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BY THE TRANSLATOR.
28. Ο ανηρ
26. Συ μεν λεγεις τα Θηβης 27. Ει ισχιοις μεν ιπποι
της Κυθηρης 29. Χαλεπον το μη φιλησαι 30. Εδοκουν οναρ τροχαζειν 31. Υακινθινω με ραβδω 32. Επι μυρσιναις τερειναις 33. Μεσονυκτιοις ποθ' ωραις 34. Μακαριζομεν σε, τεττιξ 35, Ερως ποτ' εν ροδοισι 36. Ο πλουτος ειχε χρυσον 37. Δια νυκτος εγκαθευδων 38. Ιλαροι πιωμεν οινον 39. Φιλω γεροντα τερπνόν 40. Επειδη βροτος ετυχθην 41. Τι καλον εστι βαδιζειν 42. Ποθεω μεν Διονυσου 43. Στεφανους μεν κροταφοισι 44. Το ροδον το των ερωτων 45. Οταν πινω τον οινον 46. Ιδε, πως εαρος φανεντος 47. Εγω γερων μεν ειμι 48. Όταν ο Βακχος εισελθη 49. Του Διος ο παις Βακχος 50. Ότ’ εγω πιω τον οινον 51. Μη με φυγης ορωσα 52. Τι με τους νομους διδασκεις 53. Οτ’ εγω νεων όμιλος 54. Ο ταυρος ούτος, ω παι 55. Στεφανηφορου μετ’ Ηρος 56, Ο τον εν πονοις απειρη 57. Αρα τις τορευσε ποντον 58. Ο δραπετης ο χρυσος 59. Τον μελανοχρωτα βοτρυν 60. Aνα βαρβιτον δονησω
16. 53. 45. 46. 44. 7. 4. 3. 43. 40. 23.
8. 41. 47. 24. 66. 42.
6. 5. 25. 37. 38. 26. 27. 39. 34. 36. 54. 35. 51. 50. 49. 66. 52. 64.
ΕΠι ροδινοις ταπησι,
CORRECTIONS OF THE PRECEDING ODE,
SUGGESTED BY AN EMINENT GREEK SCHOLAR.
Επι ρόδινοις ταπησι Τηϊος ποτ’ ο μελιστης
ΕΠΙ' πορφυρέοις τάπησι Τήϊός ποτ' ώδοποιός ιλαρός γελών έκειτο, μεθύων τε και λυρίζων: 4
1. πορφυρίοις vox trisyllabica. Anacr. Fragm. ΧΧΙΧ. 3. ed. | Αλιπορφύροις τάσησι dixit Pseud- Anacreon, Od. νιι 2. Fischer. πορφυρέη τ' 'Αφροδίτη. Anacr. Fragm. ΧΧΧν1. 1. Theocr. Ιd. Χν. 125, πορφύριοι δε τάτητες άνω, μαλακώσιμοι σφαίρη δεύτί με πορφυρίη, ut legendum plane ex Athenao. υπνω.
τερί δ αυτόν αμφ' "Έρωτες Αμφι αυτον οι δ' Ερωτες βιότου δε την γαλήνην 41 Ωδε βίοτου γαληνην τρομερούς ποσίν χόρευον. Απαλοι συνέχoρευσαν φιλέων μάλιστα πάντων, τα βέλενμεν Κυθήρης
σοφός ου μελωδός είμι ; Ου σοφος μελωδος ειμι επoίει καλής, οϊστους Εποιει, ψυχης οϊστους τί σοφώτερον γένοιτ' άν; τυρόεντας, εκ κεραυνού 9
εμέθεν σοφώτερος τίς; 45 Τις σοφώτερος μεν εστι δ δέ λευκά καλλιφύλλοις κρίνα συν ρόδoισι πλέξας, εφίλει στέφων γέροντα. Η δε θέαων ανασσα
REMARKS ON ANACREON. Σοφίη θέαινα βασα, | εσoρώσ''Ανακρέοντα, 15
THERE is but little known with certainty of the σορώσα τους "Έρωτας,
life of Anacreon. Chamæleon Heracleotes ', who υπομειδιώσά φησι
Υπομειδιασσάς ειπε wrote upon the subject, has been lost in the | Σόφ–έπει βροτών σε τούτο Τον σοφωτατόν απαντων | general wreck of ancient literature. The editors καλέσωσι φύλα πάντα, 19
of the poet have collected the few trifling anecdotes καλέoυσιν οι σοφισται,
which are scattered through the extant authors of τί, γέρων, μάτην δδεύεις
antiquity, and, supplying the deficiency of mateβιότου τρίβον τεού μέν
rials by fictions of their own imagination, have μετά των καλών Έρώτων,
arranged, what they call, a life of Anacreon. μετά του καλού Λυαίου, Τοίς Ερωσι, το Λυαιη
