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THE

REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA.

DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD, NO. 51, FILBERT STREET.

VOL. II.-NO. 1.

PHILADELPHIA, JULY 19, 1828.

NO. 29.

CANAL DOCUMENTS.

back to the vicinity of the dividing ridge and brought To the Board of Canal Commissioners of the State of down a new line through the bottoms of the valley had Pennsylvania.

time permitted:-As the case was, I went back about Agreeably to instructions, communicated by the Se six iniles on my line and made an offset, contenting mycretary of the Board, in June last; I repaired to the west- self with connecting this work with that at the head of ern part of the state, immediately after the general ex. the valley by a line carefully run with the compass. amination of the military academy, for the purpose of re- Upon examining the ground in the vicinity of the connoitering and surveying (as far as time would per- Forks of the Big Conneaut, and forward as far as Elk mit) the routes of the N. W. section of the Pennsylva- creek with the view of adjusting the level and direction nia canal, from the waters of French creek to the bay of of the new line, it was found, with few exceptions, un. Presque Isle.

expectedly favourable. A bench of smooth uniform The first of those routes to which my attention was ground presenting itself on nearly five miles of the directed, was that by the way of Conneaut Lake and direct route toward Elk creek, and at a sufficiently low the Valley of the Big Conneaut, upon which, having level to admit of shunning the chief difficulties of the now completed the necessary plans and calculations, i Conneaut valley. In this direction, therefore, the line have the honour of submitting the following report. was brought by the sources of Crooked creek to the val

The operations of the survey commenced, of course, ley of Hall's run, and so, by a rapid descent, into the at Conneaut Lake, and had, for their first object, the de- bottom of that valley and the great valley of Elk creek. termination of the various questions connected with the The crossing of this stream having generally been consummit level.

sidered as one of the principal diffioulties on this route, Reverting to the report of last year, on the subject of it became necessary to explore it with particular care. the French creek feeder, it will be recollected that the Several days were accordingly employed in examining dividing ridge between the waters of Conneaut Lake the character of the valley, and in levelling and measur. and those of Lake Erie pass at a moderate elevation ing at the different points selected as crossing places. within a few miles north of the former, and that among Every thing being at length ascertained, upon which the various routes for crossing it, that by the east branch the comparison of these crossings could at all depend, of Beaver Dam run is designated as the most favoura- the experimental line was continued across the creek, ble. Having fully satisfied myself on this point, on the and down the eastern side of the valley of the village of former occasion, it only remained, with reference to this Fairview. At this point the ground was explored with point of the route, to examine the ground a little more a view of reaching, by the most direct and convenient in detail. The experimental line, for this and other route, a level bench of land which ranges with great unipurposes of the survey, was commenced at the surface formity towards Erie, along the north side of, and a little of the Conneaut Lake, near the mouth of Beaver Dam below the Ridge road. Having satisfied myself on this run, and carried on the eastern side, generally as near point, the operations of the surveys were continued, it as was consistent with the accuracy of the level, to the without further hindrance, to the banks of Walnut height of land near Grier's Improvement, on the road creek. west of Brightstown. Crossing the ridge at this point, The crossing of Walnut creek is another of the diffi. and taking advantage of one of the tributaries of the culties of this route, but of a very different character Big Conneaut, the line was restored almost immediately from the one first mentioned. It presents, indeed, a to the level with which it commenced, at the surface of wide and deep chasm with very precipitous banks, Conneaut Lake. This brief operation being sufficient, which evidently cannot be passed without an expensive in addition to the work of last year, for determining the construction; but the face of the adjacent country is route and mode of construction on the summit level, the perfectly regular, and the level well preserved to the line was continued, without delay, down the Valley of edge of the precipice on both sides; so that the crossing, the Big Conneaut. From the impression I had received so far as regards the adjustment of the route and the plan of the character of this valley, and the nature of the of construction, is reduced to a very simple case. Only ground in a direction towards Erie, I was led to believe a few hours were required to complete the examinathat very important advantages would be gained, in tions at this place, and transfer the level to the east side point of distance and facilities of construction, by keep of the creek, after which the line was resumed and coning the level as long as possible at the full elevation of tinued upon the same bench, and at the same average the summit level, and the survey was conducted ac- level as before. Every thing proved remarkably fa. cordingly, along the eastern slope of the valley. At vorable on the residue of the distance to Erie, and it on. first, for a considerable distance on the line thus explor. ly remained to explore the ground in that vicinity, for ed, the features of the ground harmonized very well the lockage down to the surface of the lake. This was with this plan; but, as the line gradually gained upon accomplished, on the 18th of August, and with it the the surface of the slope, the difficulties greatly increas. field duties of the party on this route were considered ed; and, at length, when the party had proceeded as far at an end, having occupied exactly five weeks from the as the east Branch of Big Conneaut, it became quite time of their commencement at Conneaut Lake. evident that the impediments already encountered, to- Having thus given a view of the operations of the gether with those fairly to be calculated upon in pro- survey, I proceed to notice, more particularly, the cha. ceeding, would more than outweigh any advantages that racter of the route and the nature of the various concould possibly be derived from the choice of this route. structions connected therewith. In coming to this conclusion, and abandoning the line

