at that way, more than any other, I do not understand.
Isabella prays that his korour may be safe, meaning only to give him his title : his imagination is caught hy the word borour: he feels that his honour is in danger, and therefore, I believe, answers thus:
I am that way going to temptation,
Which your prayers cross. That is, I am tempted to lose that honour of which thou implorest the preservation. The temptation under which I labour is that which thou hast unknowingly thwarted with thy prayer. He uses the same mode of language a few lines lower. Isabella, parting, says,
From tbee, even from thy virtue.
it is 1, That lying by the violet in the sun, &c.] I am not corrupted by her, but by my own heart, which excites foul desires under the fam: benign influences that exalt her purity; as the carrion grows putrid by those beams which en. crease the fragrance of the violet.
Johns. L. 6. virtvous season] i. e. kindly season.
But the subject here gives the figure a particular elegance. WARB.*
L. 25. I fmild, and wonderd bow] As a day must now intervene between this conference of Isabella with Angelo, and the next, the act might more properly end here, and here, in my opinion, it was ended by the poet. JOHNS. P. 270. L. 9. Wko falling in the ilaws of her ozun youth,
Haih blister'd ber report :] Who doth not see that the integrity of the metaphor requires we fould read FLAMES of ber youth. WAR B and CAPELL.
Ibi? Who does not fee that upon such principles there is no end of correction.
Johns. P. 271. L. 7. There ref] Keep yourself in this temper.
JOHNS. -9h, injurious love] Her execution was respited on account of her pregnancy, the effects of her love: therefore ihe calls it injurious; not that it brought her to ih me, but that it hindered her freeing herself from it. Is not this ail very natural ? yet the Oxford editor changes it to injurious law.
WARB. Ibid] Mr. Warburton's supposition is absolutely wiihuut foundation, and of which there is not the least hint given in the play, which on the contrary very ciearly insinuaies, that her punishuient was not to extend farther than the infamy and some confinement. I cannot therefvre but concur in Sir Thomas Hanmer's correction, Oh, injurious law.
REVISAL.* L. 17. Wilt my intention] Nothing can be either plainer or exacter than this expreftion. But the old blundering folio having it, in verition, this was enough for Mr Theobald (and Mr. Capell,) to prefer authority to fense.
L. 23. Grotun FEAR’D and tedious] We should read SE AR’D : i. e. old. So Sheakspear uses, in the fear, to fignify old age.
Ibid) I think fear'd may stand, what we go to with reluctance may be laid to be fear'd.
JOHNS. L. 27. Cafe] For outside; garb; external fhew. Johns.
P. 272. L. 1. Wrench awe from fools, and tie the wiser fouls To thy false seeming ?] Here Shakespeare judicioully diftinguires the different operations of high place upon different minds. Fools are frighted, and wise men are allured.
Those who cannot judge but by the eye, are easily awed by splendour, those who consider men as well as conditions, are easily' persuaded to love the appearance of virtue dignified with power.
Johns. L. 3. Let's write good angel on tbe devil's born ;
'Tis not the devil's cref] i. e. Let the most wicked thing have but a virtuous pretence, and it shall pass for inDocent. This was his conclusion from his preceding words,
To thy false seeming? But the Oxford editor makes him conclude just counter to his own premises; by altering it to,
Is't not the devil's creft. So that, according to this alteration, the reasoning stands thus. - False seeming wrenches awe from fools, and deceives the wise. Therefore, “ let us but write good angel on the devil's horn;" (i. e. give him the appearance of an angel ;) and what then?“ Is't not the devil's crest ?" (i. e. he shall be esteem'd a devil.)