These specious fabrications are intended to indulge εμέ δ' ώδε λαξ ατίζεις; 25 κ' ουκ εμοι κρατειν εδωκας | that interest which we naturally feel in the bioτί φίλημα της Κυθήρης,
graphy of illustrious men; but it is rather a danτί κύπελλα του Λυαίου,
gerous kind of illusion, as it confounds the limits εσαεί τρυφών αείδεις, Αιεί η ετρυφησας αδων of history and romance ?, and is too often supέμα θέσμι' ου διδάσκων, Ούκ εμους νομους διδασκων | ported by unfaithful citation.3 εμόν ου λαχών άωτον ; 30 Ούκ εμον λαχων αωτον Our poet was born in the city of Téos 4, in the ο δε Τήλος μελωδός,
delicious region of Ionia, and the time of his birth Συ παρέκ νόον γε μη μοι
appears to have been in the sixth century before Μήτε δυσχεραινε, φησι χαλέπαινε, φήσ', άνευθε
Christ. He flourished at that remarkable period, ότι σε σοφός καλούμαι “Ότι, θέα, σουη ανευ μεν | when, under the polished tyrants Hipparchus and ταρα των σοφών απάντων. Ο σοφωτατός απαντων Polycrates, Athens and Samos were become the φελέω, πίω, λυρίζω, 36
rival asylums of genius. There is nothing certain μετά των καλών γυναικών,
known about his family, and those who pretend to εφελώς δε τερπνα παίζω
discover in Plato that he was a descendant of the i
κιθάρη γαρ, ως κέαρ μεϊ, Ως λυρη γαρ, εμον ητορ | monarch Codrus, show much more of zeal than αναπνεί μόνους Έρωτας.
of either accuracy or judgment..
5 Tmesis pro αμφιχόρευον. Theocr. Ιd. VΙΙ. 142. τωτώντο Mademoiselle Scuderi, from whom he borrowed the idea, * ξαθαι τεεί οίδακας άμρί μέλισσαι, h. e. αμφιτντώντο. pretend to historical veracity in her account of Anacreon and
6 Pseud-Anacr. Οd. LΙΙ. 12. τρομερoις τοσίν χρεύει. Sappho. These, then, are allowable. But how can Barnes 7, 10. é us, hic – o dd, ille. Bion. Id. 1. 82. zás ui cirties, be forgiven, who, with all the confidence of a biographer, και δέπί τέξω έβαιν', κ. τ. λ. itidem de Armoribus.
traces every wandering of the poet, and settles him at last, in 8. 9. éssiu – iz usçauroi. Pseud-Anacr. Od. XXVIII, 18. to his old age, at a country villa near Téos ? δε βλέμμα νύν αληθώς | ατο του τυρός τοίησον.
3 The learned Bayle has detected some infidelities of quo10, 11. καλλιφύλλους – ρόδoυσι. Pseud- Anacr. Οd. ν. 3. το tation in Le Fevre. (Dictionnaire Historique, 8c.) Madame βάλει το καλλίφυλλο.
Dacier is not more accurate than her father: they have 13. Tmesis pro **Tabira. Pseud-Anacr. Od. m. 15. évèe almost made Apacreon prime minister to the monarch of | 2 εβ λύχνον άψας, h. e. ανάψας.
Samos, 18 Supple όνομα, quo τούτο referatur. Eurip. Phaen. 12. 4 The Asiatics were as remarkable for genius as for luxury. τευτο γας τατής | Εθετο. h. e. τούτο όνομα. βροτών φύλα πάν- Ingenia Asiatica inclyta per gentes fecêre Poetæ, Anacreon, +2 adumbratum ex Pseud-Anacr. Od. . 4. usgósu di çünc inde Mimnermus et Antimachus," &c. --Solinus.