Section 1.- The Summit Level. which had been so far adranced, I should have gone The discussion under this head, to be final, should

evidently embrace the connexion of the summit level liine entirely independent of the lake. Upon supposi-
with the routes down the southern slope; but, as those tion therefore, I have made my estimate. The length
are made the subject of separate surveys, not yet re of this section tiom the guard gate near Cummins is 5
ported upon, I can only at present consider the route miles and 213 perches, 695 moderate embankment and
under discussion in its relation to the French creek reed- the remainder escavation, generally moderate, and only
er. The feeder, it will be recollected, was considererl 22 feet entire depth on the dividing ridge.
in my last year's report as terminating in the vicinity of Second Section, down the valley of the Big Conneaut.
the outlet bridge near Cummings' tavern, and at the In detailing the field operations of the survey, I have
level of eight feet above the habitual surface of Con- already given some idea of two widely different modes,
neaut Lake:-At that point, therefore, (marked A. in by which the canal may be conducted down this valley.
the accompanying maps.) I take the commencement First by keeping the level of the summit along the face
of the present line. An easy inflection carries it across of the eastern slope, and secondly, locking down through
the tongue of land on the west side of the outlet, and the bottom of the intervale. The first of these was the
through a small portion of the lake to the western shore; plan upon which I commenced under the expectation
it then skirts along the firm bank of that shore, and, in of being able to shape my course more directly towards
a very even course, by means of a few trifling excava- Erie, and of obtaining more convenient crossing places
tions and embankments, until it passes Wolf Point, after for the much dreaded valleys of Elk and Walnut creeks,
which it changes slightly to the left, as the ground suits, the particular circumstances which induced me to aban-
and passing directly up the Beaver Dam swamp, falls don it in favor of a route down the bottom of the valley.
into the course of the run a little south of Lewis' Hill. I have now to remark, with respect to the valley itself,
Near this point, (marked B. in the maps,) the deep its lateral slopes were found remarkably intersected by
cutting commences; the line in the mean time passes by ravines and gullies, produced in some instances by per-
thc bed of the stream, round the west side of the hili, manent streams, and in others, by the occasional wash
and thence in a direct course through the swamp, to the of the country. These generally proceed from small
bench-mark, (at station No. 49,) on the dividing ridge. beginnings at the distance of a mile or two from the
About 100 yards beyond this, continuing the same direc- margin and run out again to terminations equally small
tion, it strikes a head water of the Big Conneaut in the in the valley, but in the intermediate distance, and par-
general course of which it descends, to the station No. ticularly at the verge of the slope, they have frequently
$5, marked C.) where the cutting again runs out at the the most extraordinary dimensions. The difficulty of
surface of the ground.