Ibid] I am ftill inclined to the opinion of the Oxford editor. Angelo, reflecting on the difference between his seeming character, and his real disposition, observes that he « could change his gravity for a plume." He then digrefies into an apostrophe, “ o dignity, how dost thou impofe upon the world !" then returning to himself, “ Blood, says he, thou art but blood,” however concealed with appearances and decorations. Title and character do not alter nature, which is still corrupt, however dignified,
Let's write good Angel on the devil's born;
Johns. L. 15: The gen'ral fubjets to a well-wiß'd King. ] So the later editions : but the old copies read, the general subject to a well-wish'd king. The general subject seems a harsh expreflion, but general subjects has no sense at all; and general was in our author's time a word for people, so that the general is the people or multitude, subject to a king. So
in Hamlet, the play pleased not the million, 'twas caviare to sbe general.
Johns. P.273. L. 9. -'tis all as easie] Easy is here put for light or trifling. 'Tis, says he, as light or trifing a crime to do so, as so, &c. Which the Oxford editor nut apprehending, has altered it to juft; for ’tis much easier to conceive What Shakespeare should say, than what he does say. So just before, the poet said, with his usual licence, ós their sawcy sweetness, for fawcy indulgence of the appetite." And this, forsooth, must be changed to “ fawcy lewdness,” tho' the epithet confines us, as it were to the poet's word.
L. 10. Falsely is the same with dishonesty, illegally, fo falje in the next lines is illegal, illegitimate.
Johns L. 11. In restrained means.) In forbidden moulds. I sufpect means not to be the right word, but I cannot find ano. ther.
Johns. P. 274. L. 1. Pleas’d you to do't at peril, &c.] The reasoning is thus : Angelo ásks, whether there might not be a charity in fin to save this brother.” Isabella answers, that “ if Angelo will save him, she would stake her soul that it were charity not fin.” Angelo replies, that if “ Isabella would save him at the hazard of her soul, it would be not indeed no fin, but a fin to which the charity would be equivalent.
Johns. L. 7. And nothing of your answer.] I think it should be read, “ And nothing of yours
answer.” You and whatever is yours be exempt from penalty. Johns,
L. 21. Accountant to the law upon that pain] Pain is here for penalty,
punishment. L. 25. But in the loss of question] The loss of question I do not well understand, and should rather read,
66 But in the toss of question. In the agitation, in the discussion of the question. To rofs an argument is a common phrase. The Revisal reads, List of question.
Johns. L. 29. The old editions read all-building law, from which the editors have made all-Kolding; yet Mr. Theobald has binding in one of his copies.
P. 275. L. 10.] A brotber dy'd at once.] Perhaps we mould read,
Better it were a brother dy'd for once,
Johns. L. 27. If net a feodary, but only be, &c.] This is so obscure, but the allufion is so fine, that it deserves to be explained. A feodary was one, that in the times of vassalaçe held lands of the chief lord, under the tenure of paying rent and service : which tenures were called feuda amongst the Goths. Now, says Angelo, “ we are all frail; yes, replies Isabella; if all mankind were not feodaries, who owe what they are to this tenure of imbecillity, and who succeed each other by the fame tenure, as well as my brother, I would give him up.". The comparing mankind, lying under the weight of original fin, to a feodary, who owes fuit and service to his lord, is, I think, not ill imagined.,
WARB. L. 28. To owe is in this place, to own, to bold, to have poffeffion.
JOHNS. Glasses Which are as easy broke, as they make forms] Would it not be better to read, take forms?
Johns. P. 276. L. 1. In profiting by them] In imitating them, in taking them for examples.
Johns. L. 3. And credulous to false prints] i. e. take any impresfion.
WARB. Speak the former language] We should read formal, which he here uses for plain, direct.
Ibid] Isabella answers to his circumlocutory courtship, that she has but one tongue, she does not understand this new phrase, and desires him to talk his former language, that is, to talk as he talked before.
Johns. L. 19. I know your virtue bath a licence in'r] Alluding to the licences given by ministers to their spies, to go into all suspected companies and join in the language of malecontents,
WARB. - seeming, seeming ! --] Hypocrisy, hypo rify; counterfeit virtue.
JOHNS. L. 32. My vouch against you] The calling his denial of