5 I have not attempted to define the particular Olympiad, 21. Pseud.Anacr. Οd. ΧΧιν. 2. βιότου τρίβος οδεύειν. but have adopted the idea of Bayle, who says, “ Je n'ai point
5. Each. Ευπmen. 538. μηδέ νυν, | κέρδος ιδών, αθέω ποδι λάξ | marque d'Olympiade; car pour un homme qui a vécu 85 ans, ετί-στης.
il me semble que l'on ne doit point s'enfermer dans des 2. ταρία νόον γε μη μοι χαλίπαινε, η preter rationem in bornes si étroites." αε ετί. 1. 133. "Ηρη, μη χαλίταινε ταρία νόον. Sirnilem 6 This mistake is founded on a false interpretation of a positionem particularum us mos exhibet Pseud-Anacr. Od. very obvious passage in Plato's Dialogue on Temperance; it ΣΧτΙΙΙ. 13.
originated with Madame Dacier, and has been received imΟ He is quoted by Athenaeus εν τω τερι του Ανακρέοντος. plicitly by many. Gail, a late editor of Anacreon, seems to
• The History of Anacreon, by Gacon (le Poète sans fard, claim to himself the merit of detecting this error ; but Bayle as be styles himself), is professedly a romance ; nor does had observed it before him. |
The disposition and talents of Anacreon recom- We are told that in the eighty-fifth year of his age mended him to the monarch of Samos, and he was he was choked by a grape-stone *; and, however formed to be the friend of such a prince as Poly- we may smile at their enthusiastic partiality, who crates. Susceptible only to the pleasures, he felt see in this easy and characteristic death a peculiar not the corruptions of the court; and, while Pytha- indulgence of Heaven, we cannot help admiring goras fled from the tyrant, Anacreon was cele- that his fate should have been so emblematic of brating his praises on the lyre. We are told too his disposition. Cælius Calcagninus alludes to by Maximus Tyrius, that, by the influence of his this catastrophe in the following epitaph on our amatory songs, he softened the mind of Polycrates poet 5:into a spirit of benevolence towards his subjects. I
Those lips, then, hallow'd sage, which pour'd along The amours of the poet, and the rivalship of A music sweet as any cygnet's song, the tyrant?, I shall pass over in silence ; and there The grape hath clos'd for ever!
Here let the ivy kiss the poet's tomb, are few, I presume, who will regret the omission
Here let the rose he lov'd with laurels bloom, of most of those anecdotes, which the industry of In bands that ne'er shall sever. some editors has not only promulged, but dis- But far be thou, oh! far, unholy vine, cussed. Whatever is repugnant to modesty and By whom the favourite minstrel of the Nine virtue is considered in ethical science, by a suppo
Lost his sweet vital breath ;
Thy God himself now blushes to confess, sition very favourable to humanity, as impossible; Once hallow'd vine ! he feels he loves thee less, and this amiable persuasion should be much more Since poor Anacreon's death. strongly entertained, where the transgression wars It has been supposed by some writers that Anawith nature as well as virtue. But why are we creon and Sappho were contemporaries ; and the not allowed to indulge in the presumption? Why very thought of an intercourse between persons so are we officiously reminded that there have been congenial, both in warmth of passion and delicacy really such instances of depravity ?