running a level line over ground of this character is en. The construction on this line consists, for the most hanced by the general pitch of the ground, valley and part, of mere excavation and embankment, and requires upland, towards the lake. For it generally happens in no particular remark, except as regards its connexion consequence of this, that a level taken over from the with Conneaut Lake. In the provisional examination of bottoms near the head of the valley cannot fail of en. this summit, it is well detailed in the former report. The countering all the gullies, and as it rises on the face of only view taken of this connexion, in the event of the the slope it must encounter them with gieater and greatcanal passing on the west side of the lake, was by dam- er dimensions, until it finally crosses them at the very ing the latter to the eight feet level, and merely con. maximum of their breadth and depth. This was the structing a towing path along the western side. This case in the line actually run. In the course of ten or was believed to be the most natural construction, and as twelve miles from the summit, I had already experience converting the lake into a reservoir, to afford some seed a remarkable increase both in the number and magni. curity against the possible failure of a supply froin tude of the gullies, and by the time I arrived at the Erie French creek. The examinations of the present year, county line, I had passed without counting those of bowever, have shown so considerable a supply of water, smaller dinensions, no less than twenty which might be from the springs and brooks of the northern slope, as to considered as extraordinary, some, often being from 100 render this plan entirely unnecessary as a measure of 10 200 yards in width and 50 or 60 feet deep. So far as precaution, while they afford also some reason to doubt the Conneaut valley was concerned therefore, there reits feasibility in other respects, in comparison with a se- mained at this stage of the survey not the smallest doubt parate construction. There are nearly 600 perches of of the superior advantage of a line locked down thro' the route above described which it appears will require the bottoms. But I still indulged the expectation of se. embankment, from four to ten feet entire height. Now, curing great advantages in the length and direction of in the first place, a simple embankment of this extent, the route to Erie by keeping the high line, and it was exposed to the action and agitations of the lake, will be not until I had passed the Erie branch of the Big Con. far more liable to accident than a canal embanked in the neaut that the hopelessness of this route in all respects ordinary way and the consequences of a breach, besides became fully manifest. I had then before me'a district that it will produce a much longer intermission to the uf very broken and irregular country, deeply intersectnavigation, will be more disastrous in every respect. ed by the tributaries of Elk creek, on the left a system

2dly. This mode of construction will cover a large of parallel ridges, which a little further on, assume a extent of low ground at the head of the lake, with a distinct and regular character, and intercepted all ap. thin sheet of stagnant water, the effects of which can proach to the lake except by deep cuttings or expen. hardly fail of being injurious to the health of the vici- sive constructions in the bed of some of the streams; nity, and will also produce a considerable increase in and finally, the necessity of diverging considerably to the assessment of land damages.

the right of the proper direction in order to retain my Thirdly, the navigation if unprotected on the side of present level if I would gain any advantage by it in the the lake, will be less safe and convenient than an ex: crossing of Elk and Walnut creeks. These and other traordinary canal, and if so protected, the expense of similar considerations, determined me without scruple construction will be decidedly in favor of the latter. I to the choice of the lower line. According to this deFourthly, no advantage will be gained, in any event, in termination, the line is located from the point C. through point of expense; for it is found by a careful estimation the first and second bottoms of the valley, in such a of both modes, that by giving proper attention to the manner as to avoid almost entirely the irregularities of construction of the dams, and including those at the the higher ground. Lockage is introduced, as the de. foot of the lake, formerly estimated, the plan of raising clivity requires it, and at such particular points as shall the lake will cost from 500 to 1000 dollars more than the best preserve the directness of the line, and its proper construction of a separate canal. Should the locating location in other respects. For the purpose of shorten. engineer, with the results of the southern surveys being it as much as possible, the upper part of the route fore him, agree with me in these opinions, he will cross is taken on the west side of the creek, and transferred the outlet by a culvert at Cummins', and make the whole l as the latter increases in westing. The crossing place

.

is perhaps taken rather high in location on the map, but to wind down the east side of the valley until the de. on the ground may be adjusted at any point, as circum- scent of the country enables us to take the surface and stances may determine, above, or in the vicinity of Fors- resume our direction towards Erie. We thus gain also, ter's mill. The quantity of lockage which may be ad. the advantage of passing two parallel ridges of the lake mitted in this part of the route depends partly upon the slope, in connexion with the passage of the creek. The circuinstances and character of the valley, and the ra- examination of the valley was conducted in conformity ture of the ground on the further route towards Elk with this plan. Those places had been suggested as creek. Upon this principle it is taken at 170 feet which promising some advantages for crossing. First, at An. requires a moderate deep cutting on the further route, derson's mill dam, about a half a mile above our routes. but avoids all the gullies of any magnitude in the valley The second, at Anderson's crossing place, near the Rich except two, neither of which exceeds 70 yards in width hill; (so called) also a little above our route; and the by 20 and 26 feet in depth, respectively. This lockage third, near the mouth of Hall's run, a little below the is distributed in fifteen locks of 11 feet 4 inches average route. In examining these, a fourth point also attracted lift. One foot 4 being added for the purpose of passing some attention, and was examined in comparison with (in an extreme lockage) 41 feet per second, more water the others, viz. about 400 yards below the Rich hill, and than is passed by a ten feet lock, which quantity is re. in a very favorable situation with respect to our route. quired in addition to the supply from the springs and The points upon which these crossings were compabrooks of the northern slope, to compensate the evapo. red, were Ist, their relation to the routes; 2d, the height ration and leakage on the remainder of the route towards and depth of embankment necessary, and the supply of Erie. The increased lift is also desirable on some other earth necessary for constructing it. 3d. The length and accounts, the construction will cost somewhat less; and height of the acqueduct. And 4th, the facility in each the time of locking through the entire lift will be less case, of leading the canal by the east bank of the valley. by several minutes than would be required for passing The chief merit of the crossing at Anderson's mill, con. seventeen 10 foot locks.

sists in the height and relation of the immediate bank, The length of this section from C, to the point I), (in being such as to require little or no embankment, and Michael Jackson's meadow) is 163 miles. Its location an acqueduct of moderate length. On the other hand, on the map will probably require some corrections, as it however, its position with respect to the route, is rather was unavoidably laid down from compass notes only; an objection; and the difficulty of leading the canal from but in the fine bottoms of such a valley, and with 170 it by the east side of the valley, a very formidable one. feet of lockage there can be no difficulty in making In general, the immediate banks of the creek, on both these corrections in such a manner as to ensure the most sides, are precipitous, the stream having worn down its direct and favorable route in all respects.

bed through the soil of the intervale, and to a considerThird Section, from the valley of Corneaut to that of Elk able depth in the soft friable slate which constitutes the Creek.

substratum. In some places, it has encroached upon the This part of the route as alreadly intimated, takes ad- main branch of the valley in such a manner as to form vantage of a very convenient range of level ground a raw, crumbling precipice of 70 or 80 feet in height, which skirts along the west boundary of Elk creek with a steep rising aclivity, frequently 40 or 50 feet township, in the precise direction of the shortest route higher. One of these precipices, 280 yards long, octo Elk creek, and was ascertwined indeed by an experi- curs on the east side of the creek, nearly opposite the ment for that purpose, that a lower graduation than the Rich Hill, and presents a serious difficulty in ihe way of one above mentioned, which would have excluded us any prospect which would require the construction of from the use of this ground, would have brought us the canal along its face. No construction of the kind upon the ground of much less favorable character, and could be considered as safe then, unless supported, at with an increase of no less than four miles in the distance least in part, by a wall of masonry, brought up from the to the creek. The only disadvantage accompanying it, bed of the creek; and this, which under any circumstanbut which would prove nearly the same in any location, ces, would be a work of extraordinary expense, beis the crossing of Jackson's run and the east branch of comes : Paramount objection in the present instance, in the Big Conneaut. The former according to our gra. consequence of the scarcity of stone. duation is a gully of 23 feet by 100 yards, and the latter This objection applies equally to the crossing at An26} by 176 yards, with a depression of about ten feet derson's mill and that at Anderson's crossing place, both more in the bed of the creek. Both, however, are of which require a passage for the canal down the valsufficiently well provided with earth for the purpose of ley, by the way of this bluff