of genius, gives such play to the imagination, that Hipparchus, who now maintained at Athens the the mind loves to indulge in it. But the vision power which his father Pisistratus had usurped, dissolves before historical truth ; and Chamæleon was one of those princes who may be said to have and Hermesianax, who are the source of the sappolished the fetters of their subjects. He was the position, are considered as having merely indulged first, according to Plato, who edited the poems of in a poetical anachronism.6 Homer, and commanded them to be sung by the To infer the moral dispositions of a poet from rhapsodists at the celebration of the Panathenæa. the tone of sentiment which pervades his works, From his court, which was a sort of galaxy of is sometimes a very fallacious analogy; but the genius, Anacreon could not long be absent. Hip- soul of Anacreon speaks so unequivocally through parchus sent a barge for him ; the poet readily his odes, that we may safely consult them as the embraced the invitation, and the Muses and the faithful mirrors of his heart.7 We find him there Loves were wafted with him to Athens.3
the elegant voluptuary, diffusing the seductive The manner of Anacreon's death was singular. charm of sentiment over passions and propensities at which rigid morality must frown. His heart, imagining to themselves the form of the animated devoted to indolence, seems to have thought that old bard, crowned with roses, and singing cheerthere is wealth enough in happiness, but seldom fully to his lyre. But the head of Anacreon, happiness in mere wealth. The cheerfulness, prefixed to this work?, has been considered so indeed, with which he brightens his old age is authentic, that we scarcely could be justified in interesting and endearing : like his own rose, he the omission of it ; and some have even thought is fragrant even in decay. But the most peculiar that it is by no means deficient in that benevolent feature of his mind is that love of simplicity, which suavity of expression which should characterise he attributes to himself so feelingly, and which the countenance of such a poet. breathes characteristically throughout all that he After the very enthusiastic eulogiums bestowed has sung. In truth, if we omit those few vices in both by ancients and moderns upon the poems of our estimate which religion, at that time, not only Anacreon 3, we need not be diffident in expressing connived at, but consecrated, we shall be inclined our raptures at their beauty, nor hesitate to proto say that the disposition of our poet was ami- nounce them the most polished remains of antiable ; that his morality was relaxed, but not aban- quity. They are, indeed, all beauty, all enchantdoned; and that Virtue, with her zone loosened, ment. He steals us so insensibly along with him, may be an apt emblem of the character of Ana- that we sympathise even in his excesses. In his creon, 1
1 Ανακρεουν Σαμιους Πολυκράτην ημερωσε. Maxim. Tyr. 5 21. Maximus Tyrius mentions this among other instances of the influence of poetry. If Gail had read Maximus Tyrius, how could he ridicule this idea in Moutonnet, as unauthenticated ?
2 In the romance of Clelia, the anecdote to which I allude is told of a young girl, with whom Anacreon fell in love while she personated the god Apollo in a mask. But here Mademoiselle Scuderi consulted nature more than truth.
3 There is a very interesting French poem founded upon this anecdote, imputed to Desyvetaux, and called "Anacréon Citoyen."
4 Fabricius appears not to trust very implicitly in this story. "Uvæ passæ acino tandem suffocatus, si credimus Suidæ in svetotas ; alii enim hoc mortis genere periise tradunt Sophoclem." - Fabricii Bibliothec. Græc. lib. ii. cap. 15. It must be confessed that Lucian, who tells us that Sophocles was choked by a grape-stone, in the very same treatise mentions the longevity of Anacreon, and yet is silent on the manner of his death. Could he have been ignorant of such a remarkable coincidence, or, knowing, could he have neglected to remark it? See Regnier's introduction to his Anacreon.
5 At te, sancte senex, acinus sub Tartara misit;
Cygneæ clausit qui tibi vocis iter.
Hoc rosa perpetuo vernet odora loco;
Quæ causam diræ protulit, uva, necis,
In vatem tantum quæ fuit ausa nefas.
6 Barnes is convinced (but very gratuitously) of the synchronism of Anacreon and Sappho. In citing his authorities, he has strangely neglected the line quoted by Fulvius Ursi. nus, as from Anacreon, among the testimonies to Sappho :
Ειμι λαβων εισαρας Σαπφω σαρθενον αδυφώνον. . Fabricius thinks that they might have been contemporary, but considers their amour as a tale of imagination. Vossius rejects the idea entirely; as do also Olaus Borrichius and others.
7 An Italian poet, in some verses on Belleau's translation tise. Fulgentius mentions a work of his upon the war beAnd passion trembled in his song,
amatory odes there is a delicacy of compliment Of his person and physiognomy time has pre- not to be found in any other ancient poet. Love served such uncertain memorials, that it were at that period was rather an unrefined emotion : better, perhaps, to leave the pencil to fancy; and and the intercourse of the sexes was animated few can read the Odes of Anacreon without more by passion than by sentiment. They knew
of Anacreon, pretends to imagine that our bard dia not feel right hand, and a dolphin, with the word TIANON inscribed, as he wrote:
in the left ; " volendoci denotare (says Canini) che quelle cit.
tadini la coniassero in honore del suo compatriota poeta." Lyæum, Venerem, Cupidinemque
There is also among the coins of De Wilde one, which Senex lusit Anacreon poeta.