. Considering these, thereembankment. From the east branch, eastward, the fore, as excluded, it only remains to institute a compa. ground is of the most favorable character; and the line rison between the other two, viz. One, 400 yards bepassing by a slight deep cutting into the head of the low the Rich 10l, and the other at the old mill, near valley of Crooked creek locks thrown 314 feet, in three the mouth of Hall's run. Both of these are in a conve. lifts, to a dividing level between that and the valley of nient relation to the route, the first being approached Hall's run. Length from Michael Jackson's to the head by the eastern, and the other by the western side of the of the grand lockage in the valley of Hall's run 6 miles valley of Hall's run. and 9 perches.

The Rich Hill is an insulated knob, situated between Fourth Section, crossing the valley of Elk creek and the Hall's run and Elk creek, about half a mile above the deep cut.

forks. It appears to be the remnant of a tongue of upThis valley has the character of an immense irregular land, which at some former period, may have supported gully, varying in the vicinity of o'ir line, from 4 to 700 the valley of these two streams, and of which, another yards in width and cutting down through all the bench- trace is left, in the form of a low, second bank, which es* of the lake slope, to an extreme depth of more extends down nearly to the hill. By taking advantage than 200 feet below the level at which we approached of this second bank in connection with the western slope it. To take in the whole of it, by any mode of crossing of the hill, a canal may be brought at a convenient ele. whatever, is of course out of the question; the only vation, to within about 360 yards of the crossing place, feasible method is to lock down to into it to such a level with a very little extra labour. The remaining distance is will reduce the crossing to reasonable limits, and then is an intervale bottom, with an average elevation of 34

feet above the bed of the creek. This would, of course, This word is used to express peculiar features in require embankment for any additional elevation; but the slopes generally of the country under examination. the immediate vicinity of the hill, affords an abundant

Those slopes occurring in successive graduations, some supply of earth for this purpose. The trough of the thing in the form of ridges, rather than declivities. The stream at the point of crossing, is 380 feet wide; but level surface of cach step is called a bench.

of this, 180 feet consists of low bottom, from 6 to 12

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feet high, which may, with great convenience, be em-fords, generally, an easy, natural descent, from chamber
banked to any additional height by the earth from a to chamber. The only possible ground of objection, is
high, and rather steep bank, which overlooks it. In the rapid succession of the locks. The clear distance
this way the aqueduct may be reduced to as little as 150 from wing to wing, being only 184 feet; but they are
feet; which, in a vicinity badly provided with stone, is a still made independent of each other, by the enlarged
point of some consideration. Finally, the line from this width and depth of the basins, the former of which can,
crossing place, down the east side of the valley, is at- with perfect convenience, be made as great as 30 yards
tended with litttle or no inconvenience whatever. Such at the top water line, and the latter, from 6 to 15 feet.
is the crossing by the Rich Hill, that near the old mill is We are thus fortunately enabled to connect into a valua.
approached as already mentioned, by the western side ble auxiliary, the very circumstance from which the
of the valley of Hall's run. The upland, however, re- greatest embarrassments were expected, in the con-
cedes gradually from the line on that side, in such a struction of this lockage. Should a more gentle de-
manner as to render some embankment necessary, for scent, however, be desired, it may probably be found by
nearly half a mile, before reaching the crossing place. exploring to the right of the present location, and then
At 550 yards from the latter, the upland fails entirely, connecting the line accordingly, as far back as the east
and on this distance an embankment would have to be branch road.
constructed, at an average of at least 8 feet higher than On the east side of the creek, the construction of the
that at the Rich Hill, besides a heavy culvert and extra line presents nothing particular or difficult, south of the
embankment, at the crossing of Hall's run. The ex- ridge road. At that point a very short tunnel, or deep
pense of these constructions, would be increased by the cut and bridge, is necessary for passing under the road,
difficulty of procuring earth in convenient situations for and avoiding a sharp turn round the point. Three hun.
the purpose, and for the same reason it would be unad- dred yards further north, the deep cutting commences,
visable to embank any portion of the low bottom of the and continues 283 perches, to the end of this section,
creek; an aqueduct would, therefore, be necessary, to where it runs out in the bottom and Hagerty's run. To-
the full extent of 400 feet, which is the breadth of the tol length of the section, from the head of the grand
creek at this point. The landing place on the east lockage to the end of the deep cut, at F, 3 miles and
shore, is only 23 feet high, for the first 80 or 90 yards, 239 perches.
which would require, therefore, a heavy embankment.
The ground then becomes more elevated; but its height

5th Section.-From Hagerty's to Walnut Creek.
is still insufficient, and would require considerable em- This passes in its whole length, upon a level bench of
banking for 240 yards further. Under all these circum- ground, at the foot of the north slope of the ridge upon
stances, the crossing place at Rich Hill, is considered which the ridge road passes, from which a number of
decidedly preferable, having, at least, & less embank: copious springs issue, and afford a considerable addition
ment, a much more convenient supply of earth, and to the supply of water. No locks accrue; and the only
nearly two-thirds less aqueduct.

construction of any account, is a culvert, and moderate The graduation of the level for the embankment and embankment at Trout run, and a short feeder for the inaqueduct, is determined, as in other cases, with some troduction of that stream. Total distance, 5 miles 294 reference to the ground in advance. In examining its perches. character for this purpose, it appears that a line, at any reasonable elevation, cannot so conveniently be carried

6th Section.— The crossing of Walnut Creek. out to the surface of the ground, as by a deep cutting I have already made some remarks upon the charac. north of the village of Fairview. The extreme elevation ter of this crossing, as a work of labour and expense, on the line of this cutting, is 108} feet above the creek, rather than of any great professional difficulties. It is a at the crossing place, and from a careful comparison of simple gulph of about 180 yards extreme width, and its length and volume, under various suppositions with nearly 100 feet deep, but with bold, regular banks, risthose of the embankment, having in view also, the cha- ing on the west side fully, and on the east nearly to the racter of the ground on the route eastward, the crossing level of the adjacent country. The point selected for is established at 714 feet above the water of the creek: crossing, is precisely that at which our level line struck or which is the same thing, 1604 feet above Lake Erie. the bank, and a little south of the land line which forms This leaves 37 feet for the greatest depth to the top water the south boundary of the lake range of lots. Its ex. line, on the deep cutting of Fairview. The elevation treme width at the top of the banks, is 171 yards, and at of our line, in approaching the valley at Hall's run, tak- the bottom 60 yards, and its depth 97 } feet below the ing into consideration the declivity of the surface, from graduation line of the canal. On 120 yards of this width, the summit to this point, is 306 feet above Lake Erie; it is proposed to construct an aqueduct of five openand the above graduation gives, therefore, 1453 feet, as ings, and to complete the remaining 51 yards with emthe total descent to be effected by the lockage on the bankments, for which there is plenty of earth, in very west side of the valley. This descent it is proposed to dis- convenient situations, on both sides. A moderate emtribute in 14 equal lifts, down the side and bottom of bankment of 180 yards, is then only necessary for comthe valley of Hall's run, by an arrangement which was pleting out the work to the upland bank, on the east suggested, and appears singularly favoured, by the cir- side. "Total length of the whole from G. to H. 67 cumstance of the ground. The first lockage leads hy a perches. Another locality for crossing, about 560 yards slight, deep cutting, into the head of a large, deep gully, further up, was examined and measured in comparison which descends exactly in the direction of the route. with the one just described. To make use of it