though it bears no effigy, was probably struck to the memory Sed quo tempore nec capaciores
of Anacreon. It has the word THINN, encircled with an ivy Rogabat cyathos, nec inquietis
crowd. At quidni respicit hæc corona Anacreontem, nobiUrebatur amoribus, sed ipsis
lem lyricum ?" – De Wilde. Tantum versibus et jocis amabat,
3 Besides those which are extant, he wrote hymns, elegies, Nullum præ se habitum gerens amantis.
epigrams, &c. Some of the epigrams still exist. Horace, in To Love and Bacchus ever young
addition to the mention of him (lib. iv. od. 9.), alludes also While sage Anacreon touch'd the lyre,
to a poem of his upon the rivalry of Circe and Penelope in He neither felt the loves he sung,
the affections of Ulysses, lib. i. od. 17.; and the scholiast Nor fill'd his bowl to Bacchus higher.
upon Nicander cites a fragment from a poem upon Sleep by Those flowery days had faded long,
Anacreon, and attributes to him likewise a medicinal treaWhen youth could act the lover's part ;
tween Jupiter and the Titans, and the origin of the consecraBut never, never, reach'd his heart.
tion of the eagle.
4 See Horace, Maximus Tyrius, &c. “ His style (says | Anacreon's character has been variously coloured. Barnes Scaliger) is sweeter than the juice of the Indian reed.”_ Poet. lingers on it with enthusiastic admiration ; but he is always lib. i. cap. 44. “From the softness of his verses (says Olaus extravagant, if not sometimes also a little profane. Baillet Borrichius) the ancients bestowed on him the epithets sweet, runs too much into the opposite extreme, exaggerating also delicate, graceful, &c."-Dissertationes Academicæ, de Poetis, the testiinonies which he has consulted ; and we cannot diss. 2. Scaliger again praises him thus in a pun; speaking surely agree with him when he cites such a compiler as of the usa as, or ode, "Anacreon autem non solum dedit hæc Athenæus, as “ un des plus savans critiques de l'antiquité.” Menon sed etiam in ipsis mella.” See the passage of Rapin, – Jugement des Sçarans, M. CV.
quoted by all the editors. I cannot omit citing also the folBarnes could hardly have read the passage to which he re- lowing very spirited apostrophe of the author of the Comfers, when he accuses Le Fevre of having censured our poet's mentary prefixed to the Parma edition : "O vos sublimes character in a note on Longinus ; the note in question being animæ, vos Apollinis alumni, qui post unum Alcmanem in manifest irony, in allusion to some censure passed upon Le totå Hellade lyricam poesim exsuscitastis, coluistis, amplifiFevre for his Anacreon. It is clear, indeed, that praise rather castis, quæso vos an ullus unquam fuerit vates qui Teio than censure is intimated See Johannes Vulpius (de Utili- cantori vel naturæ candore vel metri suavitate palmam prætate Poëtices), who vindicates our poet's reputation. ripuerit.” See likewise Vincenzo Gravini della Rag. Poetic.
* It is taken from the Bibliotheca of Fulvius Ursinus. libro primo, p. 97. Among the Ritratti of Marino, there is Bellori has copied the same bead into his Imagines. Johannes one of Anacreon beginning "Cingetemi la fronte,” &c. &c. Faber, in his description of the coin of Ursinus, mentions $ “We may perceive," says Vossius, “ that the iteration of another head on a very beautiful cornelian, which he sup- his words conduces very much to the sweetness of his style." poses was worn in a ring by some admirer of the poet. In Henry Stephen remarks the same beauty in a note on the the Iconographia of Canini there is a youthful head of Ana- forty-fourth ode. This figure of iteration is his most approEteon from a Grecian medal, with the letters TEIOS around priate grace: – but the modern writers of Juvenilia and Basia it; on the reverse there is a Neptune, holding a spear in his have adopted it to an excess which destroys the effect.