, how. be divided by dams and locks, into six succes ever, would require, in ascending and returning, not sive basins; from the last of which, a short oblique cut less than 1100 yards additional length of canal; and it to the left, leads into another gully, capable of affording does not appear, from the measurement, to possess any two more basins of the same kind. Two others may be superiority as a crossinz place, that would compensate added, by the construction of a single lateral dam, un- for the inconvenience and expense of this addition. der favourable circumstances; and we have a complete Serenth Section, from the crossing of Walnut creek la chain of ten locks following each other in rapid succession, with a descent which brings the line nearly to the

Turkey Ridge near Érie. bottom of the valley at this point. The peculiarities of This passes over ground of the same character and this arrangement are, that, with the exception of the equally convenient for the location and construction of short cut and lateral dam just mentioned, only four of the canal, as that west of Walnut creek; two or three the locks, and a very small portion "f the canal, requires slight ridges occur, crossing the route in the course of any excavation worth notice. Only three of the for- the first five miles, which render it necessary to retain mer, will even require breast walls, as the declivity af. I thus far, the full height of the Elk creek graduation.

This may

the Bay

The last of these is passed in the vicinity of M'Creery's chamber should be kept habitually full, and the lower farm soon after entering the state reserve, and then it is one empty. When this is done boats may lock through recommended as favouring the directness of the route, the whole twenty feet in either direction, in an average to commence locking down. Four locks of 10 feet lift of ten minutes; whereas, other things being the same, a are located from this point to the ridge. The first, a lit. boat cannot lock through twenty feet, by two insolated tle eastward of M‘Creery's road; second, between Eld. locks, in less, one time with another, than fifteen minutes ridge's and Green's improvements; the third, at the east and a fraction. The extreme quantity of water for a full branch of the Cascade run, and the fourth at the edge of navigation is the same, being six locks full per hour, the Turkey Swamp. The last renders necessary a short drawn from the superior level in both cases. The only deep cutting at Turkey ridge, but it is nevertheless pre point of inferiority is in the total working capacity. The ferable, as diminishing by one lift the lockage from this six locksful per hour in two insolated locks, working point to the lake. Short feeders on this section enable together, will pass (in effect) eight boats through twenty us to appropriate the waters of three branches of Cas- feet, whilst the same quantity in the contiguous locks is cada run, and of Ichabod's min.

only sufficient for passing six boats in the same time. Length from the point H, at Walnut creek, to the end This would be an objection to their use on the route of of the cut at Turkey ridge, 7 miles 262 perches. a canal intended for a very full navigation, but under or Section Eight, from Turkey Ridge to the termination in canal'unites with a different navigation, it is presumed a

dinary circumstances, and especially at a point where a

working power of six boats per hour, will be found quite It now only remains to explain the mode of descend sufficient. It should be remarked farther, that in point ing into the basin of Presque Isle. For this purpose three of expense, the contiguous locks have, generally, a conroutes have been mentioned; the first by Mill creek, on siderable advantage. The mode of placing them in the the east side of the town; the second by a gully passing present instance, will be such as to bring the upper lock through the public square; and the third by the gully first in contact with the ledge, giving to the lower one an of Lee's run, on the west side of the town. As the first extreme projection of 200 feet; the upper basin will of these would be considerably greater in length than then be formed by a slight excavation in the top layers either of the other two, and as it promised no particular of the slate. By giving to this basin a breadth of fifty advantage, either on the score of construction or local feet, and a slight additional depth, we may make its accommodation, being also attended with the inconve- length as little as 290 feet from wing to wing, and this venience of shallow water at the mouth of the creek, I will enable us to adjust the level of all the following badid not think it necessary to bring it strictly into compa. sins in the most convenient relation to the surface of the rison with the other two. Of these, the first named bad ground. the appearance of descending rather rapidly, for conve- The final completion of the canal at this point will renient lockage, from the public square to the water, and quire some enclosure on the side of the bay, for the safe upon trial this was found to be the fact. It is also objec- harbourage of the canal craft. For this purpose I protionable as affording too little space in width, for the pose the following plan, viz. To construct at the disconstruction of the necessary locks and basins. The tance of 150 feet in advance of the last lock, a mole or last named, viz. The gully of Lee's run was explored pier 300 feet long, extending upward and downward in with much greater confidence of a satisfactory result. It such proportions as may be determined by the depth of affords generally, a shorter and more direct route to the water. It may be strictly parallel to the shore, or conbasin than either of the others; its declivity though verging towards it in a curve, at the extremity, and great, is within practicable limits; its breadth is gene- should be united with the towing path of the canal, on rally sufficient for the construction of the works, and the line of the present wharf by a pier and bridge suffifinally, the point of its communication with the basin at the ciently high for boats to pass under it. The construction nary wharf, perhaps more favourable than any other, to of a quay on the land side, with other connecting piers the local as well as the general interests of the canal in and bridge is also a part of the plan, but these are more all respects.

properly the objects of private enterprise. The lockage remaining to be distributed from Tur- The length of the section just described, from Turkey key ridge to the lake, is exactly 120 feet, allowing for ridge to the mole, is one hundred and ninety-six perchthe descent of the top water line from Elk creek to this es: And we are now prepared to sum up the total displace. This is distributed

down the bottom of Lee's tance and lockage from the commencement near Cumgully in 12 ten feet locks. The space is not insufficient, ming's bridge to the same point, viz. The distance 47 and the distribution could be made with perfect regu- miles and 140 perches; about a mile shorter than the larity to the end, were it not that the declivity is inter- road; and the lockage 507 feet in 48 locks; allowing cepted before it reaches that point, by a substratum of ten inches for the declivity in the top water line pro(soft friable) slate, ending in a precipice of twenty-one duced by the feeding current, from the summit towards feet at the edge of the water. To meet this difficulty Erie. The drawings for illustrating the preceding de. four different modes have been considered. First, to scriptions, are first. A general map and profile of the continue the declivity of the canal, by sinking the three whole route on the scale of one inch to the square mile, last basins into the rock; allowing to the last a slight Secondly, A series of maps exhibiting the details of the projection into the lake. Secondly, to embank the whole, on the scale of five inches to the mile. whole of the last line with moderate excavation on the The location of the route is carefully laid down upon second basin, fairly above the surface of the third lock. the latter by the same scale, and upon the principle, as Thirdly, to construct a lock of twenty feet lift, by far as other conditions would admit, of reducing the lameans of a lateral reservoir; and fourthly, to construct bour of excavation to the smallest possible amount. two contiguous locks exterior to the ledge.

Should this route be adopted, and the views of the enIt is unnecessary here to detail all the reasoning which gineer approved, the actual location, except in the Conhas been employed in the comparison of thcse various neaut valley, may be accomplished, (supposing the le. modes. The points on which they have been compared, vels accurate) by the mere tranfer of the measures from are first the expense; secondly the practical convenience; the paper to the ground. Before entering upon the thirdly, their conformity with regard to expense of wa- general estimate, it will be proper to give some explanater and locking with the other locks of the canal. The tions relative to the construction of the works in maresult is a decided preference for the method of the two sonry. contiguous locks, and it appears, indeed, that contiguous The scarcity of materials has already been alluded to. locks when limited, as in this case, to the number two, No stone of a sufficient good quality for the works hav. are in some respects superior to every other mode of ing been seen on the whole route west of Walnut lockage. Their attendance requires, that the upper creek. Ştill, however, there is reason to believe that

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