not those little tendernesses which form the spiri- | imitators. Some of these have succeeded with tual part of affection; their expression of feeling wonderful felicity, as may be discerned in the few was therefore rude and unvaried, and the poetry odes which are attributed to writers of a later of love deprived it of its most captivating graces. period. But none of his emulators have been half Anacreon, however, attained some ideas of this so dangerous to his fame as those Greek ecclepurer gallantry; and the same delicacy of mind siastics of the early ages, who, being conscious of which led him to this refinement, prevented him their own inferiority to their great prototypes, also from yielding to the freedom of language, determined on removing all possibility of comwhich has sullied the pages of all the other poets. parison, and, under a semblance of moral zeal, His descriptions are warm ; but the warmth is in deprived the world of some of the most exquisite the ideas, not the words. He is sportive without treasures of ancient times. The works of Sappho being wanton, and ardent without being licentious. and Alcæus were among those flowers of Grecian His poetic invention is always most brilliantly literature which thus fell beneath the rude hand of displayed in those allegorical fictions which so ecclesiastical presumption. It is true they premany have endeavoured to imitate, though all tended that this sacrifice of genius was hallowed have confessed them to be inimitable. Simplicity by the interests of religion ; but I have already is the distinguishing feature of these odes, and assigned the most probable motive 4; and if Grethey interest by their innocence, as much as they gorius Nazianzenus had not written Anacreontics, fascinate by their beauty. They may be said, we might now perhaps have the works of the indeed, to be the very infants of the Muses, and to Teian unmutilated, and be empowered to say lisp in numbers.
exultingly with Horace, I shall not be accused of enthusiastic partiality
Nec si quid olim lusit Anacreon by those who have read and felt the original ;
Delevit ætas. but, to others, I am conscious, this should not be The zeal by which these bishops professed to be the language of a translator, whose faint reflection actuated, gave birth more innocently, indeed, to of such beauties can but ill justify his admiration an absurd species of parody, as repugnant to piety of them.
as it is to taste, where the poet of voluptuousness In the age of Anacreon music and poetry were was made a preacher of the gospel, and his muse, inseparable. These kindred talents were for a like the Venus in armour at Lacedæmon, was long time associated, and the poet always sung his arrayed in all the severities of priestly instruction. own compositions to the lyre. It is probable that Such was the “ Anacreon Recantatus," by Carolus they were not set to any regular air, but rather a de Aquino, a Jesuit, published 1701, which conkind of musical recitation, which was varied ac- sisted of a series of palinodes to the several songs cording to the fancy and feelings of the moment of our poet. Such, too, was the Christian AnaThe poems of Anacreon were sung at banquets as creon of Patriganus, another Jesuits, who preposlate as the time of Aulus Gellius, who tells us that terously transferred to a most sacred subject all he heard one of the odes performed at a birth-day that the Grecian poet had dedicated to festivity entertainment.
and love. The singular beauty of our poet's style, and the His metre has frequently been adopted by the apparent facility, perhaps, of his metre have at- modern Latin poets ; and Scaliger, Taubman, tracted, as I have already remarked, a crowd of Barthius ®, and others, have shown that it is by no
In the Paris edition there are four of the original odes + We may perceive by the beginning of the first hymn of set to music, by Le Sueur, Gossec, Mehul, and Cherubini. Bishop Synesius, that he made Anacreon and Sappho his “ On chante du Latin, et de l'Italien," says Gail,“ quelquefois models of composition. même sans les entendre ; qui empèche que nous ne chantions
Ags mor, hoytia pequy's, des odes Grecques ?" The chromatic learning of these com
Μετα Τηγαν αοιδαν, , posers is very unlike what we are told of the simple melody
Μετα Λεσβιαν το μελταν. . ancients; and they have all, as it appears to me, mistaken the accentuation of the words.
Margunius and Damascenus were likewise authors of pious ? The Parma commentator is rather careless in referring Anacreontics. to this passage of Aulus Gellius (lib. xix. cap. 9.). The ode This, perhaps, is the" Jesuita quidam Græculus " alluded was not sung by the rhetoricia.. Julianus, as he says, but by to by Barnes, who has himself composed an Avaxpian Xthe minstrels of both sexes, who were introduced at the STIR16, as absurd as the rest, but somewhat more skilfully entertainment.
executed. 3 See what Colomesius, in his “ Literary Treasures," has 6 I have seen somewhere an account of the MSS. of Bar. quoted from Alcyonius de Exilio ; it may be found in Baxter. thius, written just after his death, which mentions many Colomesius, after citing the passage, adds, “ Hæc auro contra more Anacreontics of his than I believe have ever been pubcara non potui non apponere."